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视频会议

2018-08-20 16:39:50     所属分类:视频和电影技术
多人视频会议
小布希在贝尔维尤欧福特空军基地英语Offutt Air Force Base主持视频会议

视频会议(Videotelephony、又称电视会议电视电话会议),是一种为两地或多地的用户之间提供语音和画面双向实时传送的视听会话型会议。大型视频会议系统在现代的军事、政府、商贸、医疗等部门和行业领域有广泛的应用。

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阿富汗战争的美军用视频看家人

目录

  • 1 视频会议分类
    • 1.1 硬件视频会议
    • 1.2 软件视频会议系统
  • 2 参考文献
  • 3 延伸阅读
    • 3.1 未分类
    • 3.2 通常
    • 3.3 环境效益
    • 3.4 历史和技术
  • 4 外部连接

视频会议分类

硬件视频会议

硬件视频会议需要专门的摄影设备,编码解码仪器,专线和专门会议室来连接几个固定部门,投资至少几百万元乃至上千万元人民币;后期设施的更新维护费用高昂,且需要专人进行维护,占用了企业大量的资金和人力资源。这对中小型企业而言是一个难以跨越的门槛。另外,基于硬件的视频会议只能在固定的几个会议室地点进行,灵活性和拓展性差,面对突发状况往往束手无策。

软件视频会议系统

软件视频会议系统相比硬件视频会议系统费用较低,同时在一定程度上克服了硬件视频会议系统灵活性和拓展性差的问题。但软件视频会议本身同样存在一些无法忽视的问题:多数的视频会议软件是C/S架构,即桌面客户端软件+服务器端软件。正常运行前,需要先配置网络和服务器,下载并安装客户端。在此过程中若出现异常情况,重装软件也是比较麻烦的事情;另外一种软件是B/S架构,解决了桌面客户端存在的一些问题,用户可直接在网页浏览器上进行视频会议。但由于采用普通流媒体传输技术,这些产品必须利用浏览器下载ActiveX的控件,而由于恶意网站通常会利用ActiveX控件自动安装病毒或后门,所以使用此控件的页面大多会被浏览器拦截,从而导致这类视频会议可能在产品的兼容性和适用性方面存在问题。 这类程序包含:Yahoo Messenger、AOL Instant Messenger(AIM)、Windows Live Messenger、Skype、iChat、Paltalk(目前改名为PaltalkScene)、Ekiga、Stickam、Tokbox、Camfrog和meetcam等。

参考文献

  • Santanu Brahma & Axlator Communications Audio Video Telephony, Real time updates and news about WebRTC technology and browser based audio and video telephony.
  • Burns, R.W., Television: An International History of the Formative Years in IEE Publication Series, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Science Museum (Great Britain), 1998, ISBN 0-85296-914-7, ISBN 978-0-85296-914-4
  • Daly, Edward A. & Hansell, Kathleen J. Visual Telephony, Artech House, Boston, 1999, ISBN 1-58053-023-0, ISBN 978-1-58053-023-1, CIPD HD9697.T452D35 651.7'3-dc21.
  • Mulbach, Lothar; Bocker, Martin; Prussog, Angela. Telepresence in Videocommunications: A Study on Stereoscopy and Individual Eye Contact. Human Factors. 1995, 37 (2): 290. ISSN 0018-7208. 
  • Nellist, John G. Understanding Telecommunications And Lightwave Systems: An Entry-Level Guide, John Wiley and Sons, IEEE Press, 2002, ISBN 0-471-15032-0, ISBN 978-0-471-15032-9.
  • Schnaars, Steve; Wymbs, Cliff. On The Persistence Of Lackluster Demand – The History Of The Video Telephone. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2004, 71 (3): 197–216. doi:10.1016/S0040-1625(02)00410-9. 
  • Shepard, Steven. Videoconferencing Demystified: Making Video Services Work, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2002, ISBN 0-07-140085-0, ISBN 978-0-07-140085-5
  • Stevenson Bacon, W. Amazing New Picturephone: A Step Closer to In-Person Visits, Popular Science, June 1968, pp. 46–47.
  • Valinder, Anne. Like a window in your living room: Video-mediated communication for extended families separated by space, University of Gothenburg: Department of Applied Information Technology, pp. 6–18, October 5, 2012. Web. January 23, 2013 (PDF).
  • Wilcox, James R. & Gibson, David K. Video Communications: The Whole Picture, Focal Press, CMP Books, San Francisco, 2005, ISBN 1-57820-316-3, ISBN 978-1-57820-316-1.

