爱考教育:2014年中国人民大学法学院诉讼法学硕士考研备考一本通手册-



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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
爱考教育:2014年中国人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
目录
考研资讯
中国人民大学2013年招收攻读硕士学位研究生简章
中国人民大学2013年法学硕士学位研究生招生专业目录(120-法学院)…
人大法学硕士研究生2012-2002年复试基本分数线
人大法学院11-12年报录比汇总.
人大法学硕士:初试专业参考书目推荐.
、初试真题….
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:公共课政治历年真题(2013-2001)
2013年考研思想政治理论试题
11112
2012年考研思想政治理论试题
2011年考研思想政治理论试题
36
2010年考研思想政治理论试题
2009年考研思想政治理论试题
2008年考研思想政治理论试题
2007年考研思想政治理论试题
206年考研思想政治理论试题
2005年考研思想政治理论试题
2004年考研思想政治理论试题
2003年考研思想政治理论试题
2002年考研思想政治理论试题.
2001年考研思想政治理论试题.
108
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:公共课英语(一)历年真题(2013-2003)
2013年考研英语(一)真题
2012年考研英语(一)真题
2011年考研英语(一)真题
2010年考研英语(一)真题
152
2009年考研英语(一)真题.
2008年考研英语(一)真题
2007年考研英语(一)真题
2006年考研英语(一)真题.…
2005年考研英语(一)真题
200
2004年考研英语(一)真题
.210
2003年考研英语(一)真题
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:专业课623-理论法学历年真题(13-10)
232
2013年人大理论法学试题(3科目)
2012年人大理论法学试题(3科目)
234
2011年人大理论法学真题
..235
2010年人大理论法学真题
235
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:806-应用法学(综合科目)历年真题(2013-1997)
.237
2013年806应用法学考研试题(七选五)
2012年806应用法学考研试题(七选五)
239
2011年人大805法学综合考研试题(九选五
241
2010年中国人民大学入学考试法学综合真题(九选五)…
244
209年中国人民大学法学综合考研试题(六选五)
2008年人大法学综合课试题第一版
2008年人大法学综合课试题第二版
2007年人大法学综合考试
249
2006年人大法学综合课试题
257
2005年人大法学综合课试题
258
2004年人大法学综合课试题
2003年人大法学综合课试题
2002年人大法学综合课试题
2001年人大法学综合课试题
264
20年人大法学综合课试题.
265
1999年人大法学综合试题.
1998年人大法学综合试题
1997年人大法学综合试题
271
三、复试细则
.274
2012年中国人民大学法学院法学硕士研究生入学考试复试办法
275
中国人民大学诉讼法学考研专业课复试参考书推荐
中国人民大学法学院研究生基本奖学金管理实施细则
278
复试真题:刑事和民事诉讼法笔试(2012-2004)07、05缺
281
2012年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试
2011年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
2010年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试
200年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
2008年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
2006年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
2004年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
复试真题:刑事和民事诉讼法面试(2012-2011)
2012年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(面试)
283
2011年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(面试)
复试真题:英语(2012)
2012年人大英语复试真题(面试)
2010年前人大法学考硏复试英语口语面试题集锦
285
编后语
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
考硏是青春的历练,也是人生的拓展。自从选择了考硏的那一刻起,这条路上就注定充满
了激情、努力、坚忍或者彷徨与遗憾。考研,还需要充分发挥自己的主动性,刚开始准备考研
的时候,很多考生对于错综复杂的考研信息会有些茫然,爱考教育在此花费了很大的人力物力
整理编写了《2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一木通手册》,内容尽量涉及到与考研相关的
点点滴,以便考生可以系统的来了解!可以毫不谦虚的这样说,如果是一位第一次考研的考生
去搜集,一方面,肯定搜集不这么系统、这么全,另一方面,肯定也需要花费许多的时间。
先简单的介绍一下人大法学考研考什么。
科目一:思想政治理论(满分10分,考试时间第一天上午8:30-11:30)
科目二:外国语(满分100分,考试时间第一天下午14:00-17:00)
科目三:理论法学(满分150分,考试时间第二天上午8:3011:30)
科目四:应用法学/法学综合(满分150分,考试时间第二天下午14:00-17:00)
备注:思想政治理论和外国语是全国统考,2012年开始人大法学考研理论科目增加2门,
变成法理学、宪法学和法制史;综合课科目数量不变,变为7选5,即是原来在综合科目中考
査的宪法和法制史放到理论科中同法理学一并考査。同时科目二外国语可选的语种增加德语和
法语两语种,即是由原来可选的英语、日语、俄语3语种变成英语、俄语、日语、德语和法语
5语种。

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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
、考研资讯
中国人民大学2013年招收攻读硕士学位研究生简章
中国人民大学是一所以人文社会科学为主的综合性研究型全国重点大学,被誉为“我国人文社会科学高
等教育领域的一面旗帜”。在长期的办学实践中,广大师生秉持“立学为民,治学报国”的办学宗旨,始终
奋进在时代前列。在教育部学位中心开展的第二轮(2007-2009年)一级学科评估中,中国人民大学七个一级
学科(理论经济学、应用经济学、法学、政治学、新闻传播学、社会学、马克思主义理论)获得全国排名第
的优异成绩;排名第一的一级学科总数位居全国高校第三;排名第一的人文社科类一级学科总数位居全国
高校第一。
截止2012年7月,我校在哲学、经济学、法学、教育学、文学、历史学、理学、工学、医学、管理学、艺
术学学科门类下的175个硕士学位授予点招收硕士生,2013年拟招收硕士生约3500人,其中拟接收校内外推荐
免试生约1500人。拟招收“少数民族高层次骨干人才计划”生40人,其中录取的非在职考生所占比例不超过
50%,汉族考生所占比例不超过10%
为进一步改革和完善硏究生培养制度,2013年我校继续实行硏究生培养机制改荦。研究生培养机制改革
的核心是全面建立鼓励学术研究、学术探索和学术进步的全方位的、系统的研究生奖助体系和激励机制,在
广大研究生中树立崇尚科学、追求真理的学术理想,通过研究生招生、培养和学位授予等环节,以及导师管
理体制的改革,实现研究生教育资源的优化配置,促进研究生培养质量的全面提升。为此,学校在学术学位
硕士的招生和培养环节设立特等奖学金,专门用于鼓励优秀拔尖创新人才的学术发展,同时设立一等奖学金、
二等奖学金等研究生基本奖学金,奖学金的覆盖面达95%以上。
招生信息发布
我校硕士生招生信息均在网上发布,考生可随时登录研究生院网站查询有关信息公告
考生须自行从教育部研究生招生信息网(://yz.chsi.cn)下载打卬《准考证》,从我校研究生
院网站(://pgsruc.edu.cn)下载初试成绩通知、复试通知等
二、报考条件
(一)报名参加全国硕士研究生招生考试的人员,须符合下列条件:
1、中华人民共和国公民
2、拥护中国共产党的领导,愿为社会主义现代化建设服务,品德良好,遵纪守法。
3、年龄一般不超过40周岁(1972年8月31日以后出生者),报考委托培养和自筹经费的考生年龄不限;
4、身体健康状况符合国家和我校规定的体检要求
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5、考生的学历必须符合下列条件之一:
(1)国家承认学历的应届本科毕业生(2009年及以前入学,且2013年毕业的国家承认学历的应届本科毕业

(2)具有国家承认的大学木科毕业学历的人员;
(3)获得国家承认的高职高专毕业学历后,满2年或2年以上(从毕业到2013年9月1日,下同),达到与大
学本科毕业生同等学力,且符合我校根据培养目标对考生提出的具体要求的人员,按本科毕业生同等学力身份
报考
(4)国家承认学历的本科结业生和成人高校应届木科毕业生(不含自考生和网络教育学生),按本科毕业
生同等学力身份报考。
同等学力者报考我校,须具备以下条件
①报名时英语应达到国家四级水平或其他语种相应级别水平
②复试时加试两门所报考专业大学本科主干课程
③复试时提交与报考专业相关的相当于学士学位水平的论文(字数不少于1万字),或在报刊上发表的
篇与报考专业相关的文章
(5)自考本科生和网络教育本科生在报名现场确认截止日期(2012年11月14日)前取得国家承认的大学本
科毕业证书,方可报考。
(6)持党校学历的考生,具有中央党校成人教育学院本科学历的可以报考,其余党校学历的不能报考
(7)在境外获得学历(学位)的考生,其学历(学位)证书须通过教育部留学服务中心的认证。
(8)已获硕士学位或博士学位的人员,可以再次报考硕士生,但报考类别只能选择“委托培养”或“自筹
经费
V aolIn. CO
(9)现役军人报考,按解放军总政治部的规定办理
(10)在校研究生报考,须在报名前征得所在培养单位同意。
(二)我校单独考试由相关学院按系统单独组织生源,报考条件详见各单独考试专业招生简章,非系统单
独组织的生源不得报考
(三)报考专业学位硕土考生的报考条件详见我校各专业学位硕士研究生招生简章
(四)报考“少数民族高层次骨干人才计划”考生,请参照《中国人民大学2013年“少数民族高层次骨干
人才计划”招收攻读硕士、博士学位研究生招生简章》
五)推荐免试硕士生的报考条件详见《2013年外校推荐免试生申请攻读中国人民大学硕士学位研究生工
作办法》。
三、报名程序
(一)网上报名
网上报名日期:2012年10月10日-31日,每天9:00-22:00(逾期不再补报,也不得再修改报名信息)。
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
、网上报名网址:中国研究生招生信息网(以下简称“研招网”)
教育网网址://yz.chsi.cn
公众网网址://yz.chsi..cn
3、报名点选择、报考费缴纳方式及标准等信息,届时请登陆硏招网及我校研究生院网站查看“报名公

4、网上报名填写报考信息时的注意事项
(1)考生报名时须仔细浏览报考须知,按教育部、考生所在地省级高校招生办公室、报考点以及中国人
民大学的网上公告要求报名。凡不按公告要求报名、网报信息误填、错填或填报虚假信息而造成不能参加考
试或复试的,后果由考生本人负责
(2)考生提交报考信息后,不论是否已支付报考费,所填报的“报考单位”、“报考点”和“考试方式”
等信息将不得修改。网上支付报考费前,请务必核准信息,因错选上述三项信息而误缴的报考费,将不予退
还;此时,考生若要更正报名信息,必须在网上报名截止时间前,重新注册、报名、缴费,逾期不再补报。
(3)除“报考单位”、“报考点”和“考试方式”以外的其它报名信息,考生可在网上报名起止时间内,
使用已注册的用户名和密码登录、修改。
(4)“少数民族高层次骨干人才计划”考生以报名时填报的信息为准,之后不得更改
(5)已被我校接收的推荐免试生,须在研招网上完成全国统一报名手续,并按照要求完成现场采集、确
认个人相关信息等报名程序,考试方式选择“推荐免试”,不得再报名参加统考,否则将取消推荐免试生资
格,列为统考生。
6)考生(含推兔生)要准确填写个人信息,对本人所受奖惩情况,特別是要如实填写在参加普通和成
人高等学校招生考试、全国硕上研究生招生考试、高等教育自学考试等国家教育考试过程中因违规、作弊所
受处罚情况。对弄虚作假者,我校将按照《国家教育考试违规处理办法》和《2013年全国硕土学位研究生招
生工作管理规定》进行处理。
(二)现场确认
1、网上报名成功后,考生须携带本人二代居民身份证、学历证书和学位证书原件(应届本科生持学生
证,要求每学期均注册),按报考点指定的时间及地点配合采集电子信息、现场确认报名信息。
2、现场确认时间:2012年11月10日-14日。逾期不再补办
3、现场确认地点
选择中国人民大学报考点的考生,请届时登录我校网站查看具体地点;
选择外埠考点的考生,请查看该报考点的相关通知
4、考生错选报考点、报考单位、考试方式,或未按规定时间到报考点确认网上报名信息,报名无效
已支付的报考费不退还
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
(三)注意事项
考生报名前应仔细核对本人是否符合报考条件,须如实、准确提交报名信息和报名材料,不得弄虚作
假。一旦发现考生不符合报考条件或提交的报考信息不真实,我校将取消其报考资格和录取资格,责任由考
生自负。
2、我校部分通知将通过手机短信的方式发送,请正确填写手机号并保持手机畅通(考试时间除外)。
3、考生身份证和户口本上的姓名、出生日期、民族、性别等信息必须一致,如不一致,请在报名前去公
安部门更正。
4、考生报名信息在报名结束后,一律不得更改。因考生填写错误引起的一切后果由其自行承担。
5、考生报名时不再出具所在单位同意报考的证明材料。在职考生与所在单位因报考研究生产生的问题由
考生自行处理。若因上述问题使我校无法调取考生档案,造成考生不能复试或无法被录取的后果,我校不承
担责任
四、资格审查、发放准考证
我校对考生网上填报的报名信息进行全面审査,并重点核查考生填报的学历(学籍)信息,符合报考条
件的考生准予考试。发现伪造证件情况时,我校将扣留伪造证件
考生的学历(学籍)信息有疑问的,须在规定时间提供权威机构出具的认证证明,方可准考。
报考“少数民族高层次骨干人才计划”的考生,请于2012年12月1日前将报考2013年“少数民族高层次
骨干人才计划”硕士研究生考生登记表邮寄至我校相应招生院系,方可准考
准考证发放:2012年12月25日—2013年1月6日,考生可凭网报用户名和密码登录研招网
(://yz.chsi.cn)下载打印《准考证》,《准考证》正反两面在使用期间不得涂改。我校不再给考生
寄发《准考证》。
五、考核程序
(一)初试
1、考生凭下载打印的《准考证》及有效二代居民身份证参加初试
2、考生初试使用文具要求在《准考证》上做具体规定。其中,招生单位自命题科目所用文具如有特殊
要求,考生按《准考证》上要求自行携带,并接受监考人员检查。
3、初试时间:2013年1月5日、6日,上午8:30-11:30,下午14:00-17:00。
4、初试地点
在中国人民大学报名的考生,初试地点为中国人民大学,具体考场由我校在《准考证》上通知。
在外地报考点报名的考生,按照报考点所在省(自治区、直辖市)高校招生办公室指定的考场参加初试。
5、初试科目:请详见“中国人民大学2013年攻读硕士学位研究生招生专业目录”
初试成绩查询:在我校研究生院网站自行查询
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7、关于初试考试的特别说明
对在入学考试中作弊的考生,我校将通报其所在学校或单位,当年作弊的考生下一年度不允许报考,情节
严重的,给予暂停参加硕士研究生入学考试3年的处理;对作弊的在校生,将予以直至开除学籍的处罚;作弊
的在职考生由考试机构通报其所在单位,由有关部门视情节给予党纪或政纪处分;对于违法者,移交司法机
关依法追究刑事责任
注:我校专业课考试不举办考前辅导班、不提供历年试卷、不指定参考书目。
(二)复试:包括复试和体检
我校实行差额复试。
1、复试信息发布:考生于2013年3月中下旬登陆研究生院网站(://pgs.ruc.educn),査询我校硕
土生复试基本要求,并登陆各学院网站査询复试名单和复试办法。请进入复试的考生登陆研究生院网站自行
支付复试费并下载复试通知。
2、复试时间:2013年3月中下旬,请考生届时参见复试通知。
3、复试地点:中国人民大学,请考生届时参见复试通知
4、复试基本要求
我校是经教育部批准的34所自行确定本校复试分数线的高校之一。我校将结合本校年度研究生招生计划
和报考生源情况,以及总体初试成绩情况,自行确定进入复试的基本要求。对应届毕业生和非应届毕业生实
行统一的复试基本分数要求
对报考统考、各专业学位考生以及单独考试考生提出应试科目总分要求和单科分数要求
参加“大学生志愿服务西部计划”、“三支扶计划”(支农、支教、支医和扶贫)、“选聘高校毕业
生到村任职”和“农村义务教育阶段学校教师特设岗位计划”等项目(包括经教育部批准备案的高校毕业
生基层就业项目),完成服务期并考核合格的考生,三年内可享受初试总分加10分并在同等条件下优先录取
的政策;2009年以后应征入伍服义务兵役具有高等教育学历的士兵,退役后三年内参加全国硕士研究生招生
统一入学考试,初试总分加10分。上述考生在复试时须提供相关证明材料。
5、复试内容
学术学位硕士生的复试内容如下。专业学位硕士生的复试内容以各专业学位硕士生招生简章为准。
(1)专业综合课笔试(100分)
(2)外语笔试(50分)
(3)专业课和综合素质面试(150分)
(4)外语听力测试(20分)
(5)外语口语测试(30分
(6)对以同等学力资格(以报名时为准)报考的考生要加试。复试时,要对其进行木科主干课程和实验
技能的考查,其中笔试科目不少于两门,每门考试时间为3小时
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6、复试时须提交材料:考生复试时须提交《本科课程学习成绩登记表》和学历证书、学位证书原件和
复印件(应届毕业生证书、学位证书原件和复印件于入学报到时补交),对不符合有关规定者,我校不予复
试、录取。
应届毕业生复试时要签署“承诺书”,承诺在校期间未受过任何处分,各科成绩合格,能够按期取得毕
业证和学位证。入学报到时如不能提交毕业证书原件和学位证书原件(境外接受高等教育的应届毕业生如不
能提交教育部留学服务中心认证的学历证书认证书),立即取消录取资格。
7、体检:复试时参加我校统一组织的伓检,体检医院为我校校医院,体检标准参照教育部、卫生部、
中国残疾人联合会修订的《普通高等学校招生体检工作指导意见》执行,体检不合格者我校不予录取
我校认为必要时,可再次组织复试。
六、录取程序
我校根据国家下达的招生计划,考生入学考试的成绩(含初试和复试),并结合其平时学习成绩和思想政
治表现、科研成果、业务素质以及身体健康状况确定拟录取名单。
招收定向培养、委托培养及自筹经费硕土生均实行合同制。学校与考生所在单位、拟录取为定向培养、
委托培养及自筹经费硕士生的考生之间,必须在考生录取前,分别签订合同。
考试诚信状况将作为考生思想品德考核的重要内容和录取的重要依据,对于思想品德考核不合格者,我校
不予录取
对符合攻读我校硕士学位研究生招收要求的已录取硕士生发放录取通知书。发放时间为2013年6月上句
七、调剂
考生报名时只能填报一个学校的一个专业。待考试结束,教育部公布进入复试基本分数要求后,考生可
通过“中国研究生招生信息网”调剂服务系统了解招生单位的生源缺额信息,并根据自己的成绩再填报调剂
志愿。
达到教育部规定的复试基本要求,但未被我校录取的考生可以联系其他高校或招生单位进行调剂录取
考生须登录我校研究生院网站提交申请调剂信息,包括调往学校、专业等,我校将按考生的申请开展调剂工

八、学习年限
〔一)我校硕土生的基本学习年限为2-3年。经济学、法学、教育学、管理学等学科和新闻传播学一级
学科的硕士生基本学习年限为2年,其中试行全员硕博连读的哲学院、统计学院、汉青研究院、商学院的硕土
生基本学习年限为3年;其他院系、学科、专业,除招生专业目录特殊说明外,基本学习年限为3年。
(二)各专业学位硕士生的学习年限详见相应专业学位招生简章
九、其他
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(一)我校不允许学生同时攻读两个(及以上)不同层次或相同层次的学位
二)在规定期限内完成专业培养方案的规定内容,按照中国人民大学研究生学籍管理和学位授予的相
关规定,符合条件的,被颁发相应的学历证书,并被授予硕士学位
(三)定向或委托培养硕土生毕业时回定向或委托培养单位。非定向和自筹经费硕士生毕业时采取毕业
硏究生与用人单位“双向选择”的方式,落实就业去向。学校及所在地省级毕业生就业主管部门负责办理相
关手续。
(四)2013年,我校哲学院、统计学院、汉青硏究院、商学院试行实行全员硕博连读制,详情请咨询相
关学院
十、联系方式
研究生院网站://pgs.ruc.edu.cn
研招办地址:北京市海淀区中关村大街59号中国人民大学研究生招生办公室
邮政编码:100872
研招办电话:010-62515340
中国人民大学查号台:010-6251130
各院系咨询电话详见研究生院网站。
in豆
中国人民大学研究生招生办公室

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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
中国人民大学2013年法学硕士学位研究生招生专业目录
(120-法学院)
专业方向科目
科目二科目
科目四复试笔试
科目
备注
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
01英语
法理学(含法学;科目四包括
030101
101-思或202俄语
法理学与刑法、民法、诉讼法、
623-理论806-应用
法学理00-无
想政治或203日语
法学
西方法律经济法、环境资源
理论
或240德语
思想史),法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
外语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括
学、中国法制史、宪
01英语
法学;科目四包括:
01-思|或202俄语
刑法、民法、诉讼法、
030102-
00-无
想政治或203语|0理论806-应用中外法制
法律史
理论
或240德语/法学法学
史,外语
经济法、环境资源
法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
法学;科目四包括
030103
101-思或202俄语
宪法学
63班论|80用宠法与行刑法,民法,诉讼法
0-无
想政治或203日语
与行政
理论
或240德语
法学
学字
政法外语经济法、环境资源
法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
人大1对1个性化辅导集训保过小班
第11页共289页报名QQ:82669923电话[010-51283340
爱考

.aikao,
专·注·考·研·高·端·培·训
爱考机构考研高端保过辅导培训.aikao.[010-51283340
2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
法学;科目四包括
030104-
刑法学/00无
想政治或203日e/623理论806-应用中国刑法,/刑法、民法、诉讼法
101-思或202俄语
法学
外语
经济法、环境资源
理论
或240德语
法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
法学;科目四包括:
030105-
101-思或202俄语
刑法、民法、诉讼法
民商法00无
想政治或203日语
623-理论806-应用中国民商
经济法、环境资源
法,外语
理论或240德语
法、国际法(含国阿
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括:法理
中国法制史、宪
刑事诉
201英语
刑事诉
法学;科目四包括:
030106-讼法,民事101-思或202俄语
诉讼法诉讼法,证想政治或203日语
23理论80应用|法和民事刑法民法、诉讼法
法学
经济法、环境资源

据学与侦理论或240德语
诉讼法,外
法、国际法(含国际
查学
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
(校法。七门任选五门
诉讼法/0.物证技10.思/201英
030106-
想政治
或202俄语624物证807-普通
或203日语技术学物理和摩/物证技术
学,外语

