Ethnic group associated with the Punjab region in Indian subcontinent
This article is about an ethnic group. For information on the geographical Punjabi region, see Punjab region. For other uses, see Punjabi (disambiguation).
Main article: Punjabi cuisine
Sarson da saag, popular vegetable dish of the Punjabi people.
Punjabi cuisine has an immense range of dishes and has become world-leader in the field; so much so that many entrepreneurs that have invested in the sector have built large personal fortunes due to the popularity of Punjabi cuisine throughout the world. Punjabi cuisine uses unique spices.
The Punjabi cuisine has become popular in the world, not only due to its intrinsic quality but, due to the fact that the Punjabi diaspora is very much visible in the western world especially, the UK, Canada and the U.S. The popular dishes are Butter Chicken, Tandoori chicken, Dal makhni, chicken tikka lababdar, Saron da saag and stuffed or un stuffed naans (a type of unleavened bread).
Main articles: Music of Punjab and Folk music of Punjab
Bhangra describes dance-oriented popular music with Punjabi rhythms, developed since the 1980s. The name refers to one of the traditional and folkloric Punjabi dances. Bhangra music is appreciated all over the globe. Sufi music and Qawali are other important genres in Punjab.
Main article: Punjabi dance
Owing to the long history of the Punjabi culture and of the Punjabi people, there are a large number of dances normally performed at times of celebration, the time of festivals known as Melas and the most prominent dances are at Punjabi weddings, where the elation is usually particularly intense. Punjabi dances are performed either by men or by women. The dances range from solo to group dances and also sometimes dances are done along with musical instruments like Dhol, Flute, Supp, Dhumri, Chimta etc. Other common dances that both men and women perform are Karthi, Jindua, and Dandass.
"Bhangra" dance is the most famous aspect of Punjabi dance tradition. Its popularity has attained a level where a music is produced with the intent of aiding people to carry out this form of dancing.
Main article: Punjabi wedding traditions
Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are conducted in Punjabi, and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Many local songs are a part of the wedding and are known as boliyan. While the actual religious marriage ceremony among Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, and Jains may be conducted in Arabic, Punjabi, Sanskrit, by the Kazi, Pandit or Granthi, there are also many commonalities in ritual, song, dance, food, make-up and dress.
The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved since traditional times. Punjabi receptions of all sorts are known to be very energetic, filled with loud Bhangra music, people dancing, and a wide variety of Punjabi food.
Main article: Punjabi folklore
The folk tales of Punjab include many stories which are passing through generations and includes folk stories like Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahiwal etc. to name a few.
Main articles: Punjabi festivals and Festivals in Lahore
Vaisakhi, Jashan-e-Baharan, Basant, Kanak katai da mela ( Wheat cutting celebrations ) and many more.
The jagrātā, also called jāgā or jāgran, means an all night vigil. This type of vigil is found throughout India and is usually held to worship a deity with song and ritual. The goal is to gain the favour of the Goddess, to obtain some material benefit, or repay her for one already received. The Goddess is invoked by the devotees to pay them a visit at the location of the jagrātā, whether it be in their own homes or communities, in the form of a flame.
Main article: Dastar
A Dastaar is an item of headgear associated with Sikhi and is an important part of the Punjabi and Sikh culture. The symbolic article of the nation represents honour, self-respect, courage, spirituality, and piety. Wearing a Sikh dastaar, or turban, is mandatory for all Amritdhari (initiated) Sikh men and women. In ancient times, two Punjabis would exchange their turbans to show friendship towards each other. Prior to Sikhi, only kings, royalty, and those of high stature wore turbans.
Main article: Shalwar kameez
A Punjabi suit that features three items - a qameez (top), salwar (bottom) and dupatta (scarf) is the traditional female attire of the Punjabi people. A qameez is a usually loose-fitted outer garment from upper thigh to mid-calf length. Along with the qameez, Punjabi women wear a salwaar that consists of long trousers drawn at the waist and tapered to the ankle. The other complementary feature of the Punjabi suit is the dupatta; often used to cover the chest and head. Among the Punjabi people, the dupatta has long been a symbol of modesty.
