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前馈控制

2018-09-12 14:13:34     所属分类:人工神经网络

前馈控制也称“预先控制”,是控制理论中,在行动开始之前就采取控制。前馈控制是开环的,按扰动进行补偿。与其相对的另外2种控制模型是过程控制(同期控制)与反馈控制(事后控制)。

目录

  • 1 概述
  • 2 参见
  • 3 参考文献
  • 4 进一步阅读

概述

前馈系统不是基于误差补偿,而是基于针对过程的知识,如过程的数学模型、过程的干扰的知识或度量。[1]

纯前馈系统,通常要求负荷的行为是可预测的,这才能不需要负荷的输出的反馈。

对于前馈系统,过程的干扰在影响系统之前就被测量、应对。例如,居家环控系统检测到房门打开就会开启加热系统,以免室温下降。困难之处在于前馈控制系统必须对过程的干扰造成的效果有精确的预测。[2][3][4]

控制系统可分为3类:

  • 开环
  • 前馈
  • 反馈 (闭环)

开环控制系统的一个例子是纯手工无动力辅助的汽车转向系统。作为对比,动力转向英语power steering系统是个前馈系统,确保转向液压助力达到恒定压强。如果把驾驶员也包括在控制系统中,这形成了反馈路径,人在环中,通过转动方向盘来补偿汽车前进方向转变时的误差。

前馈控制不同于开环控制或遥控机器人英语teleoperator。前馈控制需要有过程的输入输出之间的数学模型。 [5][6]

计算机科学的感知机网络是个前馈系统,因为每层神经元的输出只传给下一层,而不能传给上一层神经元,因此没有反馈。

参见

  • 黑箱
  • 开回路控制器

参考文献

  1. ^ Haugen, F. Basic Dynamics and Control. 2009. ISBN 978-82-91748-13-9. 
  2. ^ Fundamentals of Motion Control (PDF). ISA. [23 February 2013]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011年9月27日). 
  3. ^ Book, W.J. and Cetinkunt, S. Optimum Control of Flexible Robot Arms OR Fixed Paths. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. December 1985. 
  4. ^ Oosting, K.W. and Dickerson, S.L. Control of a Lightweight Robot Arm. IEEE International Conference on Industrial Automation. 1986. 
  5. ^ Learned Feed Forward - Innovations in Motion Control. Technology Association of Georgia. [24 February 2013]. 
  6. ^ Alberts, T.E., Sangveraphunsiri, V. and Book, Wayne J., Optimal Control of a Flexible Manipulator Arm: Volume I, Dynamic Modeling, MHRC Technical Report, MHRC-TR-85-06, Georgia Inst, of Technology, 1985.