术学
理论
通化学
或240德语
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
01英语
法学;科目四包括:
030107
101-思或202俄语
经济法00-无
想政治或203日语
623理论806应用经济法学,刑法民法、诉讼法、
经济法、环境资源
法学
法学
理论
外语
或240德语
法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
人大1对1个性化辅导集训保过小班
第12页共289页
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
法学;科目四包括:
030108
环境与
101-思或202俄语
刑法、民法、诉讼法
00-无
想政治|成2日语623论80应用环境资源
经济法、环境资源
资源保
理论或240德语
法学
法学
法,外语
法、国际法(含国际
护法学
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
国际法学法学;科目四包括
030109
想政治或203日/623-理论806应们/(含国际公刑法、民法、诉讼法、
101-思或202俄语
国际法00无

法国际私|经济法、环境资源
理论
或240德语
法国际经法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
济法外语公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
学;科目四包括
0301Z1-
101-思或202俄语
知识产0法学想政治或203日语623理论806
刑法、民法、诉讼法
经济法、环境资源
权法
理论
或240德语
法、国际法(含国际
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
201英语
知识产02,法学应/101思或202俄语
0301Z1
想政治或203日语
623-理论806应用汉语写作,只招收理工农医背
权法

法学
外语
景推免生
理论
或240德话/法学
或241法语
科目三包括:法理
学、中国法制史、宪
201英语
法学;科目四包括:
101-思或202俄语
刑法、民法、诉讼法、
0301Z2
00-无
比较法
想政治或203日语623理论|806-应用比较法,外
经济法、环境资源
理论
或240德语
法、国际法(含国际
或241法语
公法、国际私法、国
际经济法)、知识产
权法。七门任选五门
人大1对1个性化辅导集训保过小班
第13页共289页
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爱考

.aikao,
专·注·考·研·高·端·培·训
爱考机构考研高端保过辅导培训.aikao.[010-51283340
2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
98法硕498-法硕
035101
101-思
201英语一联考专业联考综合专业综合
法律(非00无
想政治
理论
或203日语基础(非(非法课,外语
035102
101-思
法律(法00无
201英语一联考专业497-法硕
联考综合
专业综合
想政治
或203日语基础(法
学)
理论
(法学)|课,外语
学)
人大法学硕士研究生2012-2002年复试基本分数线
学科门类年份政治外语专

总分
备注
2012年
350
2011年
60
350
2010年
55
340
009年
345
2008
60
34
法学
2007年
3
53
90
340
(学术型)2006年
55
55
83
83
340
2005年
100
100
350
2004

360
2004年有两分数线,符
2004年
100
100
350
合任一条均可
203年
340
2002年
90
340
注:所有的考生在初试备考中,只有一个敌人,那就是分数线!或者说是你自己!因为只要你努力备考,分
数达到了复试线,就可以进入复试,不管是哪个专业
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
人大法学院11-12年报录比汇总
录取人数
学院年份报名总人数
统考推免单考援藏
合计
法学院2011年
603
100
法学院2012年
1542
67
法学院2013年
注:复试比例:复试比例通常是1比1.2到1比1.5。复试比例的意思是统考拟录取的人数比进入复试的
人数。也就是如果拟录人数是100人,那么进入复试的人数就控制在120到150人之间
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人大法学硕士:初试专业参考书目推荐
备战中国人民大学法学院的第一步,就是需要知道人大法学考什么以及看什么。考什么可以通过考试科
目以及历年的真题看出,而看什么就是参考书的问题了。众所周知,参考书在任何类型的考试中,都是最重
要、也是必需的复习资料。虽然,人大硏究生院已经标明考试不再指定参考书目,但是按照惯例,复习参考
书仍然主要是学校的21世纪法学系列教材中的木科生教材,中国人民大学出版社出版。注意一定要买最新版

日前学校的教材有三个规格的,但都为16开,A规格为170mm×228mm(最老规格)、B规格为185mm
×24m(目前大部分书的规格)、C规格为185mm×26omm(将来与国际接轨的规格)。随着时间推移,
将来看主编就可以了,以下数据具体时间点为2010年,将来对于大家购买书籍来说仍然具有参考比
较作用
因此,为了让考生能够准确的用对参考书做到有效的复习,在此爱考教育把参考书目的作者、书号、出
版日期、定价等信息列出来,供考生参考
考试科目
专业
作者
ISBN
出版日期
定价
法理学
朱景文
9787-300-0875282007-12-2548元
623-理论法学
宪法学许崇德、胡景光978-7-300-1075092009年第四版28元
法制史
曾宪义
978-7-300-10829-22009-06-2635元
806-应用法学
刑法
王作富
978-7-300-110226
2009-08-10
55元
民法
王利明
978-7-300-124148
2010-07-26
诉讼法一民事陈卫东
9787-3001022-42009年第三版45元
诉讼法一刑事江伟
978-7-300-09145-72008042349元
经济法
潘静成、刘文华978-7-300-09178-5
2008-04-28
环境资源法周珂
978-7-300-11376-0
2010年第二版39.8元
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
知识产权法刘春田
978-7-30011023-3
2009-08-1442
国际法
程晓霞余民才978-7-300-09150-1
2008-04-28
35元
国际私法章尚锦徐青森978-7-300-082226
200707-13
39.8元
国际经济法郭寿康赵秀文978-7-300-10858-22009-06-2939.8元
参考书购买途径:第一、各大城市专门法律书店;第二、当当网、卓越网;第三、人大校园的书店;第
四、中国人民大学出版社!
、初试真题
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:公共课政治历年真题(2013-2001)
2013年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题目
要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑
1.有一幅对联,上联“桔子洲,洲旁舟,舟行洲不行,”下联“天心阁,阁中鸽,鸽飞阁不飞。”这形象的
说明了运动和静止是相互依存的静止
A。运动的衡量只度B。运动的内在原因C。运动的普遍状态D。运动的存在方式
2.一位机械工程专家讲过这样一件事:“文革”中,他在农场劳动,有一天领导要他去割羊草,他没养过羊
怎么认得羊草呢?但脑子一转办法就来了,他把羊都赶去看羊吃什么就割什么。不到半天就割回了羊草。这
位专家之所以这样做是因为他意识到“羊吃草”与“割羊草”两者之间存在:(
A。主关联系
必然联系C。因果联系D。本质联系
3.《资本论》中有这样的表述“对上衣来说,无论是裁缝自己穿还是他的顾客穿,都是一样的”,这样只有
因为无论谁穿:(
A。上衣都起到着使用价值的作用B。上衣都起到着价值的作用
C。上衣都是抽象劳动的结果
D。上衣都是社会劳动的结果
4.某资本家投资100万元,每次投资所得的利润是15万元,假定其预付资本的有机构成是4:1,那么该资本家
每次投资所实现的剩余价值率为:()
A.15%B.75%C.100%
D.125%
5.当今世界是开放的世界,中国的发展离不开世界,实行对外开放是我国的一项基本国策,坚持这一国策的
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基本立足点是:()
A。内外联动,互惠互利B。多放平衡,共同发展
C。相互借鉴,求同存异D。独立自主,自力更生
6.公益性文化事业是保障公民基本文化权益的重要途径,大力发展公益文化事业始终坚持放到首位的是:
A。社会效益B。经济效益C。繁荣文化市场D。创新文化体制
7.近年来为了缩小我国居民在收入分配方面的差距,党和政府做出了巨大的努力,如提高个税起证点,提高
企业退休人员基本养老金,提高国家扶贫标准和城乡低保补助水平等,这些举措体现了:(
A。初次分配注重效率
B。再次分配更注重公平
C。劳动报酬在初次分配中比重提高D。各种生产要素都能按贡献参与分配
8.党的十八大报告提出为确保实现全面建成小康社会的宏伟目标到2020年,在实现国内生产总值比2010年翻
番的同时,还要实现翻一番的是:()
。城乡居民人均收入B。城乡居民可支配收入C。国民收入D。财政收入
甲午战争后,维新运动迅速兴起,针对洋务派提出的“中体西用”的方针,维新派指出,“体”与“用
是不可分的。中学有中学的“体”与“用”,西学有西学的“体”与“用”,把中学之“体”与西学之“用
凑在一起,就如同让“牛体”产生“马用”一样荒谬。维新派与洋务派分歧的实质是()
A。要不要社会革命
要不要以革命手段推翻清王朝
C。要不要在中国兴办近代企业
D。要不要学习西方的政治制度与思想文化
10.1948年10月2日,刘少奇同志在同华北记者团谈话时,故事;巨人安泰是地神之子,他在同对手搏斗时,
只要大地母亲那里不断吸取力量,所向无敌;但是,只要他毫无力量。他的对手赫拉克勒斯发现了他的这
特征,把他举到半空中将他扼死。刘少奇借用这一神话故事始终要()
A。坚持力量联系实际
B。保持党的方针政策的正确
C。保持对敌人的高度警惕
D。保持同人民群众的
全面提高公民道德素质,要坚持依法治国,以德治国公德,职业道德,家庭美德,个人品德教育,弘扬中
华传统新风。下列选项中,即是道德规范又是法律原则的是(
A。爱岗敬业
诚实守信C。助人为乐D。勤俭持家
2.我们要大力弘扬的时代精神是当代人民精神风貌的集中力的强大力量。时代精神内涵十分丰富,其核
心是()
A。国际主义B。集体主义C。改革创新D。开拓进取
13.个体的人生活动不仅具有满足自我需要的价值属性,还必然包含着满足社会需要的价值属性。个人的需要
能不能从社会中得到满足没,在多大程度上得到满足,取决于他的()
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
A。社会影响B。社会价值C。社会地位D。社会理想
14.“和为贵”是中华民族的传统美德,采用调解的方法解决纠纷,有利于社会和谐。调解可以在诉讼程序
外进行,也可以在诉讼程序内进行,诉讼中调解是指()
A。人民调解B。行政调解C。司法调解D。仲裁调解
15.2012年6月27日,中国宣布在南海地区对外开放九个海上区块,供与外国公司合作勘探开发。此外,海南
省宣布将西沙群岛的四个区域划定为文化遗产保护区。这些决定联同设立三沙市构成了中国加强在南海地区
维护主权的“组合行动”。中国在南海问题上的一贯主张是()
A。使南海问题长期化B。推动南海问题国际化
C。搁置争议,共同开发D。建立“南海和平自由友谊合作区
16.2012年9月25日,第67届联合国大会一般性辩论在纽约联合国总部开幕。针对错综复杂的国际形势和此起
彼伏的地区动荡及热点问题,本次辩论的主题是
A。改善全球经济治理
B。携手推动各国普遍安全与共同发展
。增强联合国维和作用
D。以和平方式调解或解决国际争端或局势
多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符
合题日要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分
17.马克思主义是关于无产阶级和人类解放的科学,实现共产主义是全人类解放的根本体现。人类解放包括
A。从自然的压迫下解放出来
B。从客观规律的制约下解放出来
C。从旧的社会关系的束缚下解放出来D。从旧的传统观念的禁锢下解放出来
18唯物史观第一次科学地解决了历史创造者的问题,认为人民群众是历更的创造者。人民群众()
A。从量上说是指社会人的绝大多数
B。从质上说是社会X对社会历史发展起推动作用的人们
C。在任何历史时期都不包括剥削阶级
D。最稳定的主体部分始终是从事物质资料生产的劳动群众及其知识分子
19.美国导演迈克尔。穆尔在他的最新记录片《资本主义:一个爱情故事》问世以来,一直颇受关注。“资本
主义”为何与“爱情故事”联系起来呢?穆尔解释说,这是一种“贪欲之爱”,喜爱财富的人不仅爱他们自
己的钱,也爱你口袋中的钱……很多人不敢说出它的名字,真见鬼,就说出来吧。这就是“资本主义”。对
金钱的“贪欲”与资本主义连为一体,是因为()
A。资本就是人格化的资本
B。赚钱体现了人的天然本性
C。资本的生命在于不断运动和不断增值D。追逐剩余价值是资本主义生产方式的绝对规律
20.伴随着生产力发展,科技进步及阶级关系调整,当代资本主义社会的劳资关系和分配关系发生了很大变化
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一木通手册
其中资本家及其代理人为缓和劳资关系所采取的激励制度有()
A.职工终身雇佣制度
B.职工参与决策制度
C.职工选举管理着制度
职工持股制度
1.自第一个社会主义国家建立以来,社会主义事业的发展并不是一帆风顺的,社会主义发展道路的多样性以
及发展过程中的前进性和曲折性的时间告诉我们
A。坚持社会主义,不等于要坚持某种单一的社会主义模式
B。发展社会主义,不等于不认可西方资本主义的文明成果
C。改革有抛弃某种社会主义模式,不等于改掉或抛弃社会主义
D。某种社会主义模式的失败,不等于整个社会主义事业的成败
22.党的十八大把科学发展观同马克思主义列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想一道
确立为党必须长期坚持的指导思想。科学发展观是
A.中国特色社会主义理论体系的最新成果
B.中国革命、建设、改革经验的科学总结
C.指导党和国家全部工作的强大思想武器
D.中国共产党集体智慧的结晶
23.国务院新闻办公室发布的西藏和平解放60年白皮书指出:目前西藏共有各类宗教活动场所1700余处,僧
尼约4.6万人,臧传佛教特有的活佛转世的活动方式得到充分尊重,寺庙学经、变戒、灌顶修行等传统宗教活
动和寺庙学经考核晋升学位活动正常进行。每年到拉萨朝佛进香的信教群众达百万人次以上,上述事实表明
我国的宗教政策得到了充分贯彻,我国宗教政策主要有:(
A。积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应
B。尊重和保护公民的宗教信仰自由
C。独立自主自办教会
D。依法管理宗教事务
24.统筹区域发展,促进区域协调发展,是我国经济社会发展的一个重点原则,坚持这一原则有利于:(
A。扩大内需,拉动经济增长
B。区域间优势互补,促进经济共同发展
C。不同区域人民共亨改革发展成果
D。生产要素在区域间合理流动和配置
25.1992年初,邓小平在南方谈话中指出:“社会主义的本质是,解放生产,发展生产力。消除剥削,消除
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两极分化,最终达到共同富裕。“这一概括对社会主义传统认识的突破主要体现在:(ACD)
A。破除了脱离生产力水平抽象谈论社会主义的认识
。否定了社会主义必须坚持公有制和按劳分配原则的认识
C。摆脱了长期以来忽视建设社会主义根本目的和目标的认识
D。制止了把社会主义本质等同于社会主义具体做法的认识
26.P2.5(细粒颗粒)这个大家原本很陌生的专有名词,因为2011年10月我国多地灰霾天气造成严重大气污染
而迅速成为社会热词。2012年2月修订的《环境空气质量标准》增加了PM2.5指标,该指标随后又被写入政府
工作报告。这既折射出当前我国环境污染的严重性,同时也反映了党和政府治理环境污染、建设生态文明的
决心。十八大提出的生态文明建设新要求是()
A.加大自然生态系统和环境保护力度
B.全面促进资源节约
C.优化国土空间开发格局
D.加强生态文明制度建设
27.1925至1927年的大革命规模宏伟,内涵丰富,与辛亥革命相比较,其不同点在于()
A.它广泛而深刻地发动了工农群众
B。它的主要斗争形式是武装斗争
C。它的革命对象是帝国主义和封建军阀
D。它是在以国共合体为基础的统一战线的组织下进行的
28.1931年1月至1935年1月,以王明为代表的“左”倾错误给中国革命带来严重危害,其主要错误有()
A。排斥和打击中国势力
将反帝反封建与反资产阶级并列
C。集中力量攻打大城市
D。主张“一切经过统一战线”
29.抗日战争是近代以来中华民族反抗外敌入侵第一次取得完全胜利的民族解放战争,中国贏得抗日战争胜利
的主要原因是
A.中国共产党发挥了中流砥柱的作用
B.中国的国力空前强大
C。得到了国际反法西斯力量的同情和支持
D.中国实现了空前的民族觉醒和民族团结
30.以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体带领全党全国和各族人民完成了新民主主义革命,进行了
社会主义改造,确立了社会主义基本制度,这一基本制度的确立:()
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
A。为当代中国一切发展进步奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础
B。是中国历史上最深刻最伟大的社会变革
C。标志着马克思主义同中国实际第二次结合的完成
D。使广大劳动人民真正成为国家的主人
31.一位社会学家发现大楼的一块玻璃坏了,起初他没太当回事,没过多久,他发现许多处窗户都破损了,经
过调研后,他得出结论:一样东西如果有点破损,人们就会有意无意地加快它的破损速度,一样东西如果完
好无损,或是及时维护,人们就会精心的护理。这就是著名的“破窗定律”。下列关于道德修养的名言与“破
窗定律”内涵相近的是
A。非知之难行之惟难非行之难终之斯难
B。善不可谓小而无益,不善不可谓小而无伤
C。小善虽无大益,而不可不为。细恶虽无近祸,而不可不去
D。见贤思齐焉见不贤而内自省也
32.“可上九天揽月,可下五洋捉鳖”,2012年6月24日在航天员的手动操作下,我国“神航号”宇宙飞船与
“天宫一号”交互对接成功,向未来建设宇宙空间站迈向坚实一步。就在同一天,我国的“蛟龙号”载人潜
水器成功下潜7020米的深度,再次创造历史记录。这两次成就的里程碑意义在于:()
A。完成了“近地空间长期载人飞行”和“南海深部计划
B。丰富了人类认识和开发宇宙的梦想和实践
C。为中国在太空和海底参与国际合体提供了更多机会
D。为中国在太空和大洋这两个尚未充分利用空间的活动创造了新可能性
O
33.2012年6.6至7日,上海合作组织成员国元首理事会第十二次会议在京举行。这是该组织发展进入第二个十
年的首次峰会,与会各国元首就深化成员国友好合作以及重大国际和地区问题深入交换了意见,达成了新的
重要共识。此次峰会的主要成果有:()
A。首次制定了中长期战略规划
B。签订了军事同盟条约
C。签署了首个人文合作宣言
D。增加了新的观察员国和对话伙伴国
分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在
答题纸指定位置上。
34.结合材料回答问题:
材料
小学老师雷夫。爱斯基斯在其所著的热门教育畅销书《第56号教室的奇迹》中讲过这样一个故事
一位从事特殊教育的优秀教师获得一个宝贵的签名球,上面有美国著名棒球队—一红袜队1967年全体队
员的签名,这些球员都是他的偶像,对这样一个签名球,这位教师别提有多珍爱了。当年幼的儿子找他一起
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玩球时,他理所当然地警告儿子:绝对不能拿签名球来玩。儿子问他理由时,他觉得儿子还太小,对球和球
员一无所知,说多了儿子也不会明白,于是,他没有解释原委,只对儿子说,不能用那颗球,是因为“球上
写满了字
过了几天,儿子又找他一起玩球,当老爸再次提醒儿子不要拿写满字的球来玩时,小男孩满不在乎说:
我已经把问题解决了,爸爸问怎么回事,儿子说:我把球上所有的字都擦掉了。老爸气的想痛打儿子,但他
转念一想,觉得儿子根本没有做错事。因为自己并没有告诉儿子上面的字有什么意义。从那天起,他无论去
什么地方,都带着那颗空白的签名球。这颗球提醒他,不管是教导学生还是子女,一定要时时从孩子的角度
去看事情
不论家长还是教师,常常用成人的眼光看待孩子,用成人的思维理解孩子,用成人的保准要求孩子。岂
不知,从孩子的角度看事情,用孩子的眼睛看世界,正是儿童教育应当遵循的基本规律
摘编自《人民日报》(2012年3月16日
材料2
某大学一研究生凭借着设计“隰目药瓶”,摘得了素有“设计界奥斯卡”美誉的2011年度“国际红点
奖”概念设计类奖
在他提供的设计图上,常见的塑料瓶盖的顶上一圈变身为一块圆圆的玻璃。“这是一面凹凸镜,有放大
的功能”。他解释说,有了这个药瓶盖,老年人不需要带上老花镜来区别药的类别、服用量等。他的灵感来
源于生活中对中老年人群体的关注。有一天,有位老人要吃药,可是药瓶上的字太小了,原本挂在脖子上的
老花镜却不见了,急的这位老人团团转。就这样,该同学很长一段时间沉浸在老人世界中。突然有一天灵感
迸发,想到“醒目药瓶”这个点子
这一设计胜在实用。按照测算,不