Main article: Kurta
A Kurta pajama that comprises two items - a kurta (top) and pajama (bottom) is the traditional male attire of the Punjabi people.
Main article: Sports in Punjab
Various types of sports are played in Punjab. They are basically divided into outdoor and indoor sports. Special emphasis is put to develop both the mental and physical capacity while playing sports. That is why recently sports like Speed reading, Mental abacus, historical and IQ tests are arranged as well. Indoor sports are specially famous during the long summer season in Punjab. Also indoor sports are played by children in homes and in schools. Gilli-danda is vary famous indigenous sports among children along with Parcheesi. Pittu Garam is also famous among children. Stapu is famous among young girls of Punjab. Also many new games are included with the passage of time. The most notable are Carrom, Ludo (board game), Scrabble, Chess, Draughts, Go, Monopoly. The Tabletop games games include billiards and snooker. Backgammon locally known as Dimaagi Baazi( Mental game) is famous in some regions as well.
The outdoor sports include Kusti (a wrestling sport), Kabaddi, Rasa Kashi (Tug Of War), Patang (Kite Flying) and Naiza Baazi or Tent pegging (a cavalry sport).Gatka, is also taken as a form of sports. Punjab being part of the Indian subcontinent, the sport of cricket is very popular. New forms of sports are also being introduced and adopted in particular by the large overseas Punjabis, such as Ice hockey, Soccer, Boxing, Mixed martial arts, Rugby union as part of the globalisation of sports.
Main articles: List of Punjabis, List of Punjabi authors, List of Punjabi-language poets, and List of Punjabi singers
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^Jones, Kenneth W. (1976). Arya Dharm: Hindu Consciousness in 19th-century Punjab. University of California Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780520029200. Christian conversion followed patterns of previous religious inroads, striking at the two sections of the social structure. Initial conversions came from the upper levels of Punjab society, from the privileged and prestigious. Few in number and won individually, high caste converts accounted for far more public attention and reaction to Christian conversion than the numerically superior successes among the depressed. Repeatedly, conversion or the threat of conversion among students at mission schools, or members of the literate castes, produced a public uproar.
^Day, Abby (28 December 2015). Contemporary Issues in the Worldwide Anglican Communion: Powers and Pieties. Ashgate Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 9781472444158. The Anglican mission work in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent was primarily carried out by CMS and USPG in the Punjab Province (Gabriel 2007, 10), which covered most parts of the present state of Pakistan, particularly Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi (Gibbs 1984, 178-203). A native subcontinental church began to take shape with people from humbler backgrounds, while converts from high social caste preferred to attend the worship with the English (Gibbs 1984, 284).
^Moghal, Dominic (1997). Human person in Punjabi society: a tension between religion and culture. Christian Study Centre. Those Christians who were converted from the "high caste" families both Hindus and Muslims look down upon those Christians who were converted from the low caste, specially from the untouchables.
^Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p183
^Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p196
^Chadha, Vivek (23 March 2005). Low Intensity Conflicts in India: An Analysis. SAGE Publications. p. 174. ISBN 9780761933250. 'In 1881 there were 3,976 Christians in the Punjab. By 1891 their number had increased to 19,547, by 1901 to 37,980, by 1911 to 163,994 and by 1921 to 315,931 persons' (see Figure 8.1). However, the Sikhs were more alarmed when some of the high caste families starting converting.
^For various notable Punjabis belonging to this venerable city, please also see List of families of Lahore
^Ian Talbot, 'Divided Cities: Lahore and Amritsar in the aftermath of Partition', Karachi:OUP, 2006, pp.1–4 ISBN 0-19-547226-8
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^Ethnologue. 15th edition (2005).