进一步阅读

  • S. Mangan A. Zaslaver & U. Alon, "The coherent feed-forward loop serves as a sign-sensitive delay element in transcription networks", J. Molecular Biology 334:197-204 (2003).
  • Foss, S., Foss, K., & Trapp. (2002). Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric (3rd ed.). Waveland Press, Inc.
  • Book, W.J. and Cetinkunt, S., "Optimum Control of Flexible Robot Arms OR Fixed Paths", IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. December 1985.
  • Meckl, P.H. and Seering, W.P., "Feedforward Control Techniques Achieve Fast Settling Time in Robots", Automatic Control Conference Proceedings. 1986, pp 58–64.
  • Sakawa, Y., Matsuno, F. and Fukushima, S., "Modeling and Feedback Control of a Flexible Arm", Journal of Robotic Systems. August 1985, pp 453–472.
  • Truckenbrodt, A., "Modeling and Control of Flexible Manipulator Structures", 4th CISM-IFToMM Symp., Warszawa, 1981.
  • Leu, M.C., Dukovski, V. and Wang, K.K., "An Analytical and Experimental Study of the Stiffness of Robot Manipulators with Parallel Mechanisms", 1985 ASME Winter Annual Meeting PRD-Vol. 15 Robotics and Manufacturing Automation, pp. 137–144
  • Asada, H., Youcef-Toumi, K. and Ramirez, R.B., "Designing of the MIT Direct Drive Arm", Int. Symp. on Design and Synthesis, Japan, July 1984.
  • Rameriz, R.B., Design of a High Speed Graphite Composite Robot Arm, M.S. Thesis, M.E. Dept., MIT, Feb. 1984.
  • Balas, M.J., "Feedback Control of Flexible Systems", IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, Vol.AC-23, No.4, Aug. 1978, pp. 673–679.
  • Balas, M.J., "Active Control of Flexible Systems", J. of Optim. Th. and App., Vol.25, No.3, July 1978,
  • Book, W.J., Maizzo Neto, 0. and Whitney, D.E., "Feedback Control of Two Beam, Two Joint Systems With Distributed Flexibility", Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol.97, No.4, December 1975, pp. 424–430.
  • Book, W.J., "Analysis of Massless Elastic Chains With Servo Controlled Joints", Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol.101, September 1979, pp. 187–192.
  • Book, W.J., "Recursive Lagrangian Dynamics of Flexible Manipulator Arms Via Transformation Matrices", Carnegie-Mellon University Robotics Institute Technical Report, CMU-RI-TR-8323, Dec. 1983.
  • Hughes, P.C., "Dynamics of a Flexible Manipulator Arm for the Space Shuttle", AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Conference, September 1977, Jackson Lake Lodge, Wyoming.
  • Hughes, P.C., "Dynamics of a Chain of Flexible Bodies", Journal of Astronautical Sciences, 27,4, Oct.-Dec. 1979, pp. 359–380.
  • Meirovitch, L., "Modeling and control of Distributed Structures" Proc. of the Workshop on Application of Distributed System Theory to Large Space Structures, JPL/CIT, NTIS #N83- 36064, July 1, 1983.
  • Schmitz, E., "Experiments on the End-point Position Control of a Very Flexible One Link.Manipulator", Ph.D. Dissertation,-Stanford Univ., Dept. of Aero & Astro., June 1985.
  • Martin, G.D., On the Control of Flexible Mechanical Systems, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford Univ., Dept. of E.E., May 1978.
  • Zalucky, A. and Hardt, D.E., "Active Control of Robot Structure Deflections", J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 106, March 1984, pp. 63–69.
  • Sangveraphunsiri, V., The Optimal Control and Design of a Flexible Manipulator Arm, Ph.D Dissertation, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Georgia Inst, of Tech., 1984. 1985.
  • Nemir, D. C, Koivo, A. J., and Kashyap, R. L., "Pseudolinks and the Self-Tuning Control of a Nonrigid Link Mechanism", Purdue University, Advance copy submitted for publication, 1987.
  • Widmann, G. R. and Ahmad, S., "Control of Industrial Robots with Flexible Joints", Purdue University, Advance copy submitted for publication, 1987.
  • Hollars, M. G., Uhlik, C. R., and Cannon, R. H., "Comparison of Decoupled and Exact Computed Torque Control for Robots with Elastic Joints", Advance copy submitted for publication, 1987.
  • Cannon, R. H. and Schmitz, E., "Initial Experiments on the End- Point Control of a Flexible One Link Robot", International Journal of Robotics Research, November 1983.
  • Oosting, K.W. and Dickerson, S.L., "Low-Cost, High Speed Automated Inspection", 1991, Industry Report
  • Oosting, K.W. and Dickerson, S.L., "Feed Forward Control for Stabilization", 1987, ASME
  • Oosting, K.W. and Dickerson, S.L., "Control of a Lightweight Robot Arm", 1986, IEEE International Conference on Industrial Automation
  • Oosting, K.W., "Actuated Feedforward Controlled Solar Tracking System", 2009, Patent Pending
  • Oosting, K.W., "Feedforward Control System for a Solar Tracker", 2009, Patent Pending
  • Oosting, K.W., "Smart Solar Tracking", July, 2010, InterSolar NA Presentation
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