给药品本身带来额外的成本,推广起来很容易,实用方便。“希望将来
这款设计能推向市场,让更多人得到帮助
这位研究生说他没有想当名人的“野心”。只期望能从生活中的小处入手,用自己的设计改变生活,让
生活更加美好。正如“红点”主席 Peter Zec博士在颁奖晚会上说的那样:从同学们优秀的设计中,他高兴
地看到的是他们所描绘的未来更加美好的世界
摘编自《扬子晚报》(2012年3月17日)
(1)分析“用孩子的眼睛看世界”和“设计前把自己想象成老人”两事例所体现的认识主体的能动作
用。(6分
(2)“用自己的设计改变生活,让生活更美好”对我们从事实践活动有何意义?(4分)
5.结合材料回答问题
材料1
浙江武义县后陈村是全县经济条件较好的村,但由于财务使用不透明,村民从上世纪90年代以来连续向
县纪委、街道反映村里问题,却长期得不到彻底解决。2002年和2003年,连续两任村支书因经济问题査处
A4年初,村里有1000亩土地被征用,获补偿金1900多万元,在人均发放7000多元后,还剩1000多万元。如
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何处理这些集体资产成为村内一个难题。为帮助村民寻找从根本上解决问题的办法,由县纪委牵头组建的村
务监督改革指导小组进驻后陈村,指导组在大量听取村民意见的基础上,决定组建一个相对独立于村委会及
村党支部的监督委员会,真正能从根本上让村民有效制约村干部的权力。6月,后陈村在海选村委员基础上由
群众选举产生了全国第一个村级民主监督组织——村务监督委员会,与村党支部、村委员一起称为“三委
监督会成立不久,即对村里两口池塘的承包进行了全程监督,结果每口池塘三年的承包价从2.8万升至5.8
万元,2005年后陈村举行垃圾清运投标会,村委会主任主持会议,监委会主任到玚监督,不到5分钟结果就出
来了,没有人对投标公正性表示质疑。
监委会成立后,后陈村每年的创收情况,包括出租土地给广告公司做广告牌、旧粮站出租、经营沙场、
村留土地上的杉树出售,以及向上级部门申请到的资金补助等,每一笔都要经过监委会审核后公布。2004年
当年的招待开支是23909元,比前些年下降近一半,村干部再不能拿着发票随便报销了。在村财务公开栏前
村民告诉记者:“过去简直是胡来,集体的钱像是干部自己的,现在不一样了。”监委会主任说:“我的职
责就是看他们有没有按程序办事,有没有搞暗箱操作。
监委会成立以来,后陈村的固定收入逐年增加,村干部连续8年实现零违纪,村民连续8年实现零上访
村两委已顺利完成了3次换届。最近的一次换届,村两委成员一个没动,全部高票当选,一次通过。
目前,浙江省3万多个行政村,村村建立了村务监督委员会,实现了村级监督组织全覆盖,村务监督委员
会这一有效而不需要太大监督成本的权力制衡制度,对建立乡村“阳光权力体系”共建和谐社会带来重要启
迪。村务监督委员会这一制度创新已被写进《中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法》,并在全国推行。
摘编自《人民日报》2012年5月14日等
(1)后陈村是如何通过制度创新来保障权力在阳光下运行的?(5分)
(2)全国第一个村务监督委员会的建立对推进基层民主制度建设有何启示?(5分)
w
36.结合材料回答问题
材料1
1910年,上海人陆士谔在幻想小说《新中国》里记载了一个神奇的梦,梦中主人公随时光穿梭,看到“万
国博览会”在上海浦东举行,为方便市民参观,上海滩建成了浦东大铁桥和越江隧道,还造了地铁,工厂中
的机器有鬼斧神工之妙,租界的治外法权已经收回,汉语成了世界通用的流行语言……最后梦中人一跤跌醒,
却言道:“休说是梦,到那时,真有这景象也未可知。”
1920年,孙中山先生完成《建国方略》一书,书中提岀了修建三峡水利、建设高原铁路系统等宏伟设想,
构想了工厂遍地、机器轰鸣、髙楼大厦矗立城乡、火车轮船繁忙往返的现代化景象,描绘了“万众一心,急
起直追,以我五千年文明优秀之民族,应世界之潮流,而建设一政治最修明、人民最安乐之国家”的愿景。
1935年,方志敏在《可爱的中国》中写道:“中国一定有个可赞美的光明前途……到那时候,到处都是
活跃跃的创造,到处都是日新月异的进步,欢歌将代替了悲叹,笑脸将代替了哭脸,富裕将代替了贫穷,康
健将代替了疾苦,智慧将代替了愚昧,友爱将代替了仇杀,生之快乐将代替了死之悲哀,明媚的花园,将代
替了凄凉的荒地!这时,我们民族就可以无愧色的立在人类的面前,而生育我们的母亲,也会最美丽地装饰
起来,与世界上各位母亲平等的携手了。”“这么光荣的一天,决不在辽远的将来,而在很近的将来。”
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摘编自《经济日报》(2012年12月12日)、《方志敏文集》
材料2
2012年11月29日,中共中央总书记习近平到国家博物馆参观<〈复兴之路》展览,在十九世纪末列强割占领
土、设立租借地、划定势力范围示意图前,在鸦片战争期间虎门的大炮前,在反映辛亥革民的文物和照片前,
在《共产党宣言》第一个中文全译本前,在《中国共产党的第一个纲领》等反映中国共产党成立的文物和照
片前,在李大钊狱中亲笔自述前,在中华人民共和国第一面五星红旗前,在党的十一届三中全会照片前,习
近平不时停下脚步,认真观看,仔细询问和了解有关情况,在参观过程中,习近平发表了重要讲话,他提出,
每个人都有理想和追求,都有自己的梦想,实现中华民族伟大复
(1)为什么“实现中华民族伟大复兴就是中华民族近代以来最伟大的梦想”?(4分)
(2)为什么说“现在我们比历史上任何时期都更接近中华民族伟大复兴的目标”?(6分)
37.结合材料回答问题
某图书馆向所有读者免费开放。乞丐拾荒者、和衣衫破旧的民工小心翼翼进来了,无人阻挡,于是他们
便堂而皇之的在馆内读书看报,有读者对此表示不满,向馆长抱怨说:图书馆是大雅之堂,如果允许乞丐和
拾荒者进入阅读,就是对其他读者的不尊重。馆长回答说:我无权拒绝他们入内阅读,但你有权选择离开。
此事被发在微博上,顿时触动了社会的神经,引发人们对人文精神的关注和思考,中央电视台等主流媒
体对此进行了报道,场公共图书馆办馆理念的大讨论由此引发。
公共图书馆一向更愿意向体面地文化人敞开,常在门口赫然告示:衣冠不整谢绝入内!把读者分为三六
九等,拒绝部分人入内,其公益性大打折扣,而该馆长希望图书馆成为每一个读书人的天堂,无乱任何人,
只要进了图书馆,在知识面前都享有同等权利,不得有高低贵贱之分。为此,该馆在全国同行中率先推出免
证阅读制度,任何人进馆借读书籍都不需要证件和费用,以体现人道、人文的公共图书馆理念和人性化的服

对于图书馆实行免费开放可能带来的问题,该馆有关负责人感触颇深:自图书馆实行零门槛后,我们不
仅没有感到压力增加,反而感觉开放的时间越长,不尊重这种权力的读者越少,我们和读者都被这种和谐
环境所改变,至于尽管要先洗手,馆内并没有硬性规定,耳濡目染的时间长了,谁也会自觉地洗手,然后在
阅读。
“如果没有天堂,天堂应该是图书馆的模样。”这是文学大师曾相任阿根廷国立图书馆馆长的博尔赫斯
的一句名言,该图书馆向乞丐和拾荒者免费开放,不啻一轮明亮的太阳让乞丐和拾荒者在得到温暖的同时
也净化我们的心灵。
摘编自《中国青年》(2011年第5期)、《光明日报》(2012年5月10日)
(1)从法律角度如何理解“我无权拒绝他们入内阅读,但你有权选择离开”?(5分)
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2)图书馆想乞丐和拾荒者年费开放对我们处理人际关系有何启示?(5分)
38.阅读下列材料
材料1
2012年5月,美国发布奥巴马上台后第一个《四年防务评估报告》和《国建安全战略报告》。报告指出
美国国家利益由安全、繁荣、价值和国际失序四个方面组成;美国通过对这些利益的追求,实现国家复兴和
全球领导地;相比世界其他地区,亚洲是美国最有所作为的地区。同时,报告将南亚国家归为三个类别:“战
略伙伴“和”可预期的战略伙伴“,虽然,美国准备让东盟所有国家成为美国的盟友或是伙伴,
美国卡内基国际和平基金会副总裁包道格说:“过去的10年来,中国在南亚地区不断扩大其利益,取得
了有效的成果,这是美国没有做到的。
摘编自新华网(2011年5月28日)
材料2
2011年10月以来,美国高层不断访问亚太地区的国家,参加相关的国际会议。10月下旬,国防部长帕内塔出
访印尼,日本和韩国,强调美国将加大在军事部署。11月下句到12月初,国务卿希拉里。克林顿,先后访问
菲律宾、泰国,并对缅甸进行了“历史性访问”,这是1955年以来美国国务卿首次访问缅甸。同时,奥巴马
也是展开亚太之行,他参加在夏威夷举行的亚太经合组织第十九次领导人非正式会议,随后出访澳大利亚并
前往印尼出席东亚多边峰会,成为参加东亚峰会的首位美国总统。奥巴马在亚太之行中高调宣示,美国是“太
平洋大国”,讲“留驻”亚太,通过“坚持核心原则”和与盟友及伙伴的紧密合作,在“塑造”亚太地区未
来中发挥更大,更长远的作用。2012年11月8日,奥巴马连任成功不到48小时,即宣布他的首次出访选在东南
亚。17日至20日,他不仅访问了泰国,而且对缅甸和柬埔寨进行了历史性首访。在这次东南亚之行中,奥巴
马再次强调,美国是一个太平洋国家,亚太地区对美国创造就业机会以及塑造其安全与繁荣至关重要
摘编自《人民日报》(2011年12月23日)、《参考消息》(2012年11月21日)等
材料3
第十一届香格里拉对话暨亚洲安全会议于2012年6月1日至3日在新加坡举行。会议期间,美国国防部长帕
内塔发表了题为《美国对亚太的再平衡》的演讲,重点阐释了“亚太再平衡战略”的军事计划,其中包括2020
年前在亚太地区保持6个航母舰队,以及将60%的海军力量部署到亚太地区。国际舆论普遍怀疑,美国战略重
心向亚太地区转移的意图是为了遏制中国
摘编自新华网(2012年6月4日)
(1)美国将其全球战略重心转向亚太的原因何在?(5分)
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(2)如何看待美国战略重心东移对中国周边安全的影响?(5分)
2012年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符
合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑
1.恩格斯说:“鹰比人看得远得多,但是人的眼睛识别的东西远胜于鹰。狗比人具有锐敏得多的嗅觉,但是
它连被人当作为各种物的特定标志的不同气味的百分之一也辨别不出来。”人的感官的识别能力高于动物
除了人脑及感官发育得更完美之外,还因为(
A.人不仅有感觉还有思维
B.人不仅有理性还有非理性
C.人不仅有直觉还有想象
D.人不仅有生理机能还有心理活动
2.有这样一道数学题:“90%×90%×90%×90%×90%=?”其答案是约“59%,90分环节考打点折扣,得出的
成绩就是不及格。这里蕴含的辩证法道理是()
A.肯定中包含否定
B.量变引起质变
C.必然性通过
D.可能和现实是相互转化的
3.在资本主义社会里,资本家雇佣工人进行劳动并支付相应的工资。资本主义工资本质是()
A.工人所获得的资本家的预付资本
B.工人劳动力的价值或价格
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C.工人所创造的剩余价值的一部分
D.工人全部劳动的报酬
4.2011年9月以来美国爆发的“占领华尔街”抗议活动中示威者打出“我们是99%”的标语,向极富阶层表
示不满。漫画所显示的美国社会财富占有的两级分化,是资本主义制度下()
A.劳资冲突的集中表现
B.生产社会化的必然产物
资本积累的必然结果
D.虚拟资本泡沫化的恶果
5.毛泽东曾在不同的场合多次谈到,调査研究有两种方法:一是走马看花、一是下马看花。走马看花,不深
入,还必须用第二种方法,就时下马看花,过细看花,分析一朵花。他强调“下马看花”的实际意义在
A.解决实际问题必须要有先进理论的指导
B.运用多种综合方法分析调查研究的材料
C.马克思主义理论必须适合中国革命的具体实际
D.只有全面深入地了解中国的实际,才能找出规律
6.改革开放以来,我们党对公有制认识上的一个重大突破,就是明确了公有制和私有制的实现形式是两个不
同层次的问题。公有制的实现形式是指资产或资本的()
A.占有形式
分配形式
所有权归属D.组织形式与经营方式
7.2011年进行的全国县乡两级人大换届选举,是2010年3月选举法修改后首次实行城乡按相同人口比例选
举人大代表。这是我国政治生活中的一件大事,它()
A.更好的体现了人人平等、地区平等和民族平等
B.有利于党在国家政权中发扬民主,贯彻党的群众路线
C.集中反映了人民代表大会是人民当家作主的根本途径
D.表明我国人大代表的产生与西方议会成员的产生有根本区别

8.邓小平指出:“解决民族问题,中国采取的不是民族共和联邦的制度,而是民族区域自治的制度。我们认
为这个制度比较好,适合中国的情况。”我们实行民族区域自治的历史依据是()
A.各民族聚居区发展的不平衡性
B.统一的多民族国家的长期存在和发展
C.各民族大杂居、小聚居的人口分布格局
D.近代以来各民族在共同反抗外来侵略斗争中形成的爱国主义精神
9.19世纪40年代以后,资本帝国主义势力一次又一次地发动对中国的侵略战争妄图瓜分中国,灭亡中国。
但是,帝国主义列强并没有能够实现她们的这一图谋,其根本原因是
A.中西文化存在巨大差异
B.中国经济政治发展不平衡
C.帝国主义列强之间的矛盾和相互制约D.中华民族进行的不屈不挠的反侵略战争
0.毛泽东在《中国革命和中国共产党》中论述了民主革命和社会主义革命的关系。他指出:“民主革命是
社会主义革命的必要准备,社会主义革命是民主革命的必然趋势。”这两个革命阶段能够有机连接的原因是
A.资本主义道路在中国走不通
B.俄国十月革命为中国提供了经验
C.民主革命包含了社会主义因素D.中国国情决定中国革命必须分两步走
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11.道德修养是一个循序渐进的过程,古人云:“积土成山,风雨兴焉;积水成渊,蛟龙生焉:积善成德,而
神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以至千里;不积小流,无以成江海。”下列各言中与这段话在含义上
近似的是(
A.仁远乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣B.勿以善小而不为,勿以恶小而为之
C.君子求诸已,小人求诸人
D.有能一日用其力于仁矣乎?我未见力不足者
12.中国特色社会主义法律体系是以我国全部现行法律规范按照一定的标准和原则划分为不同的法律部门,并
由这些法律部门所构成的具有内在联系的统一整体。每一法律部门均由一系列调整相同类型社会关系的众多
法律、法规所构成。下列选项中属于独立法律部门的是()
A.知识产权法B.商法C.公司法D.民法商法
3.人生目的是人在人生实践中关于自身行为的根本指向和人生追求,它所认识和回答的根本问题是()
A.人为什么活着B.人如何对待生活
怎样对待人生境遇
怎样选择人生道路
14.社会主义道德建设的核心()
A.爱国主义B.集体主义C.为人民服务D.社会主义荣辱观
15.与“天宫一号”两度完成“太空之吻”的“神州八号”飞船,于2011年11月12日顺利回“家”,天宫
号与神州八号空间完全对接任务获得圆满成功.这标志着我国()
A.载人航天技术已经完全成熟
B.实现了由航天大国向航天强国的转变
C.实现了载人航天工程“三步走”的战略D.为公后建造载人空间站奠定了坚实的技术基础
16.2011年5月18日,国际货币基金组织(IF)总裁多米尼克·斯特劳斯·卡恩因涉案而辞去总裁职务
引发了欧美等发达国家与发展中国家关于IMF总裁继任人的争夺,6月28日,IMF宣布,该组织新一任总裁
是法国经济、财政与工业部长克里斯蒂娜·拉加德,这表明:(
A.国际货币基金组织改革进程加快
B.新兴国家的话语权和代表性得到提升
C.欧美主导国际金融机构的局面仍未改变
ocin.
D.发展中国家作为一支独立力量登上世界舞台
多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是
符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。
17.“沉舟侧畔千帆过,病树前头万木春。“辩证法认为发展的实佔是新事物的产生和旧事物的灭亡。新生事
物必然取代旧事物,从根本上说,是因为(
A.新生事物产生于旧事物之后,是新出现的事物
B.新生事物具有新的结构和功能,能适应已经变化了的环境和条件
C.新生事物是对旧事物的扬弃,并添加了旧事物所不能容纳的新内容
D.在社会历史领域内,新生事物符合广大人民群众的根本利益和要求
18.2011年4月,耶鲁大学出版了《马克思为什么是对的》一书,书中列举了当前西方社会10个典型的歪曲
马克思主义的观点。其中一种观点认为:马克思主义将世间万物都归结于经济因素,艺术、宗教,政治、法
律、道德等都被简单地视为经济的反映,对人类历史错综复杂的本质视而不见,而试图建立一种非黑即白的
单一历史观,上述观点是对马克思主义关于经济基础和上层建筑辩证关系思想的严重歪曲,其表现为()
A.把社会历史发展多重因素的综合作用歪曲为单一因素决定论
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B.把上层建筑与经济基础的相互作用歪曲为机械的单向作用
C.把经济作为社会的“基础”所具有的归根到底的决定作用歪曲为唯一决定作用
D.把意识形态对社会历史始终具有的积极能动作用歪曲为消极被动作用
19.人们往往将汉语中的“价”、“值”二字与金银财宝等联系起来,而这两字的偏旁却都是“人”,示意价
值在“人”。马克思劳动价值论透过商品交换的物与物的关系,揭示了商品价值的科学内涵,其主要观点有
劳动是社会财富的唯一源泉
B.具体劳动是商品价值的实体
C.价值是凝结在商品中的一般人类劳动
D.价值在本质上体现了生产者之间的社会关系
20.关于共产主义理想实现的必然性,马克思主义除了从社会形态更替规律上作了一般性的历史观论证外还通
过对资本主义社会的深入实证的剖析,科学地论证了()
A.资本主义的历史暂时性
B.资本主义发展的自我否定的趋势
C.资本主义的具体途径和方式
工人阶级推翻旧世界建设新世界的历史使命
21.从中华人民共和国成立到社会主义改造基本完成,是我国从新民主主义到社会主义的过度时期。这一时期
中国社会的阶级构成主要包括(
A.工人阶级B.农民阶级C.民族资产阶级D.城市小资产阶级
22.加快转变经济发展方式是推动科学发展的必由之路,是我国经济社会领域的一场深刻变革,贯穿经济社会
发展全过程和各领域。在当前和今后一个时期,转变经济发展方式的基本思路是,促进经济增长()
A.由主要依靠投资、出口拉动向依靠消费、投资、出口协调拉动转变
B.由主要依靠第二产业带动向依靠第一、第二、第三产业协同带动转变
C.由主要依靠国有企业推动向依靠国有企业、民营企业、外资企业协调推动转变
D.由主要依靠增加物质资源消耗向主要依靠科技进步、劳动者素质提高、管理创新转变
23.基层民主是我国广大工人、农民、知识分子和各阶层人士在城乡基层政权机关、企事业单位和基层自治组
织中依法直接行使民主权利。发展基层民主
A.有利于提高全民的民族素养,为进一步发展民主创造了条件
B.是发展社会主义民主的基础性工程
C.为基层群众直接参与国家事务的管理提供了更多机会
D.为基层群众管理基层公共事务和公益事业创造了条件
24.十七大以来,党对兴起社会主义文化建设新高潮,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣作出战略部署,这是基
A.文化已经成为经济社会发展的强大动力
B.文化已经成为国家核心竞争力的重要因素
C.文化产业已经成为国家经济的支柱性产业
D.文化已经成为民族凝聚力和创造力的重要源泉
25.随着我国改革开放的不断深入和社会主义市场经济的不断发展,各种社会矛盾日益凸显。解决这些社会矛
盾,改革创新社会管理体制,需要
A.健全社会管理格局
B.健全基层社会管理体制
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C.创新社会管理理念
创新社会管理方式
26.中英《南京条约》签订后,美、法趁火打劫,相继逼迫清政府签订的不平等条约有
A.《虎门条约》B.《望厦条约》C.《黄埔条约》D.《天津条约》
27.第二次鸦片战争后,清朝统治集团内部一部分人震惊于列强的“船坚炮利”,主张学习西方以求“自强”
洋务运动由此兴起。洋务运动的一个重要内容就是创办新式学堂,主要有()
A.翻译学堂B.工艺学堂C.军事学堂D.法政学堂
28.一般说来,游击战争是个战术问题。但是,在抗日战争中,游击战争具有战略地位,是因为它
A.主要是在外线单独作战,而不是在内线配合正规军作战
B.是抗日战争的主要作战方式,而不是次要作战方式
是大规模的,而不是小规模的
D.是进攻战,而不是防御战
29.1957年2月,毛泽东在扩大的最高国务会议上发表(关于正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题)的讲话,强调
指出()
A.社会主义社会充满着矛盾
B.社会主义社会的基本矛盾仍然是生产关系和生产力之间、上层建筑和经济基础之间的矛盾
C.社会主义社会的矛盾可以通过社会主义制度本身得到解决
把正确处理人民内部矛盾作为国家政治生活的主题
30.社会主义法治理念反映和指引着社会主义法治的性质、功能、目标方向、价值取向和实现途径,是社会主
义法治的精髓和灵魂。其基本内涵包括依法治国、执法为民和()
A.公平正义B.自由平等C.服务大局D.觉的领导
n.
31.爱国主义体现了人民群众对自己祖国的深厚感情,反映了个人对祖国的依存关系,是人们对自己故土家园、
族和文化的归属感、认同感、尊严感与荣誉感的统一。在我国,爱国主义
A.既是道德要求,又是法律规范
B.既继承了优良传统,又具有时代特征
C.体现了爱国主义与爱社会主义的一致性
D.体现了爱国主义与拥护祖国统一的一致性
胡锦涛总书记《在庆祝中国共产党成立90周年大会上的讲话》中指出,经过90年的奋斗、创造、积累
党和人民必须倍加珍惜、长期坚持、不断发展的成就是(
A.开辟了中国特色社会主义道理
B.形成了中国特色社会主义理论体系
C.确立了中国特色社会主义制度
D.建成了中国特色社会主义现代化国家
33.2011年11月28日—12月1日,《联合国气候变化框架公约》缔约方会议在南非德班举行。尽管对部分
焦点议题分歧严重,但在各方共同努力下,大会取得了一些重要成果,包括
A.达成涵盖所有缔约方的“国际法律框架
B.成立“德班增强行动平台特设工作组”
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C.继续《京都议定书》第二承诺期
D.正式启动“绿色气候基金”
分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在答
题纸指定位置上
34.结合材料回答问题
材料
有个人不小心打碎一个花瓶,但他没有陷入沮丧,而是细心地收集起满地的碎片。他把这些碎片按大小
分类称出重量,结果发现:10~100克的最少,1~10克的稍多,0.1~1克和0.1克以下的最多;同时他还
发现这些碎片的重量之间存在着倍数关系,即较大块的重量是次大块的重量的16倍……因此他发现了“碎花
瓶理论”。这个理论可以帮助人们恢复文物、陨石等不知其原貌的物体,给考古和天体的研究带来了意想不
到的效果。这个人就是丹麦的物理学家雅各布·博尔
摘编自《光明日报》(2011年2月21日)
材料2
迪迪·艾伦年轻时到一家电影公司打工,跟着知名电影剪辑师罗伯特·怀斯学习。她在给电影《江湖浪
子》剪辑时,犯了一个非常不应该的错误:在从一个镜头切换到另一个镜头时,第一个镜头中的声音竞然延
续到第二个镜头中去,并且长达三秒钟,导致的结局:主人公驾驶汽车逐渐远去,镜头随之切换到达的目的
地场景,而这时依旧可以听见第一个镜头中的汽车声!罗伯特·怀斯非常生气,他把这段影片往艾伦面前
扔说:“把你所犯的错误剪掉!”艾伦沮丧极了,正在她准备剪去自己所犯的那个“错误”时,她忽然看见
窗台上的一个小盆景,那是一株地莓,她曾经生长在艾伦家的园子里。只是别的地莓都能长出又甜又红的果
实,唯独这株地莓不会结果,可它虽然不会结果,却能开出特别鲜红的花朵!所以艾伦把它移植到了这里,
成了一道美丽的风景!如果说不会结果是一种“错误”,但就在这种错误中,它却开出了最美丽的花!想到
这里,艾伦怦然心动,她开始重新审视起那段影片,猛然意识到:这个错误的本身,其实就是一朵最美丽的
地莓花!按照传统的技法,在镜头切换的同时声音也随之戛然而止,艾伦却把声音延续到第二个镜头中,而
这不仅能巧妙栎合由镜头切换而产生的断裂感,还能更加有序地连贯电影节奏!艾伦由此想到,有些时候
把第二个镜头中的声音提前一点出现在第一个镜头的结尾处,也是一种能巧妙显示电影节奏的手法。于是,
她把这种“错位剪辑”用到了这部影片的每一个切换的镜头中。影片上映后,这种剪辑效果让所有观众耳目
一新,并引起了电影同行的关注和沿用,一场电影剪辑艺术的革新悄悄开始了!当86岁高龄的艾伦病逝后
人们对艾伦的人生态度和对电影的贡献作了这样的总结:“她深信这个世界上没有真正的错误,只有被忽略
的智慧!即便是一株无法结出果实的地莓,也不要轻易扔掉,因为它可能会开出最美丽的花朵
摘编自《扬子晚报》(2011年6月27日)
(1)从打碎花瓶这一现象中所概括岀的“碎花瓶理论”为什么能帮助人们恢复文物、陨石等不知原貌的物

