计算机科学

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计算神经科学

计算神经科学(Computational neuroscience)为一种跨领域科学,包含神经科学、认知科学、信息工程、计算机科学、物理学及数学。

这个词首次出现于1985年,由史瓦兹英语Eric L. Schwartz于加州卡莫市主办的会议中提出。其后出现的类似名词包含神经模型、脑理论及神经网络。后来相关的解释定义皆收录于麻省理工学院出版(1990)之《计算神经科学》(Computational Neuroscience )一书内。有关此领域的研究最早可追溯自艾伦·劳埃德·霍奇金与安德鲁·赫胥黎、大卫·休伯尔与托斯坦·威泽尔,以及大卫·马尔等人。以及艾伦·劳埃德·霍奇金与安德鲁·赫胥黎发明电压钳技术英语Voltage clamp,首次成功的将动作电位数值化。大卫·休伯尔及托斯坦·威泽尔则发现主要视觉皮质区(primary visual cortex),此区负责处理由虹膜传来的第一手消息,将接收区与汇整区做出整理(大卫·休伯尔与托斯坦·威泽尔, 1962)。

目录

  • 1 参见
  • 2 参考资料
  • 3 参考文献
  • 4 外部链接
    • 4.1 相关期刊
    • 4.2 相关软件
    • 4.3 国际会议
    • 4.4 相关网站

参见

  • 联结主义
  • 电生理学
  • 脑机接口
  • 忆阻器
  • 神经工程
  • 神经信息学
  • 意识上传

参考资料

参考文献

  • Chklovskii DB. Synaptic connectivity and neuronal morphology: two sides of the same coin. Neuron. 2004, 43 (5): 609–17. PMID 15339643. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.012. 
  • Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Churchland, Patricia Smith. The computational brain. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. 1992. ISBN 0-262-03188-4. 
  • Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter. Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. 2001. ISBN 0-262-04199-5. 
  • Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF. A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol. (Lond.). 28 August 1952, 117 (4): 500–44. PMC 1392413. PMID 12991237. 
  • William Bialek; Rieke, Fred; David Warland; Rob de Ruyter van Steveninck. Spikes: exploring the neural code. Cambridge, Mass: MIT. 1999. ISBN 0-262-68108-0. 
  • Schutter, Erik de. Computational neuroscience: realistic modeling for experimentalists. Boca Raton: CRC. 2001. ISBN 0-8493-2068-2. 
  • Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Hemmen, J. L. van. 23 problems in systems neuroscience. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-19-514822-3. 
  • Michael A. Arbib, Shun-ichi Amari, Prudence H. Arbib. The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 2002. ISBN 0-262-01197-2. 

外部链接

相关期刊

  • Network: Computation in Neural Systems
  • Biological Cybernetics
  • Journal of Computational Neuroscience
  • Neural Computation
  • Neural Networks
  • Neurocomputing
  • Cognitive Neurodynamics

相关软件

  • Brian, a simulator for spiking neural networks.
  • Emergent英语Emergent (software), neural simulation software.
  • Genesis, a general neural simulation system.
  • HHsim, a neuronal membrane simulator.
  • HNeT, Holographic Neural Technology.
  • MCell, A Monte Carlo Simulator of Cellular Microphysiology.
  • ModelDB, a large open-access database of program codes of published computational neuroscience models.
  • NEST, a simulation tool for large neuronal systems.
  • Neuroconstruct, software for developing biologically realistic 3D neural networks.
  • Neurofitter, a parameter tuning package for electrophysiological neuron models.
  • Neurojet[永久失效链接], a neural network simulator specialized for the hippocampus.
  • NEURON, a neuron simulator also useful to simulate neural networks.
  • Neurospaces, an efficient neural simulation system that uses software engineering principles from the industry.
  • Neuroscience related Python tools
    • pyNN
  • PyDSTool[永久失效链接], a simulator and dynamical systems analysis tool with biophysical neuron and network model specification/construction and data analysis toolboxes.
  • SNNAP, a single neuron and neural network simulator tool.

国际会议

  • Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE)– a computational neuroscience meeting with a systems neuroscience focus.
  • Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting (CNS)– a yearly computational neuroscience meeting.
  • Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS)– a leading annual conference covering other machine learning topics as well.
  • Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Conference (CCNC)[永久失效链接]– a yearly conference.
  • International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (ICCN)– a yearly conference.
  • UK Mathematical Neurosciences Meeting– a new yearly conference, focused on mathematical aspects.
  • The NeuroComp Conference– a yearly computational neuroscience conference (France)

相关网站

  • Perlewitz's computational neuroscience on the web
  • compneuro.org, books and programs for neural modeling
  • Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience, part of Scholarpedia, an online expert curated encyclopedia on computational neuroscience, dynamical systems and machine intelligence
  • NeuroWiki[永久失效链接], a wiki discussion forum about neuroscience research, especially systems, theoretical/computational, and cognitive neuroscience



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