延伸阅读

未分类

  • Greenberg, Alan D. Taking the Wraps off Videoconferencing in the US Classroom, Wainhouse Research, April 2009.
  • Kopytoff, Verne G. Hewlett-Packard Sells Its Video Conferencing Business, The New York Times, June 1, 2011.
  • Lawlor, Julia. Videoconferencing: From Stage Fright to Stage Presence, The New York Times,August 27, 1998.
  • Lohr, Steve. As Travel Costs Rise, More Meetings Go Virtual, The New York Times, July 22, 2008.
  • Miller, Claire Cain. Logitech Buying a Maker Of Videoconference Tools, The New York Times, November 11, 2009.
  • Miller, Claire Cain. Logitech Breaks Into Videoconferencing, The New York Times, November 10, 2009 on line, and November 11, 2009 in print, p. B3. Discusses the acquisition of LifeSize Communications.
  • Millman, Howard. The Videoconference as a Bicoastal Pas de Deux, The New York Times, July 12, 2001.
  • O'Brien, Kevin. Stranded Travelers Turn to Videoconferencing, The New York Times, April 19, 2010. Article discusses the increased use of videoconferencing due to the eruption of an Icelandic volcano which severely curtailed air travel for several months.
  • Ramirez, Anthony. More Than Just a Phone Call; Video Conferencing And Photocopies, Too, The New York Times, September 15, 1993. Discusses the deployment of videoconferencing rooms in several hundred Kinkos locations.
  • Shannon, Victoria. Videoconferencing's virtual leap forward, The New York Times, August 29, 2007.
  • Sharkey, Joe. A Meeting in New York? Can’t We Videoconference?, The New York Times, May 11, 2009 online, and in print on May 12, 2009, p. B6 of the New York edition.
  • Vance, Ashlee. Cisco Buys Norwegian Firm for $3 Billion, The New York Times, October 1, 2009 online, and October 2, 2009 in print, p. B7. Discusses the acquisition of Tandberg.
  • Wang, Ses Open source tool detects videoconferencing equipment vulnerabilities, Help Net Security, 17 February 2012.
  • Wayner, Peter. Jerky Pictures and Sound Are History. Videoconferencing Is All Grown Up., The New York Times, June 16, 2005.

通常

  • Adeshina, Emmanuel. In-Person Visits Fade as Jails Set Up Video Units for Inmates and Families, The New York Times website, August 7, 2012, pg. A15 of the New York Edition.
  • Bajaj, Vikas. Transparent Government, Via Webcams in India, The New York Times, July 18, 2011, pg.B3. Published online: July 17, 2011.
  • Davis, Andrew W.; Weinstein, Ira M. The Business Case for Videoconferencing, Wainhouse Research, March 2005.
  • Fairlie, Rik. Skype Puts Video Calls on Your TV, The New York Times, July 2, 2010.
  • Hoffman, Jan. When Your Therapist Is Only a Click Away, The New York Times, September 25, 2011, pg. ST1. Also published September 23, 2011 online at www.nytimes.com.
  • Miller, Hugh.Videophones: The Real Problem. [2002-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2002-06-16).  无效|dead-url=bot: unknown (帮助) , Department of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, June 16, 2002. Discusses social issues related to videotelephony.
  • Perlroth, Nicole. Cameras May Open Up the Board Room to Hackers, The New York Times online, January 22, 2012. A version of this article appeared in print on January 23, 2012, on page B1 of the New York edition with the headline: "Conferences Via the Net Called Risky".
  • ProAV Magazine. Being There[失效链接], ProAV Magazine, November 7, 2008.
  • Saint Louis, Catherine. With Enough Bandwidth, Many Join The Band, The New York Times, January 10, 2012 (online), January 11, 2012 (in print, New York Edition, pg. A1). Retrieved online January 11, 2012. Synopsis: a look at the pros and cons of videotelephony used for private, individual, music lessons.
  • Steinberg, Neil. Dude, Where's My Video Phone?, Forbes.com website, October 15, 2007

环境效益

  • Biello, David. Can Videoconferencing Replace Travel?, Scientific American, March 18, 2009.
  • Coroama, V.C., et al. Effects of Internet-Based Multiple-Site Conferences on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Telematics and Informatics, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.tele.2011.11.006
  • Pachner, Joanna. The Next Best Thing to Being There, Toronto: The Globe and Mail, October 13, 2009.

历史和技术

  • Ebel, H. "Subjective Assessment of Picture Interference in the Videophone" in 4th International Symposium on Human Factors in Telephony, Bad Wiessee, Germany, September 23–27, 1968, Information Gatekeepers Inc., pp. 289–298.
  • Fischer, K.; Ebel, H.; "Problems Of How To Position Users In Front Of The Videophone" in: 4th International Symposium on Human Factors in Telephony, Bad Wiessee, Germany, September 23–27, 1968, Information Gatekeepers Inc., pp. 269–282.
  • Hall, A.D. "Experiments with Picturephone Service" in: Bell Laboratories RECORD, 1964, Vol. 42, pp. 114–120.
  • Ives, Herbert E. Two-Way Television and a Pictorial Account of its Background in: Bell Laboratories Record, 1930, Vol. 8, pp. 399–404, and viewable online here.
  • Ives, Herbert E.. Picture Transmission and Television in: Bell Labs Quarterly, April 1932, Vol. 11, pp. 118–142.
  • Jaur, Francis. "Usage Domestiques du Visiophone", Technologies de l’Information et Société, 2, 1990, pp. 89–102. (French)
  • Schunack, Von Johannes; Maly, Rolf. Die Fernseh-Sprechtechnik in: Fernseh A.G.: 10 Jahre, Berlin: Hausmitteilungen Aus Forshunsg Und Betrieb Der Fernseh Aktiengellschaft, July 1939, pp. 138–143. (PDF, German)
  • Schulte, Olaf A. "The Next Best Thing To Being There" – Ein Überblick Zu 25 Jahren Videokonferenzforschung (An Overview of 25 years of videoconferencing research) in: Medien & Kommunikations-wissenschaft, Baden-Baden: Hans-Bredow-Institut, April 2002, pp. 551–570 (PDF, German).

外部连接

  • Debut of the First Picturephone, 1970 video courtesy of AT&T Archives and History Center, Warren, N.J.
  • British Pathé news clip: Videophone 1970, a movie reel news clip on the assembly and demonstration of a prototype British General Post Office 'Viewphone' at Taplow, Buckinghamshire; (February 1, 1970; video, 1:16 seconds length)
  • TVTropes.org: Video Phone, includes extensive lists of videophones used in popular culture
  • Wirlpool Forums: Movies that feature videophones
  • Finnish 1980s videophone development at YLE Elävä arkisto (YLE Living Archives)

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