(②)如何理解“这个世界上没有真正的错误,只有被忽略的智慧”
(3)上述两例对我们增强创新意识有何启示?
ⅰ合材料回答问题
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材料1
十一届全国人大常委会第二十次会议初次审议的《中华人民共和国个人所得税法修正案(草案)》将个
人所得税免征额由现行的每月2000元调至3000元。随后,全国人大常委会通过中国人大网向社会公开征求
意见,共收到82707人提出的意见23万余件。82536人对个人所得税起征点发表意见,其中要求提高起征点
的意见高达83%
011年5月10日和20日,全国人大法律委员会、财政经济委员会和全国人大常委会法制工作委员会联
合召开座谈会,还分别听取11位专家和16位来自不同地区、不同职业、不同收入群体具有一定代表性的社
会公众对草案的意见
6月27日,个法修正案草案再次提交全国人大常委会审议时,二审稿对3000元起征点仍未作修改。在
审议过程中,有委员表示,网上征求意见中,要求提高起征点的占83%。对如此集中的意见,草案未充分回
应,很难向公众解释清楚。更有委员指出,个人所得税法不是5000元、3000元的问题,而是如何更认真地
对待群众意见和老百姓的关注问题。
6月30日,全国人大常委会第二十一次会议以134票赞成、6票反对、11票弃权,决定对《中华人民共
和国个人所得税法》作如下修改:一、第三条第一项修改为:“工资、薪金所得,适用超额累进税率,税率
为百分之三至百分之四十五
第六条第一款第一项修改为:“工资、薪金所得,以每月收入额减除费
用三千五百元后的余额,为应纳税所得额。
摘编自中国人大网(2011年6月30日、2011年7月1日)
材料
此次个人所得税法的修改将在社会生活中发挥积极作用。首先,大幅度减轻中低收入纳税群体的负担。
方面,减除费用标准由2000元提髙到3500元后,纳税人纳税负担普遍减轻。工薪收入者纳税面调整后
纳税人数由约8400万人减至约200万人。另一方面,通过调整工薪所得税率结构,使绝大部分工薪所得纳
税人在享受提高减除费用标准的同时,进一步减轻税负。这两个措施是不一样的,减除费用的提高是普惠
通过税率级距调整进行结构性的变化,是使中低收入纳税群体在减税的基础上进一步减税。此外,适当扩大
低档税率和最高档税率的适用范围,使低税率向大部分纳税人倾斜。其次,适当加大对髙收入者的调节力度。
实行提高工薪所得减除费用标准和调整工薪所得税率结构变化联动,能够使一部分高收λ者在抵消减除用
标准提髙得到的减税好处以后,适当增加一些税负。
摘编自中国人大网(2011年6月30日)
(1)此次个税法修改过程如何体现了中国特色社会主义民主?(5分)
(2)结合此次个税法的修改,分析当前我国收入分配制度改革的趋向和合理调整收入分配格局的要求(5分)
36.结合材料回答问题:
材料1
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余维欧美之进化,凡以三大主义:曰民族、曰民权、曰民生。罗马之亡,民族主义兴,而欧洲各国以
独立。洎自帝其国,威行专制,在下者不堪其苫,则民权主义起。十八世纪之末,十九世纪之初,专制仆而
立宪政体殖焉。世界开化,人智益蒸,物质发舒,百年锐于千载,经济问题继政治问题之后,则民生主义跃
跃然动,二十世纪不得不为民生主义之擅场时代也。是三大主义皆基本于民,递变易,而欧洲之人种胥治化

“中国数千年来都是君主专制政体,这种政体,不是平等自由的国民所堪受的,要去这种政体,不是专
靠民族革命可以成功……我们推到满洲政府,从驱除满人那一面说是民族革命,从颠覆君主政体那一面说是
政治革命,并不是把来分作两次去做。讲到那政治革命的结果,是建立民主政体立宪政体。照现在这样的政
治论起来,就算汉人为君主,也不能是革命
摘自《孙中山全集》第一卷
材料2
一百年以来,我们的先人以不屈不挠的斗争反对内外压迫者,从来没有停止过,其中包括伟大的中国革
命先行者孙中山先生所领导的辛亥革命在内,我们的先人指示我们,叫我们完成他们的遗志我们现在是这样
做了.我们团结起来,以人民解放战争和人民大革命打倒了内外压迫者,宣布中华人民共和国成立了.我们的民
族将从此列入爱好和平自由的世界各民族的大家庭,以勇敢而勤劳的姿态工作着,创造自己的文明和幸福,同
时也促进世界的和平和自由我们的民族将再也不是一个被人侮辱的民族了,我们已经站起来了
摘自《毛泽东文集》第五卷
(1)如何理解“就算汉人为君主,也不能不革命”?(5分)
(2)为什么说中国共产党人是孙中山开创的革命事业“最忠实的继承者”?(5分)
37.结合材料回答问题:
新年不欠旧年账,今生不欠来生债”,这是孙东林和哥哥孙水林的共同准则。1989年,孙东林与哥哥
孙水林一同组建起建筑队伍,开始在北京、河南等地承接建筑工程和装饰工程。此后的20年中,无论遇到什
么状况,孙东林从未拖欠过工人的工资。有时工程款不能及时拿到,他四处借钱,也要坚持将工资发放。他
说,“诚信,是为人之道,也是立足之本。”
2010年2月9日,在天津承包建筑工程的孙水林,为抢在春节前赶回武汉给先期返乡的农民工发放工资,
不顾路途遥远、天气恶劣,连夜赶路千里送薪。不料,2月10日凌晨遭遇车祸,一家五口不幸遇难。得知噩
耗,孙东林悲痛不已。为了替哥哥完成遗愿,他带上哥哥车上的26万元钱,连续驱车15小时,返乡代兄为
农民工发放工资。两天未合眼的孙东林流着汨眼赶回家中,和老人商议决定,先替哥哥完成遗愿,年前发完
工钱再办丧事。他自己垫上6万以后,还差1万多元。这个时候,他们的老母亲拿着1万块现金交到儿子手
上。这可是老人家的养老钱呀!
随后,孙家立即让工友互相通知上门领钱。发工资的时候,孙东林和工友们找不到账单,都是凭着一本
良心账”,工友们说多少,孙东林就给多少。腊月二十九晚上,33.6万元工钱全部发完,竟与哥哥遇难前
哥俩说过的数额相差无几。69名拿着工钱的工友对孙东林说:“明年我们跟你接着干
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(1)基于“信义兄弟”这个事例,怎样理解诚信及其道德力量?(6分)
(2)在法律关系中,为什么也要坚守诚信?(4分)
38.阅读下列材料
材料1
纽约曼哈顿的时报广场,被称为“世界的十字路口”。在胡锦涛主席2011年访美前夕,从1月17日起
抹亮丽的“中国红”在这里明艳绽放——首都中国国家形象片《人物篇》在时报广场的大屏幕上持续滚动
播放,路人纷纷驻足观看。
在这段时长60秒的宣传片中,不仅有袁隆平、杨利伟、姚明等各领域杰出代表,还有“轮椅天使”金晶
“抗震小英雄”林浩、“一辈子在献血”的郭明义等感动中国的普通百姓。他们都面带微笑,神色自信,于
静默之间传递着中国的声音
历史翻回到1904年5月的一天,在一家银行的外墙,贴出了时报广场上的第一张广告。100多年来,这
里广告的每一次变幻刷新,都展示着时代的表情。可是在这当中,鲜有中国人的面孔和身影。百年沧桑,终
以微笑定格,来到“世界的十字路口”,中国人自信、平和、友好
摘编自人民网(2011年1月20日)

材料2
作为《人物篇》的姐妺篇,一部时长1ˆ分钟的中国国家形象片《角度篇》自2011年2月3日起将陆续
在亚洲、欧美等地的多家电视台播出。《角度篇》分为“开放而有自信”、“发展而能共享”等8个部分,
向世界展现了一个更丰富、多元的中国,其中70%以上的画面呈现的都是中国普通老百姓的生活。值得一提
的是,它没有回避中国目前存在的一些问题,农民工及其家属的生存现状在片中多次出现。这部国家形象片
看似一些“视觉碎片”,但能够让世人从中读出一个比较真实、鲜活的当代中国。
摘编自新华网(2011年2月2日)
材料3
从2009年“中国制造世界合作”的广告片,到2011年的国家形象宣传片《人物篇》和《角度篇》,如
此几种地向西方展示中国国家形象还是第一次。有评论认为,这几步短片展示了中国人民的勤劳智慧和精神
风貌,每个人的笑容都那么阳光,让人油然而生到中国看看的愿望;还有人认为,这是“中国国际形象公关”
的又一次主动出击,愈趋自信的中国主动向世界展示自己,中国开始步入“国家公关时代”;也有报道说
中国的宣传片是中国国家领导人出访之前的“盛大派对”,展示了中国的软实力
摘编自人民网(2011年1月20日)
(1)分析“中国开始步入‘国家公关时代’”的原因。(4分)
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(2)国家形象宣传对提升中国软实力有何作用?(4分)

2011年考研思想政治理论试题
CO
单项选择题:1~16题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项符合题目要
求的
、我国数学家华罗庚再一次报告中以“一支粉笔多长为好”为例来讲解他所倡导的选法,对此,他解释道:
每支粉笔都要丢掉一段一定长的粉笔头,但就这一点来说愈长愈好。但太长了,使用起来很不方便,而且
容易折断。每断一次,必然多浪费一个粉笔头,反而不合适。因为就出现了粉笔多长最合适的问题—这就
是一个优选问题,所谓优选问题,从辩证法的角度看,就是要()
A.注重量的积累B.保持事物质的稳定性C.坚持适度原则D.全面考虑事物属性的多样性
2、社会存在是指社会的物质生活条件,它有多方面的内容,其中最能集中体现人类社会性质的是:()
社会形态
地理环境C.人口因素
生产方式
3、马克思把商品转換成货币称为“商品的惊险的跳跃”,“这个跳跃如果不成熟,坏的不是商品,但一定是商
品占有者”。这是因为只有商品变为货币()
货币才能转化为资本
B.价值才能转化为使用价值
C.抽象劳动才能转化为具体劳动
D.私人劳动才能转化为社会劳动
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4、邓小平指出:“社会主义究竟是个什么样子,苏联搞了很多年,也并没有搞清楚,可能列宁的思路比较好,
搞了个新经济政策,但是最后苏联模式僵化了”,列宁新经济政策关于社会主义的思路之所以“比较好”是因
为:()
A.提出了比较系统的社会主义建设纲领
B.根据俄国的实际情况来探索社会主义建设的道路
为俄国找到一种比较成熟的社会主义发展模式
D.按照马克思恩格斯关于未来的设想来建设社会主义
5、1927年大革命失败后,党的工作重心开始转向农村,在农村建立革命根据地,则革命根据地能够在中国
长期存在和发展的根本原因是
A.中国是一个政治、经济、文化皆发展不平衡的半殖民地半封建社会
B.良好的群众基础和革命形势的继续向前发展
相当力量正式红军的存在
D.党的领导及其正确的政策
6、社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度,既包括公有制经济,也包括非公有制经济,把非公有制经济纳入社会主
义初级阶段基本经济制度中,是因为非公有制经济()
A.是社会主义性质的经济成分
B.是社会主义经济的重要组成部分
C.是为社会主义服务的经济成分
D.在社会主义初级阶段不占主体地位
7、党的十七大通过的党章把“和谐”与“富强民主文明”一起作为社会主义现代化建设的目标写入了社
会主义初级阶段的基本路线,其原因在于社会和谐是()
A.中国特色社会主义的本质属性
B.中国传统文化的价值取向
C.经济建设的内在要求
D.解决收入分配差距的重要
M
8、深化文化体制改革,要坚持公益性文化事业和经营性文化产业协调发展。发展经营性文化产业的根本任务
A.繁荣文化市场,满足人民群众多方面多层次多样化的文化需求
保障人民群众基本的文化权益
C.构建覆盖全社会的比较完备的公共文化服务体系
D.加快文化产业基地和区域性特色文化产业群建设
9、从1984年到1989年的80年间,中国人民对外来的侵略进行了英勇顽强发的反抗,但历次的反侵略战争,
都是以中国的失败,中国政府被迫签订丧权辱国条约而告终,从中国内部分析,其根本原因是:()
A.军事战略错误B.社会制度的腐败C.经济技术的落后D.思想观念的保守
10、1953年9月,彭德怀在一份报告中说,抗美援朝战争的胜利证明:西方侵略者几百年来只要在东方一个
海岸上架起几尊大炮就可霸占一个国家的时代一去不复返了。这场战争的胜利:()
A.结束了西方列强霸权主义的历史
B.打破了美国军队不可战胜的神话
C.奠定了民族独立人民解放的基础
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D.赢得了近代以来中华民族反抗外敌入侵的第一次完全胜利
11、社会主义法律在国家和社会生活中的权威和尊严是建设社会主义法治国家的重要条件。法律权威是就国
家和社会管理过程中法律的地位和作用而言的,是指:()
A.法徳强制性B.法德不可抗性C.法的合理性D.法的规范性
12、法律的指引作用主要是通过授权性规范、禁止性规范和义务性规范三种规范形式来实现的,其中,义务
性规范是告诉人们:()
A.不得或者不准做什么
B.可以或者有权做什么
C.应当或者必须做什么
D.能够或者不能做什么
13、道德的功能是指道德作为社会意识的特殊形式对于社会发展所具有的功能,其中最突出也是最重要的社
会功能是()。
A.辩护功能B.沟通功能C.调节功能D.激励功能
14、理想作为一种精神现象,是人类社会实践的产物。理想源于现实,又超越现实,在现实中有多种类型
从层次上划分,理想有(
A.个人理想和社会理想
B.道德理想和政治理想
C.生活理想和职业理想
D.崇高理想和一般理想
C(n
15、2010年10月1日,“嫦娥二号”卫星在西昌卫星发射中心发射升空并成功奔月,实现了我国()。
A.深空探测“零的突破
B.首次月球软着陆和自动巡视勘测
C.首次月球样品自动取样返回探
D.运载火箭直接将卫星发射至
manin.
2003年3月,美国率其盟友发动了长达7年之久的对伊拉克战争,给伊人民造成了慎重灾难。2010年
月19日,美军最后一批作战部队从伊拉克撤离。这表明,美国在多重压力下
A.调整军事部署
改变先发制人战略
C.专项木土反恐为主
D.放弃单边主义
、多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合
题目要求的。多选或少选均不得分
17、1971年迪斯尼乐园的路径设计获得了“世界最佳设计”奖,设计师格罗培斯格却说:“其实那不是我的
设计”,原因是在迪斯尼乐园主题工程完后,格罗培斯格暂停修乐园里的道路,并在空地上洒上草种,五个月
后,乐园里绿草茵茵,草地上被游客走岀了不少宽窄不一定的小路,格罗培斯格根据这些行人踏出来的小路
铺设了人行道,成了“优雅自然、简洁便利、个性突出”的优秀设计,格罗培斯格设计智慧我们认识和实践
活动的启示:()
A.要从生活实践中获取灵感
B.要尊重群众的实践需求
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C.不要对自然事物作任何改变
C.要对事物本来面目做直观反应
18、在资本主义社会里,银行垄断资本和工业垄断资本密切地融合在一起,产生了一种新型的垄断资本,即
金融资本。在金融资本形成的基础上,产生了金融寡头。金融寡头操纵,控制社会的主要方式有()。
A.通过“参与制”实现其在经济领域中的统治
B.通过同政府的“个人联合”实现其对国家机器的控制
C.通过政策咨询机构影响和左右内外政策
D.通过新闻媒体实现国民思想意识的统一性
19、2008年由美国次贷危机引发了全球性的经济危机,很多西方人感叹这一经济危机,从根本上仍未超出
百多年前马克思在《资本论》对资本主义经济危机的精辟分析,马克思对资本主义经济危机科学分析的原创
性主要是()
指明经济危机的实质是生产相对过剩
B.提示造成相对过剩的制度原因是生产资料的资本主义私有制
C.指出经济危机的深层根源是人性的贪婪
D.强调政府对经济危机的干预是摆脱经济危机的根本岀路
20、19世纪中叶,马克思恩格斯把社会主义由空想变为科学,奠定这一飞跃的理论基石是()
A.阶级斗争说
B.劳动价值论
C.唯物史观
D.剩余价值论
Oc(n
21、在社会主义中国化的过程中,产生了毛泽东思想和中国特色社会主义理论体系,这两大理论体系一脉相
承主要体现在,二者具有共同的()
A.马克思主义的理论基础
B.革命和建设的根本任务
C.实事求是的理论基础

D.和平与发展的时代背景
社会主义市场经济体制是社会主义基本制度与市场经济的融合,这一特点既具有社会主义制度特征,又
具有市场经济的一般特征。社会主义市场经济体制体现社会主义制度特征的方面主要表现在()
A.在所有制机构上,以公有制为主体、多有制经济共同发展
B.在分配制度上,以按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存
C.在宏观调控上,以实现最广大劳动人民的利益为出发点和归宿
D.在资源配置上,以市场为手段,市场的基础性作用
23、毛泽东指出:“国家的统一,人民的团结,国内各民族的团结,这是我们争取一定要胜利的基本保证。”
这一思想对于我们在新的历史条件下处理民族关系方面的意义有()
A.民族关系始终是我们这个多民族国家至关重要的政治和社会关系
B.民族问题始终是建设中国特色社会主义必须认真解决的一个重大问
C.巩固和发展各民族的团结关系到国家统一和边疆巩固
D.加强和巩固各民族的团结是实现中华民族伟大复兴的必然要求
24、改革、发展、稳定好比现代化建设棋盘上的三个紧密关联的战略性棋子,第一步下好了,相互促进,就
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会全局皆活:如果有一着下不好,其他两步也会进入困境,还可能全局受挫。改革开放以来,党在处理改革、
发展、稳定关系方面积累需要原则包括()
A.保持改革、发展、稳定在动态中的相互协调和相互促进
B.把实现社会稳定座位促进改革、发展的根本出发点
C.把改革的力度、发展的速度和社会可以承受的程度统一起来
D.把不断改善人民生活作为处理改革、发展、稳定关系的重要结合点
25、做大分好社会财富这个“蛋糕”始终是我国政府面临的重大任务。做大“蛋糕”是政府的责任,分好“蛋
糕”是政府的良知、合理调整收入分配关系、分好社会财富这个“蛋糕”是:()
A.实现社会公平的重要体现
B.解决当前收入分配领域突出问题的需要
C.实现共同富裕的内在要求
D.为了使人民共享改革发展的成果
26、辛亥革命是我国近代史上一次比较完全意义上的资产阶级民主革命,这次革命()
A.提出了平均地权,耕者有其田的重要原则
B.建立了中国近代史上第一个资产阶级政党
C.制定了比较完整的资产阶级民主革命纲领
D.结束了封建君主专制制度,建立了资产阶级共和国
27、第二次世界大战期间,明确规定将台湾、澎湖列岛归还中国的有关的是:
A.《德黑兰宣言》
B.《开罗宣言》
C.《雅尔塔协定》
D.《波茨坦公告》
28、延安整风运功是一场伟大的思想解放运动。这一运动最主要的任务是反对主观主义。主观主义的主要表
现形式为
A.教条主义
B.形式主义
C.经验主义
D.宗派主义
29、中国共产党根据马克思列宁主义关于农业社会主义改造的思想,从我国的实际出发,开创了一条有中国
特色的合作化道路,成功地实现了对个体农业的社会主义改造,其历史经验主要有()
A.国家用先进的技术和装备发展农业经济
B.遵循自愿互利、典型示范和国家帮助的原则
C.在土地改革后不失时机地引导个体农民走互助合作道路
D.采取从互助到初级社再到高级社的逐渐过渡形式
30、刑法的基本原则是指刑法特有的在刑法的立法、解释和适用过程中所必须的具有全局性、根本性的准则,
我国刑法明文规定的基本原则有()
A.罪刑法定原则
B.疑罪从无原则
C.罪刑相当原则
D.适用刑法一律平等原则
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31、有位科学家曾说过:“法律必须被信仰,否则等于形同虚设。”这句话表明一个人只有从内心深处真正认
信任和信仰法律,才会自觉维护法律的权威,由此可得()
A.法律的内在说服力是法律权威的内在基础
B.法律权威不可能完全建立在外在强制力的基础之上
法律信仰与宗教信仰没有本质的区别
D.法律信仰是法律制定和执行的根本依据
、2010年10月15日至18日,中国共产党第十七届中央委员会第五次全体会议在京举行,全会审议通过
的《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十二五个建设的建议》强调,在当代中国,坚持发展是硬道理
的本质要求,就是坚持社会主义更加关注:()
A.以人为本
全面协调可持续发展
统筹兼顾
D.保障和改善民生,促进社会公平公正
2010年4月13日,胡锦涛主席在核安全峰会上发表题为《携手应对核安全挑战、共同促进和平与发展
的讲话,强调中国本着负责的态度,高度重视核安全,坚决反对核扩散和核恐怖主义,为此作出了一系列积
极努力,其中包括()
A.全面加强核安全能力
B.严格履行核安全国际义务
C.重视并积极参与国际核安全合作
D.积极向发展中国家提供核安全援助

