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Magyaron

2019-06-25 16:31:02


Magyaron also Magyarons[1][2][3] (Ukrainian: Мадярон, Slovak: Maďarón, Polish: Madziaroni[4]) is the name of a Transcarpathian ethno-cultural group,[5][6] which has a candid Hungarian orientation[7], renounced its own language, culture, religion, promotes Magyarization of Rusyn and Ukrainian population[8]. The Magyarons did not embrace the Ukrainian identity of the Ruthenians in Carpathian Ruthenia but maintained still their separate Rusyns identity[citation needed] and during the period of 1918–1940, the group defended the idea of re-joining Subcarpathian Rus' to Hungary.[9][10]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Hungarian-Rusyn People's Council
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Sources
  • 6 Further reading

History

The term "Magyaron" and "Magyaronian" originated in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century in Ruthenian environments. The term meant national treason and was used to Ruthenians.[11]

Assimilation and acculturation practices conducted by Hungarian authorities factored into the emergence of the Magyarons.[citation needed] In the Hungarian kingdom, living conditions and a psychological climate were created which pressured minorities to adapt to new living conditions by renouncing their own national culture, language, political, religious, and other views.[citation needed] In Hungarian society, adherence to these acculturation practices made it possible to obtain education, occupy or a high position and have career advancement, or simply have means of subsistence.[12][13][9]

In time of Ukrainian Revolution, the Magyarons conducted activities against the accession of Transcarpathia to West Ukrainian People's Republic.[14][better source needed]

During World War II, Magyarons worked closely with the Hungarian government, attacked the Sichovyks[15] and participated in torture and shootings of soldiers of Carpathian Sich.[16][9]

Hungarian-Rusyn People's Council

On November 9, 1918 in Ungvár (now Uzhhorod, Ukraine), the "Hungarian-Rusyn People's Council" was formed by the Magyarons, headed by the canon of the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Munkács, Simeon Sabov (1863–1929). The Hungarian-Rusyn People's Council adopted the "Memorandum", which stated that the Hungarian-Rusyn people would join their homeland, Hungary, and advocated for the integrity of its territory.[17][9]

The main Magyarons party in Transcarpathia was the Autonomous Agricultural Union, founded in 1924 by Kurtyak Ivan Fedorovich.[18] This party was called "Kurtyakiv", and its followers were called kurtyakivtsi.[19]

See also

  • Little Russian identity
  • Tisza Autonomy [uk]
  • Greater Hungary

References

  1. ^ Giuseppe Motta. Less than nations: Volume 1 and 2 : Central-Eastern European minorities after WWI. Cambridge Scholars Publishing; Unabridged edition (October 1, 2013)
  2. ^ Marek Wojnar. Department of Central and Eastern Europe, Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences A minor ally or a minor enemy? The Hungarian issue in the political thought and activity of Ukrainian integral nationalists (until 1941)
  3. ^ Martin Pekár et al. Ethnic minorities in Slovakia in the years 1918-1945. A survey ISBN 978-80-555-0442-1
  4. ^ Mozgawa, Konrad. Relacje rusińsko-ukraińskie u progu XX wieku. Rusini – Ukraińcy, czy odrębny naród?. Kraków : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego, 2019. - S. 469-487.
  5. ^ "Drahomanov_Avstro-ruski_spomyny_1867-1877.pdf" (PDF). docs.google.com. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  6. ^ Olgerd Hippolyte Bochkovsky. Selected Works and Documents / Order: O. Hnatyuk, M. Chek. National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy; Center for the Study of the History and Culture of Eastern European Jews; Center for European Humanities Research. - Volume II. - K .: Ukraine Modern, SPIRIT AND LITERATURE, 2018. - 976 p. - (Ukraine: Europe: 1921-1939) ISBN 978-966-378-575-2
  7. ^ Jarnecki M. THE ROAD TO NATIONAL IDENTITY: SUBCARPATHIAN RUS ON THE EVE OF WWI AND IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD Sprawy Narodowościowe
  8. ^ Andrew Chutky. History of Ukraine. Kyiv: MAUP, 2006. ISBN 966-608-548-8.
  9. ^ a b c d Hungary – Social and economic developments". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
  10. ^ Przemystaw Piotr Zurawski vel Grajewski. Sprawa ukrainska na konferencji pokojowej w Paryzu w roku 1919 ISBN 978-83-7507-202-0
  11. ^ Rostislav Mayor. Features of the mentality of Ukrainians in Transcarpathia (mid XIX - early XX centuries). Scientific works of the Kamyanets-Podilsky National University named after Ivan Ogienko. Historical sciences. Volume 24
  12. ^ Шандор В. Закарпаття. Історично-правовий нарис від ІХ ст. до 1920 / Вікентій Шандор. – Нью-Йорк: Карпатський Союз, 1992. – С. 97
  13. ^ ПетроСміян. Революційний та національно-визвольний рух на Закарпатті кінця ХІХ – початку XX ст. / П.К. Сміян. – Л.: Вид-во Львівського університету, 1968. – С. 67
  14. ^ "Як Закарпаття приєднували до ЗУНР @ Закарпаття онлайн". zakarpattya.net.ua. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  15. ^ Сергій, Є.; Олександр, П.; Світлана, К.; Микола, М. (2009). Єфремов Сергій. Бої 14-15 березня 1939 року на Карпатській Україні. Graz͡hda. p. 50. ISBN 9789668924484. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  16. ^ Угорський терор в Карпатській Україні навесні 1939 року Museum «Terror Territory»  [uk]
  17. ^ Гай-Нижник П., Яремчук В. На шляху до Української державності в Закарпатті // Збірник наукових праць НДІ українознавства. Київ, 2008. Т. ХХІІ. С. 300—319.
  18. ^ Minority Hungarian Communities in the Twentieth Century. Social Science Monographs, Boulder, Colorado – Atlantic Research and Publications, Inc., Highland Lakes, New Jersey, 2011, 859. (Atlantic Studies on Society in Change 138.) Eds. Bárdi Nándor, Fedinec Csilla, Szarka László
  19. ^ Gyrya V. I. ACTIVATION OF THE PROHGORIAN INTERVIEW IN TRANSCARPATHY IN 1920s

Sources

  • Довідник з історії України

Further reading

  • ""Народ слов'яки" або словацькі мадярони". likbez.org.ua. Лікбез. Історичний фронт. 2017-05-13. Retrieved 2018-10-26.

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