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主格决定论

2018-08-30 10:05:10     所属分类:语义学

主格决定论英语:Nominative determinism)是一种假说,意指人类倾向于选择同各自姓名更贴合的职业。《新科学人》杂志的幽默反馈专栏连续发现多项研究结果证实人们的姓氏往往同其职业有很大联系,于是在1994年首度提出“主格决定论”概念。这些研究包括丹尼尔·斯诺曼涉及极地探索的著作,以及研究员A·J·斯普拉特和D·威登共同发表的泌尿科主题文章。这些研究成果同其他多种事例共同影响,促使人们猜测人名同职业间是否存在某种心理效应,“主格决定论”假说由此诞生。《新科学人》杂志在首度提出假说后持续不断地收到读者反馈,根据反馈中提供的范例不定期围绕主题重新展开讨论。主格决定论同标名联系密切,但含义有区别。主格决定论主要是指人的姓名同职业选择有因果养关系,而标名则只是说人名同职业贴合,无需考量出现这种情况的原因。

目录

  • 1 背景
  • 2 参考资料
    • 2.1 注释
    • 2.2 脚注
    • 2.3 来源
      • 2.3.1 参考书目
      • 2.3.2 网上来源

背景

早在人类能够自行选择同姓名相符的职业前,就有许多人是因各自的工作领域而得名[1]。伴随着时代的变迁,人类起名的思路也不断发生变化[2]。城市尚未出现以前,人名通常只有一个字或单词,例如“伯恩哈德”(Beornheard)就是常见的盎格鲁-撒克逊人名[3][注 1]以一个单词起名时,人们通常考虑的是名字的含义,或是用作昵称[5]。诺曼征服英格兰后,英格兰人才开始在名字后面加上姓氏[3]。姓氏大多源自各人的家人,特别是父名,例如威廉(William)之子就叫约翰·威廉(John Williamson));或是源自职业,例如约翰·卡朋特的“卡朋特”(Carpenter)原意就是“木匠”;亦或人物特征,例如约翰·隆的“隆”(Long)字面意为“长”;还有些则源自地点(如故乡),比如来自阿克顿(Acton)的约翰就起名约翰·阿克顿[1]。起初人们并没有把姓氏世代相传,这种做法直到14世纪中期才逐渐普及[6]。由于家族内可能连续数代都是传承同一职业,因此与行业或工艺相关的姓氏最早成为遗传人名[7][注 2]。随着时间的推移,姓氏同各人职业的匹配程度下降,因为人们并不一定会一代又一代地永远追随父辈的脚步[2],14世纪的“胡椒种植商约翰·卡朋特”就是这种情况的早期例证[7]

除职业外,人类选择姓氏时考虑的另一个重要方向就是更加丰富的含义。17世纪的英格兰人普遍认为,在孩子取名时应当慎重,子孙后代的生活方式和境遇很大程度上都取决于姓名包含的信息和寓义[11]

参考资料

注释

  1. ^ 古罗马的人名先后经历过几轮变迁,首先是像“罗穆卢斯”(Romulus)这样的一个单词,到14世纪又首度转变成两个单词,之后再变成三个单词,各单词间用空格隔开(例如马库斯·图利乌斯·西塞罗中马库斯是个人名,图利乌斯是氏族名,西塞罗则是家族名)。后来古罗马人名又改回习惯用两个单词,最终又再变成一个单词[4]
  2. ^ 古罗马时期的父辈也会把家族名传给后代[8]。据盖乌斯·普林尼·塞孔杜斯(通常称为老普林尼)记载,最早由职业派生的家族名源自农业,例如“西塞罗”是指“鹰嘴豆”,由此推断,演说家马库斯·图利乌斯·西塞罗的先辈就是以种植鹰嘴豆为生[9],但也有说法认为这个家族名是因为西塞罗先辈鼻子的形状和鹰嘴豆很像[10]

脚注

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Weekley 1914, p. 2.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Fowler 2012, p. 11.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Weekley 1914, p. 68.
  4. ^ Salway 1994, p. 124–126.
  5. ^ Weekley 1914, pp. 68, 71.
  6. ^ Weekley 1914, p. viii.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Weekley 1914, p. 143.
  8. ^ Salway 1994, p. 127.
  9. ^ Wilson 2003, p. 10.
  10. ^ McKeown 2010, p. 22.
  11. ^ Smith-Bannister 1997, p. 11.

来源

参考书目

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网上来源

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