三、分析题:34-38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料。将答案写在答题纸指定位
置上。
34、结合材料回答问题
人类每天都在产生拉圾、垃圾总量天比天多,由此带来的问题非常棘手,不产生垃圾是不可能的
既然如此,那就退而求其次,倡导大家减少垃圾,然而减到多少才是少?这里并没有一个标准,而且从总体上
看,生产和消费必然产生垃圾,减少垃圾很可能抑制生产和消费,接着往后退,把垃圾收集起来瑱埋或焚烧
但填埋只是把垃圾从地上转移到地下,既与人争地,也有再次污染土壤和水源的隐患,焚烧不过是把污染从
地上转移到空中,产生二恶英等有害物质。
于是,人们进一步追问:还有没有比填埋、焚烧更好的出路?一句“垃圾是放错地方的资源”让人茅塞顿
开,垃圾可以回收利用,乃再生资源。但变废为“宝”前提是垃圾的有效投放—别把垃圾放错了地方,何谓
放错?到处乱扔是放错,不同的垃圾搅混在一起也是放错,不同的垃圾只有不同的地方放,才能实现资源的价
值,投放避免不了要填埋,焚烧那些没有利用价值的垃圾,也得把他们分出来
垃圾分类举手之劳换岀绿色,好处多多不言而喻,但如何让人们乐而为久,今年5月起,上海开始普遍
推广新的垃圾分类理念,开展以“提升更绿色的上海”为主题的“绿色账户活动”何为“绿色账户”?这是居
民对垃圾分类回收,积分换取环保小礼品:再生纸笔记本,绿色小植物,环保手电筒..,,上海推出"绿色账
户”实现模式,办法是可以想岀来的,关键是愿不愿意琢磨,中国的垃圾问题不比哪个国家小,我们只呢“没
有退路就多想出路
(1)从实践是人和自然关系的基础的角度说明为什么“垃圾是放错地方的资源?”(5分)
(2)运用矛盾分析方法说明“没有退路就多想出路”(5分)
35、结合材料问答问题:
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材料1
成思危,著名经济学家,原民建中央主席,九届、十届全国人大常委会副委员长。谈到我国政党制度,
他深有体会地说:“西方的政党制度是”打橄榄球,一定要把对方压倒。我们的政党制度是“唱大合唱”,民
主党派和中国共产党的合作共事是为了一个共同的目标,为了保持社会的和谐。要大合唱,就要有指挥,这
个指挥无论从历史还是现实来看,都只有中国共产党才能胜任。”海外有评论说中国的民主党派人士在政府任
职多是“坐虚位”、“无实权”,成思危说,这不符合实际情况,中国的民主党派不是“政治花瓶”。“在担任化
工部副部长的时候,我对自己负责范围内的工作是完全有权作出决策的。作为全国人大常会副委员长,我负
责证券法、农村金融的执法检查。我和中共党籍的副委员长一样,也是独当一面的。”
材料2
第十一届全国人大一次会议以来,全国共有18.7万民主党派、无党派人士当选各级人大代表。其中
全国人大常委员副委员长6人,省级人大常委会副主任35人。2人分别担任国务院科技部、卫生部部长。2007
年有18人担任最高人民法院、最高人民检察院和中央国家机关部委领导职务副职。
20世纪90年代以来,中共中央加强同各民主党派的协商,内容不断充实,程序逐步规范。据统计,1990
年至2009年6月,中共中央、国务院直接召开或委托有关部门召开的协商会、座谈会、情况通报会就有287
次,其中,中共中央总书记主持召开或出席的就有85次。各民主党派中央、无党派代表人士向中共中央、国
务院及有关方面提出建议260多项,各民主党派地方组织提出各项建议9万多项。如关于三峡工程、耕地保
护、两岸“三通”、西部大开发、中部崛起、东北地区等老工业基地振兴、建设社会主义新农村、青藏铁路沿
线发展、国家级综合配套改革实验区、实施可持续发展战略、制定和实施“十一五”规划等方面提出的建议
得到了中共中央、国务院的高度重视和采纳
材料1、材料2摘编自《光明日报》
(1)从“打橄榄球”和“唱大合唱”的形象比较中,说明我国政党制度的特点和优点。(5分)
(2)我国各民主党派在社会主义建设中如何发挥参政议政的作用?(5分)
36、结合材料回答问题
材料1
2011年是中国共产党成立90周年。在这90年里,党走过了不平凡的历程
中华人民共和国成立前夕,毛泽东在篇文章中指出:“一九七年的俄国革命唤醒了中国人,中国人学
得了一样新的东西,这就是马克思列宁主义。中国产生了共产党,这是开天辟地的大事变
摘自《毛泽东选集》
材料2
最近,有一本名为《苦难辉煌》的党史专著,颇受广大读者欢迎
在这部著作中,作者一再追
为什么中国共产党从最初的几十个人,仅仅经过20多年的发展,就打败了强大的对手,取得了辉煌的胜
利,建立了新中国?
历史给国民党很多机会,却只给共产党很少机会,但是共产党抓住了这仅有的机会,实现了中国革命的
胜利。这又是为什么?
中国共产党从几十人的小党发展到今天7000多万人的大党,中国人民解放军从南昌起义后剩下不到800
人到今天的威武雄狮,党和军队为何由小到大,由弱到强,筚路蓝缕,披荆斩棘?中国共产党的力量来自哪
里?中国人民解放军的力量来自哪里?
作者回答:我们拥有一批顶天立地的真人。他们不为钱,不为官,不怕苦,不怕死,只为胸中的主义和
中的信仰
摘编自《人民日报》、《光明日报》
(1)为什么说中国共产觉的成立“是开天辟地的大事变?(4分)
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(2)结合中国共产党成立以来中国社会变革的历程,说明“主义”和“信仰”是怎样成为“力量”的(6分)
37、结合材料回答问题:
郭明义,鞍山钢铁集团矿山公司齐大山铁矿采场公路管理员。几十年来,他照着雷锋那样去倣,“把雷锋
的道路作为自己的人生选择,把雷锋的境界作为自己的人生追求”,连续15年每天提前2小时上班,相当于
多奉献了5年的工作量;连续20年先后55次无偿献血、捐献血小板,累计近6万毫升;连续16年为希望工
程、工友、灾区群众捐款12万元,资助180多名特困生。可是,他一家至今还是住在一间不过40平米的旧
楼房里
有人曾不解地问郭明义,你这么做究竞值不值得?“如果发岀一点光,放出一点热,能够換来孩子幸福
的笑脸,换来他人生命之花的绽放,换来人与人之间的温暖和谐,这样的人生,我无怨无悔!”“给人温暖就
是给自己幸福”。他是这样说的,也是这样做的。
30年来,郭明义就像一支火把燃烧着自己,也燃旺着志愿者和社会上更多人的爱心。他8次发起捐献造
血干细胞的倡议,得到1700多人的响应;他7次发起献血的建议,600多人无偿献出15万毫升热血;他发
起成立遗体(器官)捐献志愿者俱乐部,汇聚了20多名志愿者;他发起成立“郭明义爱心联队”,从12人
已经发展到2800多人,捐款40余万元、资助特困生1000多名。
郭明义的精神是一块磁石,在鞍钢、在辽宁、在全国吸引汇集越来越多的人加入爱心行动,为他人奉献
为社会分忧、为国家尽责,凝聚成巨大的道德力量,推进着当代中国社会稳定和谐发展。郭明义的先进事迹
体现了“简单中的伟大”。
摘编自《人民日报》
(1)如何理解“给人温暖就是给自己幸福”?(6分)
(2)为什么说郭明义的先进事迹是“简单中的伟大”?(4分)

38、阅读下列材料
金融危机发生后,某些西方国家的政要、媒体经常发表关于中国的言论,有“独秀”或“救世”之说、
也有“责任”之论……林林总总,用词翻新。人们可看到一白一红“两张脸”:唱红脸者夸大中国的经济表现
动辄将一切不符合实际加诸中国,仿佛中国真的是世界经济的救世主。唱白脸者却将国际金融危机,全球失
衡等责任归到中国头上,无论是明“捧”实“压”,还是借“批”卸“责”,万变不离其宗的都是鼓噪“中国
责任论”。这既暴露出他们所谓“中国责任”的用心,也反映出其对“真实中国”的误解
针对材料所反映的西方某些人士对中国的“捧”与“批”,谈谈什么是“真实的中国”以及中国的“责任
是什么。(10分)
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金融危机
中国是世界
全球失衡
经济“救世
都怪中国


2010年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1-16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题
目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑
1.1984年1月3日,意大利人卡内帕给恩格斯写信,请求他为即将在日内瓦出版的《新纪元》周刊的创刊号
题词,而且要求尽量用简短的字句来表述未来的社会主义纪元的基本思想,以区别于伟大诗人但丁的对旧纪
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元所作的一些人统治,另一些人受苦难”的界定。恩格斯回答说,这就是:“代替那存在着阶级和阶级对立的
资产阶级旧社会的,将是这样一个联合体,在那里,每个人的自由发展是一切人的自由发展的条件。”这段话
表明,马克思主义追求的根本价值目标是()
A.实现人的自由而全面的发展
B.实现人类永恒不变的普适价值
C.建立一个四海之内皆兄弟的大同世界
D.建立一个自由,平等,博爱的理性王国
2.有一则箴言:“在溪水和岩石的斗争中,胜利的总是溪水,不是因为力量,而是因为坚持。”坚持就是胜利”
的哲理在于(
A.必然性通过偶然性开辟道路
B.肯定中包含着否定的因素
C.量变必然引起质变
D.有其因必有其果
3.右边这张照片反映岀由于气候变暖,北极冰盖融化,致使北极熊无处可去的场景,颇具震撼力。它给我们
地球上的人类发出的警示是()
A.人与自然的关系成为人与人之间一切社会关系的核心
B.生态失衡已成为自然界自身周期演化不可逆转的趋势
C.自然地理环境已成为人类社会发展的根本决定力量
D.生态环境已日益成为人类反思自身活动的重要前提
4.劳动力成为商品是货币转化为资本的前提条件,这是因为(

A.资本家购买的是劳动力的价值
B.劳动力商品具有价值和使用价值
C.货币所有者购买的劳动力能够带来剩余价值
D.劳动力自身的价值能够在消费过程中转移到新的商品中去
51981年党的十一届六中全会通过《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的建议》对我国社会主要矛盾作了规范
的表述:“社会主义改造完成以后,我国所要解决的主要矛盾,是人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会
生产之间的矛盾。”我国社会主要矛盾的主要方面将长期是
A.生产力落后
B.生产力不断发展的要求
C.经济文化发展不平衡
D.人民日益增长的物质文化需要
6…发展才是硬道理”、“发展是党执政兴国的第一要务”、“发展是解决中国一切问题的总钥匙”,这是对社会主
义建设历史经验的深刻总结。中国解决所有问题的关键是要靠自己的发展,而发展的根本目的是()
A.增强综合国力
B.体现社会主义优越性
C.消灭剥削,消除两极分化
D.使人民共享发展成果,实现共同富裕
7.党的十七大报告指出,坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,关系人民群众切身利益和中华民族的生存发
展,必须把建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会放在工业化,现代人文发展战略的突出位置。建设资源节约型
社会的核心是
A.节约使用资源和提高能源资源利用效率
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B.加强减排和生态保护工作
C.限制能源开发和利用
D.发展循环经济
8.随着经济的快速发展和物质生活水平的提高。人们的精神文化需求日益增长,迫切要求通过深化体制改革
激发文化发展的活力,为人民群众提供更多更好的文化产品和文化服务,保障人民的基本文化权益。保障人
民基本文化权益的途径是()
A.繁荣社会主义文化,提高文化软实力
B.协调发展公益性文化事业,经营性文化产业
C.发展公益性事业,建立政府主导的公共文化体系
D.调动社会力量
9.“十月革命一声炮响给中国送来了马克思列宁主义”,五四运动后,马克思列宁主义得到广泛传播。在中国
最早讴歌十月革命、比较系统的介绍马克思主义的是()
A.陈独秀
B.李大钊
C.毛泽东
D.瞿秋白
10.1956年45月,毛泽东先后在中共中央政治局扩大会议和最高国务会议上作的《论十大关系》报告中指
出“最近苏联方面暴露了他们在建设社会主义过程中的一些缺点和错误,他们走过的弯路你还想走?过去,我
们就是鉴于他们的经验教训,少走了一些弯路,现在当然更要引以为戒”,这表明以毛泽东为主要代表的中共
党员()
A.实现了马克思主义同中国实际的第二次结合
B.开始探索自己的社会主义建设道路
C.开始找到自己的一条适合中国的路线
D.已经突破社会主义苏联模式的束缚
1l爱因斯坦曾经说过大多数人都以为是才智成就了科学家,他们错了,是品格”下列名言与这段话含义一致
的是()
A.道虽迩,不行不至;事虽小,不为不成
B.才者,德之资也;德者,才之帅也
C.不学礼,无以立
D.是非之心,智也
12.中华民族精神源远流长,包含着丰富的内容,其中,夸父追日、大禹治水、愚公移山、精卫填海等动人
的传说,其中体现的是中华民族精神的(
A.勤劳勇敢
B.团结统一
C.自强不息
D.爱好和平
13.2001年中共中央印发的《公民道德建设实施纲要》中规定了公民基本道德规范的主要内容。公民道德建
设的重点是:()
A.爱国守法
B.诚实守信
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C.勤奋自强
D.团结友善
14.我国宪法明确规定,实行依法治国建设社会主义法治国家。依法治国的根要是()
A.有法可依有法必依执法必严违法必究
保障公民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权
C.立法公开、执法公开、司法公
D.社会生活的法制化、规范化、民主化
15.2009年3月28日西藏自治区各族各界万余人身着节日盛装在拉萨布达拉宫广场隆重集会。热烈庆祝:(
A.西臧自治区和平解放58周年
B.西藏自治区成立44周年
C.西臧自治区九届人大二次会议召开
D.首个西藏百万农奴解放纪念日
16.胡锦涛主席在2009年9月二十国领导人比斯堡峰会上发表了题为“全力促进增长,推动平衡发展”的讲话
中指出:当前国际社会十分关注全球经济失衡问题,失衡的表现为部分国家储蓄消费失衡,贸易收支失衡更
表现为世界财富分配失衡,资源拥有和消费失衡,国际货币体系失衡。导致失衡的原因是复杂的多方面的,
从根本上看失衡原因是()
A.经济全球化深入发展,国际产业分工转移,国际资源流动
B.现行国际经济体系主要经济体宏观经济政策
C.各国消费文化主要生活方式
D.南北发展严重不平衡
多项选择题:1733题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合题
目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑,多选或少选均不得分
17.从上世纪70年代至今,商务印书馆先后出版了多个版本的《新华字典》,除了一些旧的词条,增加了
些新的词条,并对若干词条的词义给了修改。例如1971年版对科举这个词的解释是:”从隋唐到清代的封建
王朝为了维护其反动统治而设立分科考生文武官吏后备人员的制度”1992年版删去“反动字,1998版又删
去“为了维护其统治而设”直到2008年版删去了这句话。一本小字典记载着词语的发展变化也记录了时代前进
的印证,字典词条释义的变化表明人们的意识()
A.是客观世界的能动反映
B.取决于词语含义的改变
C.随着社会生活变化而变化
D.需要借助语言这一物质外壳表达出来
18.,历史经验表明经济危机往往孕育着新的科技革命,1857年世界经济危机引发了电气革命,推动人类社会从
蒸汽时代进入电气时代。1929年的世界经济危机,引发了电子革命推动人类社会从电气时代进入电子时代
由此证明()
A.科技革命是摆脱社会危机的根本出路
B.科学技术是社会形态更替的根本标志
C.社会实践的需要是科技发展的强大动力
D.科技创新能够推动社会经济跨越式发展
19.有一则寓言讲到:狐狸把鱼汤盛在平底的盘子里,请仙鹤来和它一起“平等”的喝鱼汤,结果仙鹤一点也
没喝到,全被狐狸喝去了。这个寓言给人们的启示是,尽管资产阶级宣布“法律面前人人平等”,但是(
A.法律名义上的平等掩盖着事实上的不平等
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B.这种形式上的平等既是资本主义的本质
C.它的实质是将劳资之间经济利益的不平等合法化
D.这种平等的权利是建立在财产不平等基础之上的权利
20.1989年,时任美国国务院顾问的弗朗西斯口福山抛出了所谓的“历史终结论”,认为西方实行的自由民主
制度是“人类社会形态进步的终点”和“人类最后一种的统治形式”。然而,20年来的历史告诉我们,终结的不
是历史,而是西方的优越感。就在柏林墙倒塌20年后的2009年11月9日,BBC公布了一份对27国民众的
调査。结果半数以上的受访者不满资本主义制度,此次调查的主办方之一的“全球扫描”公司主席米勒对媒体
表示,这说明随着1989年柏林墙的倒塌资本主义并没有取得看上去的压倒性胜利,这一点在这次金融危机中
表现的尤其明显,“历史终结论”的破产说明:()
A.社会规律和自然规律一样都是作为一种盲目的无意识力量起作用
B.人类历史的发展的曲折性不会改变历史发展的前进性
C.一些国家社会发展的特殊形式不能否定历史发展的普遍规律
D.人们对社会发展某个阶段的认识不能代替社会发展的整个过程
21.中国革命建设和改革的实践证明,要运用马克思主义指导实践,必须实现马克思主义中国化,马克思之
所以能够中国化的原因在于:()
A.马克思主义理论的内在要求
B.马克思主义与中华民族优秀文化具有相融性
C.中国革命建设和改革的实践需要马克思主义指导
D.马克思主义为中国革命建设和改革提供了现实发展模式
22.1952年党中央在酝酿过渡时期总路线时,毛泽东把实现向社会主义转变的设想,由建国之初的“先搞工业
化建设”再一举过渡,改变为“建设和改造同时并举,逐步过渡”,这一改变原因和条件是
A.我国社会主义经济因素的不断增长和对资本主义经济的限制
B.为了确定我国工业化建设的社会主义方向
C.我国工业化建设取得了重大成就
D.民主革命的遗留任务已经完成