^According to statpak.gov.pk Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine 44.15% of the Pakistani people are native Punjabi speakers. This gives an approximate number of 76,335,300 Punjabi speakers in Pakistan.
^Census of India, 2001
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^http://www.vahrehvah.com/punjab : Website for the dishes of Punjab
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References and further reading
Mohini Gupta, Encyclopaedia of Punjabi Culture & History – Vol. 1 (Window on Punjab) [Hardcover], ISBN 978-81-202-0507-9
Iqbal Singh Dhillion, Folk Dances of Punjab ISBN 978-81-7116-220-8
Punjabi Culture: Punjabi Language, Bhangra, Punjabi People, Karva Chauth, Kila Raipur Sports Festival, Lohri, Punjabi Dhabha, ISBN 978-1-157-61392-3
Kamla C. Aryan, Cultural Heritage of Punjab ISBN 978-81-900002-9-1
Shafi Aqeel, Popular Folk Tales from the Punjab ISBN 978-0-19-547579-1
Online Book of Punjabi Folk Tales, https://archive.org/stream/KamalKahanisaeedBhuttaABookOnPunjabiFolktales/KamalKahaniReviewByHassnainGhayoor#page/n0/mode/2up
Colloquial Panjabi: The Complete Course for Beginners (Colloquial Series) ISBN 978-0-415-10191-2
Gilmartin, David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. Univ of California Press (1988), ISBN 0-520-06249-3.
Grewal, J.S. and Gordon Johnson. The Sikhs of the Punjab (The New Cambridge History of India). Cambridge University Press; Reprint edition (1998), ISBN 0-521-63764-3.
Latif, Syed. History of the Panjab. Kalyani (1997), ISBN 81-7096-245-5.
Sekhon, Iqbal S. The Punjabis : The People, Their History, Culture and Enterprise. Delhi, Cosmo, 2000, 3 Vols., ISBN 81-7755-051-9.
Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India : A Case-Study of Punjab. Palgrave Macmillan (2000).
Singh, Gurharpal (Editor) and Ian Talbot (Editor). Punjabi Identity: Continuity and Change. South Asia Books (1996), ISBN 81-7304-117-2.
Singh, Khushwant. A History of the Sikhs – Volume 1.Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-562643-5
Steel, Flora Annie. Tales of the Punjab : Told by the People (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints). Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (2002), ISBN 0-19-579789-2.
Tandon, Prakash and Maurice Zinkin. Punjabi Century 1857–1947, University of California Press (1968), ISBN 0-520-01253-4.
This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Pakistan, India
DNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia, BMC Genetics 2004, 5:26
Ethnologue Eastern Panjabi
Ethnologue Western Panjabi
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Talib, Gurbachan (1950). Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee.Online 1 Online 2 Online 3 (A free copy of this book can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free "Online Book")
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Glimpses of Punjabi society and everyday life in Punjab villages shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in
Media related to Punjabi people (ethnic group) at Wikimedia Commons
Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Ethnic groups of India
This tree diagram depicts the relationships of the major ethnic, linguistic and religious groups in India. For example, an H under Gujarati implies a Hindu, Gujarati-speaking Indian of Indo-Aryan ancestry. This list excludes caste groups like the Dalits which is a socio-political identity across linguistic, religious and racial lines. In addition, it should be noted that the terms 'Indo-Aryan' and 'Dravidian' refer to linguistic differences that exist between both groups.
Dogra (डोगरा / ڈوگرا)
Marathi (मराठी माणसं)
Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / पंजाबी / پنجابی)
H, M, C, S
H, M, A
H, S, M
H, M, J
H, M, B, J
H, M, C, S
(कॉशुर / کٲشُر)
(षीना / شینا)
B, H, M
Sikkimese - Lepcha (Róng)
B, T, H
C, H, T
H, C, M, A
H, C, M, A
Pathan (پٹھان / पठान)
Ethnic groups, social groups and tribes of the Punjab