23.1954年9月,第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议在北京召开,标志着人民代表大会制度在全国范围内
建立起来,人民代表大会制度是中国人民当家作主的根本政治制度,这一制度是()
A.中国共产党把马克思主义与中国实际相结合的伟大创造
B.中国共产党带领全国人民长期奋斗的重要成果
C.全国各族人民的共同利益和共同愿望的反映
D.近代以来中国社会发展的必然选择
24.我国是一个多民族国家,在社会主义时期处理民族问题的基本原则是(
A.实行民族区域自治
B.维护祖国统
C.反对民族分裂
D.坚持民族平等,民族团结,多民族共同繁荣
25.改革开放以来,中国成功走上了一条与本国国情和时代特征相适应的和平发展道路。坚持走和平发展道
路,符合中国历史文化传统,这是因为()
A.中华民族是热爱和平的民族
B.和平与发展成为时代发展的潮流
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C.中国人民在对外交流中始终强调“亲仁善邻,和而不同
D.中华文化是一种和平的文化,渴望和平始终是中国人民的精神特征
26.十九世纪下半叶,以自强求富为目标的洋务运动历时300年,最终失败的重要原因,()
A.指导思想的封建性
对外具有依赖性
C.民主阶级的荒谬性
D.民族资产阶级的腐朽性
27邓小平指出:“马克思、列宁从来没有说过农村包围城市,这个原理在当时世界上还是没有的。但是毛泽
东同志根据中国的具体条件指明了革命的具体道路”。毛泽东找到农村包围城市、武装夺取政权这条道路的根
据是()
A.中国内务民主制度,外无民族独立
B.农民占人口绝大多数,是民主革命的主力军
C.中国革命的敌人长期占据着中心城市,农村是其统治的薄弱环节
D.中国经济政治发展的不平衡
28.1941年1月,震惊中外的皖南事变暴发后,《新华日报》刊出周恩来的题词手迹:“为江南死国难者致哀!千
古奇冤,江南一叶;同室操戈,相煎何急?!”大敌当前,中国共产党以民族利益为重,坚持正确的方针和原则,
避免了抗日民族统一战线的破裂,这些方针和原则包括()
A.又联合又斗争
B有理、有利、有节
C.针锋相对,寸土必争
n
D.发展进步势力,中间势力,孤立顽固势力
29解放战争时期,在国民党统治区形成了以学生运动为先导的人民民主运动,成为配合人民解放战争的第二
条战线。第一条战线形成的原因是()
A国民党政府专制独裁、官员贪污腐败
B国民党在军事上的失利
ocIn.
C.国民党顽固坚持内战政策
D.国统区爆发严重经济危机
30.1955年,钱学森冲破重重阻力,回到魂牵梦绕的祖国。当有人问他为什么回国时,他说:“我为什么要走
回归祖国这条道路?我认为道理很简单
鸦片战争近百年来,国人强国梦不息,抗争不断。革命先烈为
兴邦,为了炎黄子孙的强国梦,献出了宝贵的生命,血沃中华热土。我个人作为炎黄子孙的一员,只能追随
先烈的足迹。在千万般艰险中,探索追求,不顾及其他,再看看共和国的缔造者和建设者们,在百废待兴的
贫瘠土地上,盯住国内的贫穷,国外的封锁,经过多少个风风雨雨的春秋,让一个社会主义新中国屹立于世
界东方。想到这些,还有什么个人利益不能丢弃呢?”钱学森发自肺腑的言语,对我们在新时期弘扬爱国对我
们在新时期弘扬爱国主义精神的启示是()
A.科学没有国界,但科学家有祖国
B.个人的理想要与国家命运、民族命运相结合
C.爱国主义与爱社会主义具有深刻的内在一致性
D.爱国主义是爱国情感,爱国思想和爱国行为的高度统
31.政治权利与自由包括
A选举权和被选举权
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B言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由
C人身自由
D宗教信仰自由
3209年9月18日四次会议召开,其主要内容是什么?()
A.党的优良作风
B.干部人事制度
C.基层工作者
D.防腐败
3309年8月15日,中国与东盟在泰国曼谷签订了投资协议,投资协议的意义在于()
A.确保中国对外建立的第一个自贸区于2010年全面建成
B将中国-东盟战略伙伴关系提升到更高水平
C.为地区和全球经济复苏与发展作出积极贡献
D为东亚自由贸易区的建立提供法律保障
分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料回答问题。将
答案写在答题纸指定位置上。
34、结合材料回答问题
早年,梅兰芳与人合演《断桥》,也就是《白蛇传》,剧情是白娘子和许仙两个人悲欢离合的爱情故事
梅兰芳在剧中饰演白娘子。剧中,白娘子有一个动作就是面对负心的丈夫许仙追赶、跪在地上哀求她的时候
她爱恨交加、五味杂陈,就用一根手指头去戳许仙的脑门儿,不想,梅兰芳用力过大,跪在那里扮演许仙的
演员毫无防备地向后仰去。这是剧情里没有设计的动作,可能是梅兰芳入戏太深,把对许仙的恨全都聚集在
了手指头上,才造成了这样的失误。眼见许仙就要倒地,怎么办?梅兰芳下意识地用双手去扶许仙。许仙是被
扶住了,没有倒下。可梅兰芳马上意识到,我是白娘子,他是负心郎许仙,我去扶他不合常理,这戏不是演
砘了吗?大师到底是大师,梅兰芳随机应变,在扶住他的同时,又轻轻地推了他一下。所以,剧情就由原来的
戳变成了一戳、一扶和一推,更淋漓尽致地表现出了白娘子对许仙爱恨交织的复杂心情。这个动作,把险
些造成舞台事故的错误演得出神入化,得到了大家的认可。从此,在以后的演出中,梅兰芳就沿用了这个动
作,而且,其他剧种也都移植采用了这个动作处理,这个动作成了经典之作
由此可见,不仅在舞台上,在各行各业,在各个岗位,在工作中,在生活中,无论是大师还是普通人,
失误和错误是难免的,关键是岀现失误和错误以后怎么去对待,怎么去处理。处理不当,会酿成事故,导致
全盘失败;处理得当,能败中取胜,化腐朽为神奇。
(1)为什么“无论是大师还是普通人,失误和错误是难免的”?
(2)梅兰芳为什么能“把险些造成舞台事故的错误”变为成功的“经典之作”?
(3)当我们在认识和实践活动中出现错误或失败该怎样对待和处理?
35.阅读下列材料
材料
新中国成立60年来,党和政府高度重视社会发展事业,着力保障和改善民生。改革开放以来,在社会建
设方面取得显著成就。废除农业税,使延续几千年的“皇粮国税”成为历史。随着经济社会发展,人民生活水
平显著改善,“吃穿住行用”水平显著提高。从1949年到2008年,城市人均住宅建筑面积和农村人均住房面
积,已分别从6.7平方米和8平方米增加到300平方米和324平方米。2008年城乡居民你人民币储蓄存款余
额达48万亿元,比新中国成立初期1952年增加32.5万倍
我们在看到成绩的同时也要清醒认识到我国是世界上最大的发展中国家,人口众多,经济发展起点低,
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地区之间,城乡之间发展不平衡,造成社会保障体系建设与经济社会发展还有不适应之处,与人们的期望功
能和需求还有一定差距。
摘编自《人民日报》,《理论热点面对面2009》
材料二
2007年10月党的十七大对医药卫生事业的发展做出了整体规划。209年四月,新医改《意见》和《实施
方案》正式推出。新医改明确建立了覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度的任务和工作。
国务院决定从2009年开始在10%的县(市、区)实行新型农村社会养老保险的试点,2020年前将覆盖
全国农民。60岁后享有“普惠式养老金”,对广大农民来说,是一条振奋人心的利好消息。农民在“种地不交
税、上学不付费、看病不太贵”之后,又向“养老不犯愁”的新梦想迈出了坚实的一步。(摘编自人民网中国网)
①为什么在紧急发展的同时要加快推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设?
②如何推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设?
36结合材料回答问题
材料1:
1949年10月1日下午15时整,北京天安门城楼.毛泽东向全世界庄严宣告:中华人民共和国中央人民政
府已于本日成立了
广场沸腾了!震天的欢呼直冲云霄,帽子、围巾甚至报纸在空中飞舞…身着深色气泡的宋庆龄站在城楼
上,看着眼前涌动的人潮,看着广场上矗立的孙中山画像,不禁热泪盈眶。8天后,她这样想世人讲述在天
安门城楼的那一刻-连年的伟大奋斗和艰苦的事迹,又在我眼前出现。但是另一个念头抓住我的心,我知道,
这一次不会再回头了,不会再倒退了,这一次,孙中山的努力终于结了果实,而且这果实显得这样美丽……”
摘编自2009年9月6日《人民日报》
材料2:
2009年10月1日上午10时整,首都各界庆祝中华人民共和国成立60周年大会在北京天安门广场隆重
举行,20万军民以盛大的阅兵仪式和群众游行欢庆伟大祖国的这一盛大节日
天安门城楼红墙正中悬挂着新中国缔造者毛泽东的巨幅彩色画像。人民英雄纪念碑前竖立着伟大的革命
先行者孙中山先生的画像,纪念碑两侧超宽电子屏上“伟大的中华人民其和国万岁”“伟大的中国共产党万岁
等标语格外醒目。广场东西两侧,56根绘有各族群众载歌载舞图案的民族团结柱,象征着56个民族共同擎
起祖国繁荣富强的伟大基业。
胡锦涛发表重要讲话。他指出:“60年前的今天,中国人民经过近代以来100多年的浴血奋战终于夺取
了中国革命的伟大胜利,毛泽东主席在这里向世界庄严宣告了中华人民共和国的成立。中国人民从此站起来
了,具有5000多年文明历史的中华民族从此进入了发展进步的历史新纪元。”
摘编自209年10月2日《人民日报》
(1)如何理解宋庆龄所说的“孙中山的努力终于结了果实”?
(2)为什么说中华人民共和国的成立标志着“中华民族从此进入了发展进步的历史新纪元
37结合材料回答问题:
交通环境是由人、车、路构成的公共生活之一,目前,我国机动车拥有量已超过1.78亿辆,拥有驾照的
公民已超过1.3亿人。由此带来一系列的交通安全问题,引发社会公众强烈反响。
下列是有关交通问题的一些调查数据:
《人民日报》关于不文明开车行为及其原因的调查
人反感的不文明开车行为
不文明开车的原因
斑马线不减速让行2156票乱停车挡道167票同机素质普遍有待提高220
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夜间会车不关远光灯2045票胡乱鸣笛1412票跟风,随大流1469票
加塞儿”,并线不打灯1928票同机出口成脏”1076票行人不文明导致司机不文明757票
雨天不减速水溅路人1902票抢黄灯944
因车多路堵无法文明驾驶464票
某市交管局一年中査处交通违章的数据统计
全年查处交通违章总数207万起比侧:100
其中:机动车违章12万起5420
非机动车违章805万起389%
行人违章
43万起6
有专家指出,道路交通上普遍存在的交通不文明现象看似个人的私事,但却折射出某些公民在公共生活
领域社会公德和法律意识的缺失。要构建文明出行风尚,既是道德呼唤,也是法律要求。
回答问题
(1)为什么文明出行“既是道德呼唤,也是法律要求”?
(2)我们应如何从自身做起,构建文明的公共生活秩序?
38结合材料回答问题
材料
从2009年11月23日起,一则时长30秒“以中国制造世界合作”为主题的广告在美国有线电视新闻网
(CNN)正式播出。该广告由中国商务部会同4家中国行业协会共同委托制作,被认为是中国政府的首个品
牌宣传活动,接下来还计划在包括北美、欧洲等中国的主要贸易对象地区播出。
广告围绕中国制造世界合作”这一主题,强调中国企业为生产高质量的产品,正不断与海外各国公司加
强合作。广告中展示了一系列带有“中国制造”标签的产品,例如,一个类似ipod的mp3播放器上用英文标注
在中国制造,但我们使用来自硅谷的软件”,双运动鞋和一套衣服上标注有“在中国制造,但我们的设计来
自于法国”,一台冰箱上写着“中国制造,但我们的采用欧洲风格”。
告在创意上独树一帜,从引导世界受众重新认识畅销全球的中国产品入手,能够启发世界各地的消费
者对“中国制造”和全球贸易的重新思考,从而逐渐抛弃对“中国制造”的偏见。
材料
在美国有线电视新闻网热播的一则“携手中国制造”为主题的广告引发的关注和反响正在发酵。有分析人
土认为,在当前金融危机阴霾尚未散去,贸易保护主义有所抬头的背景下,主动出击展示国家形象,是一次
很好的尝试,有利于提升中国的软实力。
有评论认为,近年来中国经济实力崛起,如何建立国际形象成为当务之急,政府近期启动了国际公关战
略,继新华社,《人民日报》等中央媒体率先向世界发声之后,国家形象广告或许会成为提升国家软实力和对
外形象的新渠道。还有人认为,中国早前一些产品安全事件令世界关注,现在希望能通过在全球投放广告推
中国制造”以提升在国际上的形象,广告中出现的法国设计、硅谷技术等字样,说明中国目前还处于产业
链的低端,它继续把中国定义为世界工厂,因此,令消费者认为中国还只是产品的制造商,现在是从“中国制
造”的地位上升为“中国创造”的时候了
问题:(1)“中国制造,世界合作”的广告说明了什么?
(2)为什么说现在是从“中国制造”的地位上升为“中国创造”的时候了?
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2009年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题
目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。
1.物质和意识的对立只有在非常有限的范围内才有绝对的意义,超过这个范围便是相对的了,这个范围是指
A.物质和意识何者为第一性
B.物质和意识是否具有统一性
C.物质和意识何者更为重要
D.物质和意识何者与社会生活的关系更密切
2.1978年关于真理标准大讨论是一场新的思想解放运动。实践之所以成为检验真理的唯一标准是由()
A.真理的主观性和实践的客观性所要求的
B.真理的相对性和实践的决定性所预设的
C.真理的属性和实践的功能所规定的
D.真理的本性和实践的特点所决定的
3.近年来马克思的《资本论》在西方一些国家销量大增。列宁曾说,马克思的《资本论》的成就之所以如此
之大,是由于这本书使读者看到整个资本主义社会形态是个活生生的形态,既有“骨骼”,又有“血肉”。人
类社会作为一种活的有机体,其“骨骼”系统是指()
A.地理环境、人口因素和生产方式等社会物质生活条件
B.与一定的生产力相适应的生产关系
C.建立在一定经济基础之上的政治法律制度及设施
D.由政治法律思想、道德、宗教、哲学等构成的社会意识形态
4.卢梭在《论人类不平等的起源和基础》中说道:“我认为,在人类的一切知识中,最有用但也最不完善的
知识就是关于人的知识。”马克思的唯物史观破解了人是什么这一“司芬克斯之谜”,马克思在《关于费尔巴
哈的提纲》中指出,人的本质在其现实性上是(
A.自然属性和社会属性的内在统
B.所有人共同属性的概括
C.一切社会关系的总和
D.自由理性的外化
5.流通中的货币需要量是考察经济生活运行的重要指标,假设某国去年的商品价格总额为24万亿元,流通
需要量为3亿元,若今年该国商品价格总额增长10%,其他条件不变,今年流通中需要的货币量为
A.42亿元
B.35亿元
C.33亿元
D.24亿元
6.国家垄断资本主义条件下,政府对经济生活进行干预和调节的实质是(
A.维护垄断资产阶级的整体利益和长远利益
B.维持资本主义经济稳定增长
C.消除或防止经济危机的爆发
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D.提高资本主义社会的整体福利水平
7.某钢铁厂因铁矿石价格上涨,增加了该厂的预付资本数量,这使得该厂的资本构成发生了变化,所变化的
资本构成是()
A.资本技术构成
B.资本价值构成
C.资本物质构成
D.资本有机构成
8.1925年毛泽东在《中国社会各阶级的分析》中指出,中国过去一切革命斗争成效甚少的主要原因(
A.没有找到革命的新道路
B.没有扩大民主主义宣传
没有到群众中做实际的调查
D.没有团结真正的朋友以攻击真正的敌人
9.延安时期,毛泽东写下了著名的《实践论》、《矛盾论》,主要是为了克服党内严重的()
A.经验主义
B.冒险主义
C.机会主义
D.教条主义
10.中共七届二中全会,党制定和执行新民主主义经济建设的方针是
A.既反保守又反冒进,在综合平衡中稳步前进
B.公私兼顾、劳资两利、城乡互助、内外交流
C.调整、巩固、充实、提高
D.实现速度、结构、质量的统
11.科学发展观的根本方法是
A.把发展作为第一要义
a
B.以人为本
C.统筹兼顾
D.全面协调发展
12.社会主义新农村建设的中心环节是()
A.生产发展
B.生活宽裕
C.乡风文明
D.管理民主
13.马克思主义中国化理论成果的精髓是()
A.理论联系实际
B.解放思想
C.实事求是
D.与时俱进
14.2008年5月28日,中共中央总书记胡锦涛和中国国民党主席吴伯雄在北京人民大会堂举行了两党在新形
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势下的首次会谈,此次会议()
A.就促进两岸关系改善和发展达成广泛共识
B.开启了国共两党对话先声
C.发布了《两岸和平发展共同远景》
D.签署了《海峡两岸包机会谈纪要》
15.2008年9月25日,我国神舟七号航天飞船成功飞入太空实现的是
A.载人飞行
B.绕月探测
C.天地对话
D.出舱活动
16.在2008年4月中旬举行的尼泊尔制宪会议选举上,一举成为第一大党的是()
A.尼泊尔共产党(联合马列)
B.尼泊尔共产党(毛主义)
C.尼泊尔大会党
D.尼泊尔民族主义党
多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合
题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。
17.近一年多来由美国次贷危机引发的金融危机迅速在全球蔓延,在危机面前,人们应该积极主动应对,化
危为机。下列名言中符合意识能动性原理的是()
A.信心比黄金更重要
B.我们唯一恐惧的就是恐惧本身
C.问题与解决问题的方法是同时产生的
D.事不必难,知难不难
18.邓小平说:“农村搞家庭联产承包这个发明权是农民的,农村改革中的好多东西都是基层创造出来的,我
们把它拿来加工提高作为全国的指导。”这对我们实现思想理论创新具有普遍指导意义,它要求我们()
A.要以解放思想为先导
B.打破一切理论的约束
C.关注生活实践的需要
D.尊重人民群众的诉求
19.“随着新生产力的获得……人们也就会改变自己的一切社会关系,于推磨产生的是封建主义的社会,蒸汽
磨产生的是工业资本家的社会。”这段话表明科学技术是()
A.历史上起推动作用的革命力量
B.历史变革中的唯一决定性力量
C.推动生产方式变革的重要力量
D.一切社会变革中的自主性力量
20.华罗庚生前曾说:“我们最好把自己的生命看作是前人生命的延续,是现在人类共同的生命的一部分,同
时也是后人生命的开端。如此延续下去,科学就会一天比一天更灿烂,社会就会一天比一天更美好。”这段话
对我们如何实现人的个人价值的教益是
A.个人价值的实现与社会价值的实现是统一的
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B.个人价值的实现是一个历史过程
C.个人价值的实现是社会价值实现的归宿
D.个人价值的实现和个人生命的长短相一致
21.“信用制度加速了生产力的物质上的发展和世界市场的形成;使这二者作为新生产形式的物质基础发展
到一定的高度,是资本主义生产方式的历史使命。同时信用制度加速了这种矛盾的爆发,即危机,因而加强
了旧生产方式的解体的各种因素。”马克思的这一论述表明,资本主义信用制度()
A.已成为资本主义经济危机爆发的深层原因
B.促进了建立社会主义生产方式的物质基础的形成
C.加速了资本主义生产方式内部矛盾发展和解体要素的形成
D.推动商品经济的发展,又加深了商品经济运行中的矛盾
22.劳动力是任何社会生产的基木要素,在特定的社会发展阶段和特定的历史条件下,劳动力作为一种特殊
商品,其价值的构成包括()
A.维持劳动者自身生存所必需的生活资料的价值
B.劳动者在必要时间内创造的价值
C.劳动者繁育后代所必须的生活资料的价值
D.培养和训练劳动者所需要的费用
23.党的十七届三中全会通过的《中共中央关于推进农村改革发展若干重大问题的决定》指出:“建立健全土
地承包经营权流转,按照依法自愿有偿原则,允许农民以转包、出租、互换、转让、股份合作等形式流转土
地承包经营权,发展多种形式的适度规模经营。”上述决定有利于()
A.调整农村土地所有制结构
B.完善土地承包经营权权能
C.进一步完善生产要素市场
D.促进土地资源的优化配置
24.合理的收入分配制度是社会公平的重要体现。在构建社会主义和谐社会过程中初次分配和再分配都要处
理好效率和公平的关系,再分配更加注重公平,逐步提高居民收入在国民收入分配中的比重,提高劳动报酬
在初次分配中的比重。这表明处理效率与公平的关系,就要()
A.把效率和公平相互之间的矛盾协调统一起来
B.充分发挥市场机制对收入分配的调节作用
C.改革现有的收入分配制度,规范收入分配秩序
D.合理调节国民收入分配格局,加大收入分配调节力度
25.1921年中国共产党的成立,是中国革命历史上划时代的里程碑,中国革命从此焕然一新。从此中国革命
有了()
A.正确的革命道路
B.科学的指导思想
C.坚强的领导力量
D.崭新的奋斗目标
26.新民主主义的文化,是民族的科学的大众的文化。其中“民族的”是指()
A.反对外来的资本主义文化
B.反对帝国主义压迫,主张中华民族的尊严和独立
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C.在形式和内容上有中国作风和中国气派
D.为全民族90%以上的工农大众服务
27.在民主革命和社会主义革命的关系问题上,中国共产党内曾经出现过不同的观点和主张,其中错误的有
A.“毕其功于一役”
B.二次革命论
C.“无间断革命”
D.中国革命分“两步走”
28.20世纪50年代中期,社会主义改造基本完成,标志着
A.社会主义制度在我国已经确立
B.我国进入了社会主义初级阶段
C.我国步入了社会主义改革时期
D.我国实现了新民主主义向社会主义过渡
29.我们所要建设的社会主义和谐社会,应该是民主法制、公平主义、诚信友爱、充满活力、安定有序,人
与自然和谐相处的社会,其中“诚信友爱”的内涵包括()
A.全社会管理完善,秩序良好
B.全社会互帮互助,诚实守信
C.全体人民生活富裕,安居乐业
D.全体人民平等友爱,融洽相处
n豆
30.基层群众自治制度是我国政治制度体系中的重要组成部分,其主要内容有()
A.农村村民委员会
B.城市居民委员会
C.企业职工代表大会
D.妇女联合会
w
31.2008年发生了汶川大地震,中国政府做了各种努力,84017人被抢救出来,140万被解救,430万被救治,
万伤员转到20个城市地区,被375所医院及时救治,这个事实表现了()
A.我国社会主义制度珍爱生命,保护人民的性质
B.中华民族关爱生命,崇尚理性的民族品格
党和政府为人民服务的根本宗旨
D.社会主义核心价值体系建设的显著成效
32.2008年6月20号,胡锦涛在《人民日报》社视察工作,在线与网民进行了交流,最近有很多的政府官员,
利用网上跟百姓沟通,这种网络表达体现了()
A.公民政治参与的新途径
B.反腐倡廉的新通道
C.民主政治体制的新形势
D.密切干群关系的新方式
33.8月22号成功举办完奧运会,彰显了我国和世界共同进步而遵守的梦想,奥运理念是(
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A.平安奥运
B.绿色奧运
C.科技奥运
D.人文奥运
分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在答
题纸指定位置上
34.结合材料回答问题
华佗是我国东汉名医。一次,府吏倪寻和李延俩人均头痛发热。一同去请华佗诊治,华佗经过仔细的望色
诊脉,开出两付不同的处方。给倪寻开的是泻药,给李延开的是解表发散药。二人不解:我俩患的是同一症
状,为何开的药方却不同呢?是不是华佗弄错了?于是,他们向华佗请教。华佗解释道:倪寻的病是由于饮
食过多引起的,病在内,应当服泻药,将积滞泻去,病就好了。李延的病是受凉感冒引起的,病在外,应当
吃解表药,风寒之邪随汙而去,头痛也就好了。你们病症相似,但病因相异,所以治之宜殊。二人拜服,回
家后各自将药熬好服下,很快都痊愈了。
中医是我国宝贵的医学遗产,强调辩证施治。华佗对症下药治头痛发热的故事含蕴丰富的辩证法思想。
(1)指出其中所涉及的唯物辩证法基本范畴并分析其内涵。(6分)
(2)这个故事对我们理解“具体问题具体分析”有何启示?(4分)
35.阅读下列材料
材料1
我国2007年4月-2008年11月CPI及PPI增长趋势图
注:CPⅠ(消费价格指数)是反映一定时期内城乡居民家庭购买的生活消费品的价格和服务项目价格变动趋
势和程度的相对数,一般认为CPI的增幅大于3%时,就存在通货膨胀的压力。PPI(生产价格指数)是衡量
工业企业产品价格变动趋势和变动程度的指标
资料来源:国家统计局公布数据
材料2
我国经济自2003年进入新一轮上升期,经济增长速度从2003年的10%路上涨,2006年突破11,并
于200达到19%。然而经济偏快增长也带米系列影响经济社会可持续发展的重大问题,经济增长有可能
由偏快转为过热。2007年12月初召开的中央经济工作会议确定的宏观调控任务是:“防止经济增长由偏快转
为过热,防止价格由结构性上涨演变为明显通货膨胀
2008年随着国际经济金融危机的不断加深,国内许多外向型出口企业经营出现困难,出口持续出现下滑
势头。上半年经济增长开始放缓,GDP同比增长10.4%,比去年同期回落1.8%,上半年居民消费价格水平上
涨79%,这表明“防过热”已见效,但物价涨幅较高仍未得到有效控制。2008年7月25日召开的中央政
治局会议明确了下半年经济工作的任务:把保持经济平稳较快发展,控制物价过快上涨放在突出的位置,即
“一保一控”。财政部等部门宣布自2008年8月1日起提高部分出口商品的退税率,央行8月初调整了商业
银行信贷规模,9月16日起又下调了人民币贷款基准利率和中小金融机构人民币存款准备金率,以缓解中
企业融资难、担保难以及流动资金短缺等问题
208年前三季度,我国经济增速同比回落了2.3个百分点,经济增长五年多首次低于10%,随着国际经
济金融危机对我国实体经济影响日益显现,国内经济的下行风险逐步加大,中国已经从持续升温转入降温状
态。11月9日国务院宣布实行积极的财政政策和货币政策,特別是拉动内需十项新举措的公布。释放出“保
增长”的强烈信号,四万亿的投资将对经济产生最直接的拉动。十二月中央经济工作会议进一步明确指出必
须把保持经济平稳较快发展作为明年经济工作的首要任务。要着力在保增长上下功夫,把扩大内需作为保増
长的根本途径,把加快发展方式转变和结构调整作为保增长的主攻方向。把深化重点领域和关键环节改革
提高对外开放水平作为保增长的强大动力,把改善民生作为保增长的出发点和落脚点
资料来源:财政部网站、新浪财经等
问题
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(1CPI与PPI的走势及其变化反映我国经济运行出现了什么问题?结合材料分析导致这些变化的主要原因。
(2)结合材料分析我国政府根据国内外经济形势的变化,运用财政政策和货币政策来实施宏观调控。(6分)
36.材料1
矛盾是普遍存在的,不过按事物的性质不同,矛盾的性质也就不同。
社会主义社会的矛盾同旧社会的矛盾,例如同资本主义社会的矛盾,是根本不相同的。资本主义社会的
矛盾表现为剧烈的对抗和冲突,表现为剧烈的阶级斗争,那种矛盾不可能由资本主义制度本身来解决,而只
有社会主义革命才能够加以解决。社会主义社会的矛盾是另一回事,恰恰相反,它不是对抗性的矛盾,它可
以经过社会主义制度本身,不断地得到解决
在社会主义社会中,基本的矛盾仍然是生产关系和生产力之间的矛盾,上层建筑和经济基础之间的矛盾。
不过社会主义社会的这些矛盾,同旧社会的生产关系和生产力的矛盾、上层建筑和经济基础的矛盾,具有根
本不同的性质和情况罢了
社会主义生产关系已经建立起来,它是和生产力的发展相适应的;但是,它又还很不完善,这些不完善
的方面和生产力的发展又是相矛盾的。除了生产关系和生产力发展的这种又相适应又相矛盾的情况以外,还
有上层建筑和经济基础的又相适应又相矛盾的情况
1957年2月27《正确处理人民内部矛盾
材料2
社会主义社会的基本矛盾和目前时期的主要矛盾。关于基本矛盾,我想现在还是按照毛泽东同志在《关
于正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题》一文中的提法比较好。毛泽东同志说:“在社会主义社会中,基本的矛盾仍
然是生产关系和生产力之间的矛盾,上层建筑和经济基础之间的矛盾。”他在这里说了很长的一段话,现在不
重复。当然,指出这些基本矛盾,并不就完全解决了问题,还需要就此作深入的具体的研究。但是从二十多
年的实践看来,这个提法比其他的一些提法妥当。至于什么是目前时期的主要矛盾,也就是目前时期全党和
全国人民所必须解决的主要问题或中心任务,由于三中全会决定把工作重点转移到社会主义现代化建设方面
来,实际上已经解决了。我们的生产力发展水平很低,远远不能满足人民和国家的需要,这就是我们目前时
期的主要矛盾,解决这
结合材料回答问题
Vios e 33 3o (89A.
(1)毛泽东提出社会主义社会基本矛盾的历史背景及这一理论的重大意义(6分)
(2)邓小平关于社会主义基本矛盾“深入的具体的研究”所取得的理论成果主要有哪些?(4分)
37.材料1
从1978年到2007年,我国国内生产总值由3645亿元增长到24.95万亿元,平均实际增长9.8%,是同
期世界经济平均增长率的3倍多,我国经济总量上升为世界第四
从1978年到2007年,我国进出口总额从206亿美元提高到21737亿美元,跃居世界第三位。
外汇储备从长期没有达到10亿美元,提高到2007年的1.5万亿美元左右,成为世界上拥有外汇储备最
多的国家
从1978年到2007年,全国城镇居民人均可支配收入由343元增加到13786元,实际增长6.5倍。农民
人均纯收入则由134元增加到4140元,实际增长6.3倍;农村贫困人口从2.5亿减少到1400多万
摘自胡锦涛在纪念十一届三中全会30周年大会上的讲话
材料2
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改革开放以来我们取得一切的成绩和进步的根本原因,归结起来就是:开辟了中国特色社会主义道路
形成了中国特色社会主义理论体系。高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,最根本的是要坚持中国特色社会主义
道路和中国特色社会主义理论体系。
摘自中共十七大报告
回答问题
(1)改革开放30年来,我国经济体制进行了哪些改革创新才带来了上述变化(5分)
(2)简述中国特色社会主义理论体系的组成部分及其所要回答的基本问题(5分)
38.木题为选做题,请在Ⅰ、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一道作答,若两题都回答,只按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩记入
总分
选做题I
材料
如果美国不援助欧洲,它们在经济、政治和社会关系各方面都将有窒息之虞,美国这次“援欧”不同与以往
不是向个别国家提供零星援助。我们的政策不是反对任何国家,任何主义,而是反对饥饿,贫穷,悲惨,混
乱。我们的任务是唤起合理经济的再生,促进政治社会的结构容纳自由制度存在。任何企图阻碍别国复兴的
政府都不会得到我们的帮助。任何政府、党派为图政治私利或其他打算,不惜延续人类痛苦的,必会遭到美
国的反对。
摘编自马歇尔在哈佛大学的演讲(1947年6月5日)
材料2
2002年1月,美国国务卿鲍威尔访问尼泊尔,主要讨论反恐合作问题,此后,美国每年向尼泊尔提供4000
万美元的“经济援助”。2003年11月3日美国国会批准了向伊拉克和阿富汗提供875亿美元的军事行动及重
建援助的拨款法案。西方把这些经济援助和重建计划成为“新马歇尔计划”。
伊拉克已探明拥有1100亿桶的石油储藏,远景储量达2200亿桶,开采成本每桶仅3-4美元。2003年12
月,美国国防部公布了伊拉克重建项目中总价值达186亿美元的26个重大工程合同,同时以维护美国的“基
本安全利益”为由,决定剥夺包括德国、法国、俄罗斯、加拿大等在内的100多个曾经反对美国发动伊拉克
战争以及拒绝向伊拉克派兵的国家参与上述合同的竞标资格。首批约9亿美元的伊拉克重建合同均在暗盘交
易下完成,中标的是清一色的美国公司,而这些公司无不与美国政府有着紧密的联系。
摘编自人民网
材料3
法国前情报员达尼埃尔.雷米在其所著《谁欲杀死法兰西》一书中认为美国已经发动了一场看不见的“经
济战争”,旨在征服欧洲。1995年至1999年间,美国每年立案的反倾销和反补贴调查中,有14是针对欧盟
的。德国和法国不赞成美国对伊拉克动武,惹怒了美国,美前国防部长拉姆斯菲尔德抨击两国“有问题
时任美国总统国家安全事务助理的赖斯,把包括法国与德国在内的反战政府比作是二战前法国队纳粹德国
的“姑息主义”,引起德法等国不满,美前国务卿基辛格认为,在伊拉克问题上的分歧,已经在大西洋联盟中
产生了自他50年前成立以来最为严重的危机
摘编自中国网
结合材料回答问题:
(1)结合材料
比较“马歇尔计划”和“新马歇尔计划”的异同(5分)
(2)结合材料一、三,剖析近些年来美、欧在处理国际事务中,显现的分歧和原因(5分
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选做题Ⅱ:阅读下列材料:
材料1
近年来,越来越多的国家和国际知名人士开始热议“中国贡献”,关于中国在地区和全球事物中发挥重要
建设性作用的话语频现于国际社会。
阿拉伯国家联盟负责政治事务的副秘书长本?哈拉2007年4月14日介绍,在会见中国驻阿联盟全权代表
吴恩科大使时说,阿盟髙度赞誉中国在解决苏丹达尔富尔问题上发挥的积极作用,中国关于解决该问题的立
场是公正积极和平衡的,所发挥的作用是建设性的,有深远的影响力。第一届东盟秘书长、泰国前外长素林
2008年1月7日在回答记者提问时表示,中国积极支持东盟组织的发展,同时积极参与解决本地区以及国际
事务,中国为提升整个东亚地区自信力做出了很大贡献,中国在东亚地区所做的贡献,对地区发展给予的大
力支持以及所发挥的建设性作用让东盟信服。
摘自《理论热点面对面?2008》
材料2
改革开放以来,中国政府和人民高举和平、发展、合作的旗帜,加强与世界各国的联系和交往,积极参
与国际事务,在谋求自身发展的同时,以实际行动在世界上发挥着重要建设性作用。中国认真落实联合国千
年发展目标,迄今已向120多个国家和区域组织提供了2000多个援助项目,已累计对49个不发达国家免除
到期政府债务374笔。中国已签署了300多个国际公约,参加了130多个国际组织,并在军备控制,贸易投
资等国际机制中扮演重要角色。有了中国的参与,许多国际热点问题呈现出积极的变化态势。迄今为止,中
国共参与了22项联合国维和行动,累计派出维和人员上万人次,现正在执行维和任务的有1900多人。中国
自1990年首次参加联合国维和行动以来,累计新建、修复道路7300多公里,桥梁200多座,排除地雷及各
类未爆炸物7600多枚,运送人员12万多人次、物资26万多吨,接诊病人3.6万多人次,先后有3名军官和
5名士兵在执行维和任务中牺牲。
摘自《理论热点面对面?2008》
结合材料回答问题
(1)中国在国际事务中的贡献主要表现在哪些方面?(6分)
(2)中国在当今国际事务中能够做出“中国贡献”的原因何在?(4分)

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2008年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题
日要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑
1.马克思主义哲学与唯心主义哲学、旧唯物主义哲学的根本区别在于()
A.坚持人的主体地位
B坚持用辩证发展的观点去认识世界
C.坚持物质第一性、意识第二性
D坚持从客观的物质实践活动去理解现实世界
2.最近,由多国科学家组成的团队利用一台粒子加速器,让两束原子在一个圆环轨道上做高速运动,发现这
些原子自身的时间确实比外界时间慢了。这项实验进一步证明了作为物质运动存在形式的时间具有()
A.客观性B.有限性C.相对性D.一维性
3.在听完一位成功的企业家讲课后,一些来自企业的学员感到有些失望,便问他:“你讲的那些内容我们也
差不多知道,可为什么我们之间的差距会那么大呢?”这位企业家回答说:“那是因为你们仅是知道,而我却
做到了,这就是我们的差别。”这句话表明了实践高于理论认识,因为实践具有()
A.普遍有效性B.客观规律性C.主体能动性D.直接现实性
4.“文化蕴藏着巨大的力,这种‘力不同于物理学上的“力’,物理的‘力是人类用来‘化'自然界的,文化的‘力
是用来化自身的。”这一说法表明()
A.文化具有培育和塑造人的功能
docIn.
B.文化构造了人的本质
C.文化是社会发展的主导力量
D.文化是历史进步的源泉
5.马克思通过对资本主义生产中价值增值过程的分析,把雇佣工人的劳动时间分为()
A.生产使用价值的时间和生产价值的时间
B.转移旧价值的时间和创造新价值的时间
C.生产生产资料价值的时间和生产剩余价值的时间
D.在生产劳动力价值的时间和生产剩余价值的时间
6.某块土地,地租为200万元,土地价格为4000万元。若银行存款利息率不变,该土地的地租增加到300
万元时,银行存款利息率和土地价格分别是()
A.5%、9000万元
B.5%、6000万元
C.6%、9000万元
D.6%、6000万元
7.在完善社会主义市场经济体制过程中,要加快建立覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系,其基本目标是
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A.保障人民基本生活
B.促进社会经济增长
C.实现充分就业
D.使更多的劳动者拥有财产性收入
8.在孙中山的思想中,“平均地权”、“节制资本”属于()
A.民族主义B.民权主义C.民生主义D.民主主义
1927年9月下旬,毛泽东率领秋收起义的部队来到江西省永新县三湾村,进行了著名的三湾改编,确立了
人民军队建设的根本原则,这一原则是(
A.党指挥枪B.官兵平等C.拥政爱民D.一切行动听指挥
0.我国对个体手工业进行社会主义改造的主要方式是(
A.赎买B.统购统销C.公私合营D.合作化
11.我国社会主义改革是一场新的革命,其性质是()
A.解放生产力,发展生产力
B.社会主义基本制度的根本变革
C.社会主义制度的自我完善和发展
D.建立和完善社会主义市场经济体制
12.党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的统一性是由(
A.社会主义初级阶段的基本国情决定的

B.社会主义国家的本质决定的
C.社会主义根本任务决定的
D.社会主义国家的发展战略决定的
13.为研究和完善国家法定节假日制度,国家有关部门按照国务院的部署,通过有关网站进行问卷调查,并
在部分城市进行了电话调查。在广泛进行民意调查的基础上,经过一年多的研究论证,确定了新的节假日调
整方案。这体现的执政理论是()
A.依法执政B.科学执政C.民主执政D.理性执政
14.民族精神是社会主义核心价值体系的重要内容之一,其核心是(
A.爱国主义B.团结统一C.勤劳勇敢D.自强不息
15.党的十七大报告指出,我国新时期最显著的成绩是(
A.改革开放B.快速发展C:建立社会主义市场经济体制D.给人民带来更多福祉
16.在2007年1月1日欧盟第六次扩大时正式加入欧盟的国家是(
A.罗马尼亚、波兰
B.保加利亚、罗马尼亚
C.波兰、爱沙尼亚
D.爱沙尼亚、保加利亚
、多项选择题:17~33小题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合
题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分
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17.右边这幅漫画对于我们认识人与自然关系的警示意义在于()
A.人类过分陶醉于对自然界的胜利将受到自然界的报复
B.人与自然关系的紧张来自于不当的人类实践方式
C.人与自然的关系本质上是对立的
D.人类依附于自然是摆脱自身困境的根本出路
18.19世纪英国作家惠兹里特说:“一个除了书本以外一无所知的纯粹学者,必然对书本也是无知的。”与这
句话在内涵上相一致的名言还有()
A.纸上得来终觉浅,绝知此事要躬行
B.尽信书,则不如无书
C.感觉到了的东西我们不能离可理解它,只有理解了的东西才能更深刻地感觉它
D.饱经风霜的老人与缺乏阅历的少年对同一句格言的理解是不同的
19.马克思主义哲学中的辩证法、认识论、历史观在本质上是一致的,体现这种一致性的公式有()
A.个
般—个别
B.实践认识实践
C.群众领导群众
D.团结—批评—团结
20.随着科学技术和经济全球化的发展,人类的交往活动日益普遍和深化,交往作为人类特有的活动和存在
方式,对社会发展具有越来越重要的作用。主要表现在()
A.交往促进生产力的发展
B.交往推动社会关系的变革和改善
C.交往是科学文化传承和发展的重要途径
n
D.交往促进人自身的发展
21.同一劳动在同一时间内,当部门劳动生产率提高时会使()
A.单位商品的价值量降低
B.商品的使用价值量增加
C.单位商品的价值量不变

D.单位商品的价值量提高
22.通过对社会资本简单再生产实现过程中交换关系的分析,可以看出(
A.Ic是通过第I部类内部交换实现的
B.Ⅱ(v+m)是通过第Ⅱ部类内部交换实现的
C.I(v+m)是通过和(yv+m)交换实现的
D.I(m)是通过和Ⅱlc交换实现的
23.为了保持物价总水平的稳定,国家实施宏观调控可以采取的货币政策手段有()
A.调整存贷款基准利率
B调整法定存款准备金库
C.实施物价补贴
D.调整再贴现率
24.为完善社会主义个人收入分配制度,确立生产要素按贡献参与分配是基于(
A.各种生产要素都能创造价值
B要素所有权关系在经济上的体现
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C.市场经济配置资源的内在要求
D各种生产要素都具有价值
25在中国共产党的历史上,对毛泽东思想作出系统概括和阐述的党的文献有(
A.《关于若干历史问题的决议》
B刘少奇在七大上所作的《关于修改党的章程的报告》
C邓小平在八大上所作的《关于修改党的章程的报告》
D.《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》
26.关于民主革命时期富农身份的界定,下列选项中正确的有(
A剥削雇农的剩余劳动,是农村中的资产阶级
B既是劳动者,又是剥削者
C.自身不劳动,出租土地并放高利贷
D对雇农的剥削带有浓厚的半封建性
27.新中国建立之际,毛泽东提出的外交方针有()
A.“一边倒”B.反霸权主义”C.“打扫干净屋子再请客”D.“另起炉
28.党的十七大报告指出,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,必须坚持()
把发展作为党执政兴国的第一要务
B以人为本
C.全面协调可持续发展
D.统筹兼顾
29党的十七大报告指出,十一届三中全会以来,中国共产党坚持马克思主义的思想路线,不断探索和回答的
重大理论和实际问题是()
A.什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主
B什么是现代化、怎样建设现代化
C建设什么样的党、怎样建设党■
Bodin.
D.实现什么样的发展、怎样发展
30.人民代表大伙制度是我国的根本政治制度,这是因为(
A.它直接体现我国人民民主专政的国家性质
它能从根本上保证人民当家作主的权力
C.它在制定国家其他各种制度中起着决定性的作用
D.它能使广大人民在国家政治生活中直接行使民主权力
31.2005年,胡锦涛主席就新形势下发展两岸关系提出的原则性意见是()
A坚持一个中国的原则决不动摇
B争取和平统一的努力决不放弃
C.贯彻寄希望于台湾人民的方针决不改变
D反对“台独”分裂活动决不妥协
32党的十七大报告指出,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,最根本的就是要坚持()
A.中国特色社会主义道路
B实事求是的思想路线
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C中国特色社会主义理论体系
D改革开放的战略方针
332007年2月,胡锦涛主席在与苏丹总统巴希尔的会谈中提出,处理达尔富尔问题应该()
A.尊重苏丹的主权和领土完整
B发挥非盟、联合国的建设性作用
C.有利于促进达尔富尔地区局势稳定
D通过和平方式解决问题
分析题:34-38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料回答问题。将答案写在答题
纸指定位置上。
34最近,四川省搞了一次“医患换位体验”活动,让医生以患者的身份挂号、排队、看病、拿药..'果,医
生跑前跑后,既受累又受气,一名全程体验了“患者”的医生感慨道:“医生就像拿着个遥控器,把患者指挥得
团团转,当患者确实很苦。”
美国医生爱德华·罗森邦行医50年,忽然患上了喉癌,当他重新审视医学、医院和医生时,感慨地说:“站
在我病床边和躺在病床上所看到的角度完全不同”。他后来在《亲尝我自己的药方》一书中写道:“如果我能
从头来过的话,我会以完全不同的方式行医,很不幸的是,生命不给人这种重新来过的机会。
多年前,有位年轻医生患上甲状腺病,当中国医学科学院著名头脑外科专家屠规益为他主刀。当手术结
東是,屠教授低下身来说:“对不起,让您受苫了!”这是屠教授术后经常对病人说的一句话,虽然简短,却
让这位年轻医生深感震撼
著名医学家袁法祖早年从医,曾在老师的带领下,为一名中年妇女进行开腹手术。术后没几天,那名妇
女就去世了,经解剖发现,患者的死亡与手术并无关系,当时,袁法祖的老师轻轻说了句,“她是4个孩子的
妈妈”,就是这句简单的话,让袁法祖至今念念不忘,他知道这句话包含了多少情感,懂得了一生的哦责任有
多重大:医生不仅要看到人身上的病,更要看到生病的人。
结合材料回答问题
1)“医生换位体验”活动中蕴含着何种哲理?
(2)从人的本质属性说明为什么“医生不仅要看到人身上的病,更要看到生病的人”
(3)你在现实生活中遇到类似医患关系的矛盾,按照矛盾辩证法该如何对待和处理?
om
35IBM公司是世界上最大的信息工业跨国公司之一,从上世纪50年代其致力于计算机行业,并很快在大型
计算机业务上占据了统治地位。IBM生产的计算机在技术上常常是最先进的,在某些情况下,他们即使不是
最好的,但由于出色的服务和技术支持,他们仍有卓越的信誉。
在整个60年代和70年代,虽然有 Control data, Honeywell, Sperry Univac、 Burroughs和NCR等企业的
竞争,但这些公司都不是其对手,到1980年为止,IBM仍占据全球大型计算机市场超过80%的份额。大型
计算机是IBM的“金母鸡”,毛利高达70%
80年代,随着个人计算机和工作站所连接成的网络逐渐取代大型机,日本、欧洲共同体和美国国内许多
资本、技术雄厚的企业纷纷涉足这一高风险、高效益的领域。在与苹果、康柏、东芝、戴尔等企业激烈竟争
中IBM公司开始走下坡路
迫于竞争的压力,90年代IBM公司进行了组织改造以降低成本、进行资产重组和资本运营,使公司的
股票价格扶摇直上;精选经营战略转型,在保持计算机硬件领域领先地位的同时,成功地实现了向软件服务
等高利润领域的转移;实施竞争战略调整,全面提升企业竞争里,重塑其昔曰的辉煌
IBM确立的战略目标是:在所处产业的所有领域都能实现高增长率;在所有领域都有技术和质量卓越的
产品,并发挥领导作用:在生产、销售、服务和管理的所有业务活动上,实现最高的效率;确保企业成长所
需要的高利润,以便在产业中具有不可动摇的地位
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目前,计算机技术正在向更加“开放型系统”的方向发展。往往主机是一个公司制造的,显示器是另一个
公司的;打印机又是第三个公司的,软件是第四个公司的,这些组合起来使整个系统得以运行。在新的技术
基础上,计算机行业的企业组织趋向网络化发展,IBM公司面临着新的竞争挑战。IBM公司在垄断和竞争中
寻求着未来的发展。
(摘编自【美】正斯蒂格利茨:《<经济学>》小品和案例及新华网有关资料)
结合资料回答问题
(1)用IBM的案例说明垄断和竞争的关系
(2)从IBM公司的发展过程总结垄断资本条件下竞争的新特点。
36、从党的建立到抗日时期,中间有北伐战争和十年土地革命战争,我们经过了两次胜利,两次失败。北伐
战争胜利了,但是到一九二七年,革命遭到了失败。土地革命战争曾经取得了很大的胜利,红军发展到二十
万人,后来又遭到挫折,经过长征,这三十万人缩小到两万多人……在民主革命时期,经过胜利、失败,再胜
利、再失败,两次比较,我们才认识了中国这个客观世界。在抗日战争前夜和抗日战争时期,我写了一些论
文,例如《中国革命战争的战略问题》、《论持久战》、《新民主主义论》、《<共产党人>发刊词》,替中央起草
过一些关于政策、策略的文件,都是革命经验的总结。那些论文和文件,只有在那个时候才能产生,在以前
不可能,因为没有经过大风大浪,没有两次胜利和两次失败的比较,还没有充分的经验,还不能充分认识中
国革命的规律
过去,特别是开始时期,我们只是一股劲儿要革命,至于怎么革法,革些什么,哪些先革,哪些后革,哪
些要到下一阶段才革,在一个相当长的时间内,都没有弄清楚,或者说没有完全弄清楚。
毛泽东《在扩大的中央工作会议上的讲话》(1962年1月30日)
结合材料回答问题
(1)毛泽东在20世纪60年代初回顾中国共产党在民主革命时期艰难地但是成功地认识中国革命规律的这段
历史,是要说明什么问题?
(2)在改革开放和社会主义现代化建设取得举世瞩目成就的今天,如何看待以毛泽东为主要代表的中国共产
党人在社会主义建设方面的艰辛探索?
37在《人民日报》“说句心里话”栏目,重庆市城乡统筹综合改革先行示范区的一位农民说出了这样的心里话
这些年,党和政府在想办法给农民更多实惠,直补种粮农民,免除了农业税,让我们参加了新型农村合作医
疗,这些以前真是想都不敢想啊
现如今,我们这个村先搞了“农民转市民”试点,全村131人今年全部将农村户口转为城镇户口,由农民
开始变为市民啦!
我家承包的土地自愿流转给集体统一经营,每亩补贴我们青苗费4880元,以后每年按照亩产1000斤粮
食的市场价补偿我们,村里把流转出来的土地集中起来,引进一些现代农业项目,经营赚了钱,我们可以分
红,这些项目优先从村里招聘劳动力,我儿子就可以回来打工,离我们更近了。以前大家都出去打工,地荒
在那里,流转以后可以提高土地利用效率,我们又能从中受益,对村里经济也有好处。
我们现在住的房子是17年前盖的,已经破旧了,根据农民转市民的政策,房了拆迁以后,会补偿给我们
两套75平方米的搂房,新房子离这不远,政府承诺我们明年9月搬家
最高兴的是变市民以后,参加了基本养老保险,像我们这样的老人,一次性缴4320元钱,男的从60岁
起,女的从55岁起,就可以每个月领156元养老金
结合材料回答问题
(1)结合我国农村改革发展的历史进程,说明为什么一些过去农民“想都不敢想”的问题现在已经解决或正在解

(2)通过该示范区的变化,指出建设我国社会主义新农村的主要途径。
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38本题为选做题,请在Ⅰ、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一首作答,若两题都回答,只按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩计入总

选做题
材料1
2007年是“卢沟桥事变”70周年,也是中日邦交正常化35周年,温家宝总理应邀于4月中旬对日本进
了正式访问,在两国发表的《中日联合新闻公报》中,确认双方将继续遵循《中日联合声明》、《中日和平友
好条约》和《中日联合宣言》的各项原则,努力构筑“基于共同战略利益的互惠关系”。温总理在日本国会众
议院发表的演讲中,引用日本的谚语“尽管风在呼啸,山却不会移动”形容中日关系,引起日本国会议员们的
广泛共鸣
日本防卫大臣石破茂在为中国军舰“深圳”号访日举行的招待会上致词说,实现两国军舰互访,必将促进
两国防务领域的深入交流,进一步提高彼此之间的信任关系,推进双方战略互惠关系向前发展
材料2
日本首相福田康夫就职后明确表示,他作为首相不会支参拜靖国神社,他在就中日邦交正常化35周年致
温家宝的贺信中说:“日中两国在地理上是无法迁移的“一衣带水”的邻邦,不论今后国际形势如何变化,日中
关系对两国而言乃为最重要的双边关系之一却是不会改变的,我愿意致力于构筑日中战略互惠关系。
曾480余次访华的日中协会理事长白西绅一郎认为,发展日中战略互惠关系,除了要“政治、经济两个轮子
起转”之外,还应特别注重扩大日中民间关系,这样才能夯实日中战略互惠关系的基石
据日本海关统计,2007年1月—9月,日中双边贸易额为17153亿美元,同比增长12.1%,其中,日本
向中国出口7863亿美元,增长178%,日本自中国进口9290亿美元,增长77%,日本贸易逆差142.7亿美
元,减少26.7%,中国继续保持日本第二大出口目的地和第一大进口来源国的地位
(摘自商务部两国别数据库)
结合材料回答问题
(1)中日两国战略互惠关系”的基本精神是什么?
(2)分析温家宝总理用“尽管风在呼啸,山却不会移动形容中日关系的寓意
选做题
材料1
. col
联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会在2007年2月2日就气候问题发出了警告:从现在开始到2100年,
全球平均气温的“最可能升高幅度“是1.8摄氏度至4摄氏度,海平面升高幅度是18厘米至58厘米。美国著
名智库国际战略研究所的报告认为,“如果温室气体排放仍得不到控制,其灾难性后果不亚于发生一场核战

材料2
现在国际上担心中国很快就会成为世界头号污染物排放国:而且再过25年,中国温室气体排放量将超过
其他发达国家总各。……中国的高速崛起,会用掉全球大半的能源,加重能源危机;由于巨大的污染物和温
室气体的排放量,中国将成为全球最大的污染源,中国是气候变化的主要威胁
材料3
从1950年到2002年,中国化石燃料排放的二氧化碳占世界同期累计排放量的933%同期发达国家排放
量占77%,而此前的200年间,发达国家更是占到95%):1950年到2002年的50多年间,中国人均排放量
居世界第92位,从单位GDP二氧化碳排放的弹性系数看,1990年到2004年的15年间,单位GDP每增长
1%,世界平均二氧化碳排放增长0.6%,中国增长0.38%
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(摘自国家发改委主任马凯在国务院新闻办新闻发布会上的讲话)
2007年12月14日,刚刚参加完印尼巴厘岛联合国气候变化大会的世界银行行长佐利克来到中国,针对
近年来中国为节能减排所付出的努力,佐利克说,中国己经形成强烈共识,在发展经济的同时更关注环境保
护,并提岀了科学发展观。他认为,中国政府在降低能耗、提髙车辆能将标准,以及发展全球碳市场等方面
发挥了重要作用
这不仅对中国本身发展意义重大,也将为全球应对气候变化挑战做出贡献
(摘自中国广播网有关报道)
结合材料回答问题
(1)上述材料中所反映的气候变化的严峻事实对我们理解自然环境在社会发展中的作用有何启示?
(2)评析“中国气候威胁论”并指出中国应对气候变化问题的战略选择。
2007年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题。每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题
目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。
1.“风定花犹落,鸟鸣山更幽”形象地表达了动和静的辩证关系是()
A.静不是动,动不是静
静中有动,动中有静
C.动是必然的,静是偶然的
D.动是静的原因,静是动的结果
2.“挟泰山以超北海,语人曰吾不能,是诚不能也。为长者折枝,语人曰吾不能,是不为也,非不能也。”《孟
子》中的这段话启示我们,做事情时要区分可能性和不可能性,二者的区别在于(
A.人的主观努力程度
B.对人是否有利
C.现实中有无根据和条
s
D.现实中的根据和条件是否充分
3马克思根据人的发展状况把人类历史划分为三大形态。它们是(
A.自然经济社会、商品经济社会、时间经济社会
B.原始公有制社会、私有制社会、共产主义公有制社会
C.农业社会、工业社会、信息社会
D.人的依赖性社会、物的依赖性社会、人的自由全面发展社会
4.列宁说:“意识到自己的奴隶地位而与之作斗争的奴隶,是革命家。没有意识到自己的奴隶地位而过着默
默无言、浑浑噩噩、忍气吞声的奴隶生活的奴隶,是十足的奴隶。对奴隶生活的各种好处津津乐道并对和善
的好主人感激不尽以至垂涎欲滴的奴隶是奴才,是无耻之徒。”这三种奴隶的思想意识之所以有如此巨大的差
异,是由于
人的社会意识并不都是社会存在的反映
B.人的社会意识与社会存在具有不一致性
C.人的社会意识中的各种形式之间相互作用
人的社会意识具有历史继承性
5货币的本质是(
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A.商品交换的媒介物
B商品价值的一般等价物
C.商品的等价物
D.商品相对价值形式
6在资本主义社会,农业资本家和土地所有者之间争夺的是()
A.形成级差地租I的超额利润
B形成级差地租Ⅱ的超额利润
C形成绝对地租的超额利润
D形成垄断地租的超额利润
7作为商品的资本是()
A.商业资本
B借贷资本
C产业资本
D流通资本
8在中国共产党的历史上,第一次鲜明地提出“马克思主义中国化”的命题和任务的会议是(
A.党的二大
遵义会议C.党的六届六中全会D.党的七大
9国民革命失败后,毛泽东在八七会议上提出的著名论断是()
A.须知政权是由枪杆子中取得

B兵民是胜利之本
C.一切反动派都是纸老虎
D星星之火,可以燎原
101957年,毛泽东在《关于正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题》中指出,在我国,工人阶级与民族资产阶级的矛
盾属于人民内部的矛盾。如果处理不当,会变成
A.对抗性的敌我矛盾
B.非对抗性的敌我矛盾
C对抗性的人民内部矛盾
D.非对抗性的人民内部矛盾
11.个代表”重要思想的根本出发点和落脚点是()
A.实现社会主义现代化
B发展社会主义社会生产力
C发展社会主义民主,尊重和保障人权
D.实现人民愿望、满足人民需要、维护人民利益
12社会主义道德建设的核心是()
A.为人民服务
B集体主义
C诚实守信
D爱国主义
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13.中国共产党和中国政府始终尊重和保护人权,认为首要的人权是()
A.参政权、议政权
B自由权、平等权
C.生存权、发展权
D选举权、被选举权
14.《中共中央关于构建社会主义和谐社会若干重大问题的决定》指出,社会和谐是中国特色社会主义的
A.根本任务
B根本原则
C本质属性
D.基本要求
15胡锦涛在学习《江泽民文选》报告会上的讲话中指出,我们学习《江泽民文选》必须牢牢把握的主题是()
A.建设中国特色社会主义
B以经济建设为中心
C完善社会主义民主和法制
D加强社会主义精神文明建设
二、多项选择题:17~33小题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中。至少有两个选项是符
合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。
17.关于龙的形象,自古以来就有“角似鹿、头似驼、眼似兔、项似蛇、腹似蜃、鳞似鱼、爪似鹰、掌似虎
耳似牛”的说法。这表明()
A观念的东西是移入人脑并在人脑中改造过的物质的东西
B.一切观念都是现实的模仿
C.虚幻的观念也是对事物本质的反映
D.任何观念都可以从现实世界中找到其物质“原型
cIn. CO
18.某地乡村公路边有很多柿子园。金秋时节农民采摘柿子时,最后总要在树上留一些熟透的柿子。果农们
说,这是留给喜鹊的食物。每到冬天,喜鹊都在果树上筑巢过冬,到春天也不飞走,整天忙着捕捉果树上的
虫子,从而保证了来年柿子的丰收。从这个事例中我们受到的启示是(
A.事物之间有其固有的客观联系
B.人们可以发现并利用规律来实现自己的目的
C.人与自然的关系是相互利用的关系
D.保持生态系统的平衡是人类生存发展的必要条件
19.2006年7月12日凌晨,刘翔在瑞士洛桑国际田联超级大奖赛男子110米栏比赛中,以12秒88勇夺冠
军,打破了由英国名将科林“杰克逊保持13年之久的12秒91的世界记录。科林ˆ杰克逊在谈起自己已被打破
的记录时,没有一丝沮丧:“我一点也不失望,正相反,我感到非常兴奋。”他说:“记录本来就是用来被打破
的。”这在哲学上的启示是()
A.创新是水无止境的
B.不断超越前人是历史发展的规律
C.凡是在历史上产生的都要在历史上灭亡
D.一切事物都是作为过程而存在,作为过程而发展
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20.以人为本是科学发展观的本质和核心。以人为本中的“人”是指()
A.具体的、现实的人B.广大人民群众?C.作为个体的个人D.社会全体成员
21.商品的市场价格发生变化
A.与货币的价值量变化无关
B.与商品的价值量变化有关
C.与商品的生产价格变化无关
D与商品的供求变化有关
22利润率表示全部预付资本的增殖程度,提高利润率的途径有(
A.提高剩余价值率
B提高资本有机构成
C加快资本周转速度
D.节省不变资本
23生产要素市场包括()
A.土地市场
B商品市场
资本市场
D劳动力市场
Ocn
24G-WG'是
A.货币资本的循环公式
B生产资本的循环公式
C.商品资本的循环公式
D.资本总公式
w
25新民主主义革命时期,以国共合作为基础所建立的统一战线有()
A.国民革命联合战线
B.工农民主统一战线
C.抗日民族统一战线
D.人民民主统一战线
26.1942年毛泽东在《整顿党的作风》中指出,我们要的是马克思列宁主义的学风。学风问题主要是指()
A.对待知识分子的态度问题
B领导机关、全体干部、全体党员的思想方法问题
我们对待马克思列宁主义的态度问题
D全党同志的工作态度问题
27.20世纪50年代中期,邓小平多次强调,执政的中国共产党必须接受来自几个方面的监督,具体包括(
A党内的监督
B.人民群众的监督
C海外人士的监督
D民主党派民主人土的监督
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28坚持和完善社会主义初级阶段个人收入分配制度,就要规范收入分配秩序,其中包括(
A.着力提高低收入者收入水平
B逐步扩大中等收入者比重
C.有效调节过高收入
D坚决取缔非法收入
29依法治国是中国共产党领导人民治理国家的基本方略,其基本要点有
A.中国共产党领导人民实行依法治国
B形成一套比较完备的法律制度
C.对国家事务、经济文化事业和社会事务的管理工作都要依法进行
D.依法治国的最重要依据是宪法和法律
30建设社会主义新农村的一项重要任务是培养新型农民,具体措施有
A.加快发展农村义务教育
B加强劳动力技能培训
C.发展农村文化事业
D加速农村剩余劳动力的转移
31社会主义核心价值体系是建设和谐文化的根本,它的基本内容包括()
A.马克思主义指导思想
B中国特色社会主义共同理想
C.以爱国主义为核心的民族精神和以改革创新为核心的时代精神

D.社会主义荣辱观
32从2006年1月1日起,我国废止《农业税条例》,这是具有划时代意义的历史事件,它有利于(
A.促进城乡税制的
B推进工业反哺农业、城市支持农村
C逐步清除城乡差别,推进城乡统筹发展
coiN.
D.增加农民收入,提高消费水平
33中非合作论坛是首脑外交的新形式。中国国家主席、副主席和总理及非洲4国的总统和非洲统一组织秘书
长参加了第一届部长级会议并发表讲话;14个非洲国家的领导人及44个国家的88位部长参加了2003年第
二届部长级会议;206年的中非合作论坛北京峰会更是吸引了非洲40多个国家的元首和政府首脑参加。首
脑外交对中非关系的重要意义主要表现在(
A.推动了和平、稳定、公正、合理的国际新秩序的建立
B增进了友谊,促进了贸易往来
C.体现了平等观念
D.开辟了“南南合作”的新路
三、分析题:34-38小题.每小题10分。共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料回答问题。请将答案写在答
题纸指定位置上。
34.成仿吾是我国无产阶级革命家。马克思主义理论家、教育家,他是由“文化人”成为“革命人”的典型之
成仿吾究竟是个什么样的人呢?作家丁玲在未跟他谋面之前,曾产生过一系列的“合理想象”:“在文学上,他
主张浪漫主义。创造社最早就是这样主张的;他是从日本留学回来的,一定很洋气,很潇洒,因为曾见过
些傲气十足的诗人,趾高气扬,高谈阔论;他在国外学军械制造,或许是庄重严肃之人;他在黄埔军官学校
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担任教官,一定有一种军人气概;他曾经跟鲁迅进行过革命文学队伍内部的文学论争,写过火气很重的文章.是
不是有点张飞李适式气质呢?后来,丁玲在陕北见到成仿吾时,第一个感觉就是“我想象的全错了”。原来成
仿吾是一个“土里土气、老实巴交的普通人”,一个尊重别人、热情、虚心、平等待人的人。丁玲十分后悔:“为
什么我单单忽略了他是一个经过长征的革命干部、红军战士、一个正派憨厚的共产党员呢?”另据老红军杨定
华回忆说,在长征中见到的成仿吾完全是士兵的装扮:破旧的棉军衣,斜挎干粮袋,手持着一枝手杖。杨定
华说,成仿吾在红军大学当政治教员。有人说岀他的名字。但谁也不知道他是文学家。
请运用马克思主义认识论基本原理加以分析
(1)丁玲对成仿吾的“合理想象”为什么“全错了”?
(2)丁玲对成仿吾认识的“转变”过程对我们正确认识事物有何启示?
35多种经济成分并存是当代资本主义和社会主义共有的经济现象当代资本主义经济不仅有私有制经济成分,
也有国有制经济成分以及其他经济成分;在社会主义经济中不仅有公有经济成分,也有私有制经济成分以及其
他经济成分。但是资本主义和社会主义的基木经济制度的性质是根本不同的。在分析我国社会主义初级阶段
生产资料所有制结构问题时。有人以“八宝饭”为例做了形象比喻:八宝饭中的糯米是主要成分。没有糯米不
是八宝饭,但糯米本身并不就是八宝饭;八宝饭里还有其他成分,红枣、莲子、核桃、花生、红豆、砂糖等,
没有这些成分也不是八宝饭。但这些东西本身也不同于八宝饭。只有把糯米和其他成分组合在一起并以糯米
为主才是八宝饭。结合材料回答问题:
(1)判断一个社会的基本经济制度性质的根本标准是什么?
(2)我国社会主义初级阶段公有制经济和其他经济成分之间是什么关系
(3)我国社会主义初级阶断基本经济制度优越性的主要表现是什么?
36.减租减息是中国共产党在抗日战争时期解决农民问题的基本政策。减租又称二五减租。即规定地主照原
租额收25%。地租的最高额不得超过375%减息的原则是“分半减息”,规定放货的年利率最高不得超过
10%。下表系1942年至1944年对北岳、太行等五个抗日根据地调查的数据。
农村各阶层户数及其所占土地的比例(单位:%)
阶层


中农
贫农
雇农■

户抗战前」36
54.0
8
数减租后2.4
38.0
17.0
土抗战前205
地减租后13.517.542.5250.6
3.4
结合材料回答问题
(1)当地土地流向及农村阶级关系发生了什么变化?
(2)简述实行减租减息政策的意义
(3)解决农民土地问题是新民主主义革命的一项主要任务。结合此表说明减租减息政策的局限性。
37.材料
2000年,我国国内生产总值超过了原定经1980年翻两番的目标,这种增长主要是依赖资源的高投入、
高消耗来实现的。到2020年实现国内生产总值再翻两番,是我国实现全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标。我国
单位GDP消耗的资源能源数量远高于发达国家,也高于印度等发展中国家。按现行汇率计算,2003年我国单
位资料的产出水平,只相当于美国的1/10,日本的1/20,德国的1/6。单位产值能耗比世界平均水平高2.4
倍,是德国的4.97倍,日本的4.43倍,美国的2.1倍,印度的1.65倍,是世界上单位产值能耗最高的国家之
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而我国人口众多,人均资源比较贫乏,水资源人均占有量仅相当于世界人均的25%,人均耕地面积不足世界
平均水平的50%,石油人均占有储量为世界平均水平的11%,大多数矿产资源的人均拥有量不足世界平均水平
的50%。我国环境污染和生态恶化形势十分严峻,1/5的城市空气污染严重,1/3的国土面积受到酸雨影响,全
国水土流失面积356万平方公里,沙化土地面积174万平方公里,90%以上的天然草原退化。生物多样性减少。
材料2
“十一五”时期资源节约方面的主要指标
指标2010年与2005年相比属性(注)
单位国内生产总值能源消耗降低20%约東性
单位工业增加值用水量降低30%约束性
农业灌溉用水有效利用系数由0.45增加到0.5预期性
工业固体废物综合利用率由55.8提高到60%预期性
预期性指标是国家期望的发展目标,主要依靠市场主体的自主行为实现。政府要综合运用各种政策引
导社会资源配置,努力争取实现。约束性指标是在预期性基础上进一步明确并强化了政府责任的指标,政府
要通过合理配置公共资源和有效运用行政力量,确保实现
“十一五”时期环境保护方面的主要指标
指标2010年与2005年相比属性
耕地保有量减少0.2亿公顷约束性
主要污染物排放总量减少10%约束性
n
森林覆盖率增加1.8%约束性
结合材料回答问题
(1)中国经济发展面临的资源挑战对经济增长方式转变提出何种要求?
(2)按照科学发展观的要求,我国如何建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会?

38.本题为选倣题,请在Ⅰ、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一道作答,若两题都回答,只按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩记
入总分
选做题
材料1
中东区域示意图(略)
截止2005年底,世界已探明的石油储量1200亿桶,其中中东地区为7427亿桶,约占世界总储量的
62%,迄今已探明石油储量居世界前列的5个国家沙特阿拉伯、伊朗、伊拉克、科威特和阿拉伯联合酋长国
都位于波期湾地区。中东地区石油产量约占世界总产量的2/5,出口量约占世界总出口量的2/3
材料2
战后中东局势一直动荡不定,各种地区冲突和局部战争此起彼伏,连绵不断。其中仅阿拉伯国家与以
色列之间就进行了5次大规模的战争。而1980年9月发生的两伊战争,则整整打了8年。特别是20世纪90
年代初的海湾危机和海湾战争更是牵动了整个世界。时至2003年3月,美、英又对伊拉克发动了一场“先发
制人”的战争,迅速占领了伊拉克。2006年7月,黎以之间再次爆发大规模的冲突。至于小规模的武装冲突
从未间断过,军事政变、内战和恐怖暗杀等暴力事件也时有发生。可以说,在战后世界上,没有哪一个地区
像中东那样经历如此长期和频繁的战争与冲突
结合地图和所给材料分析中东地区持续动荡不安的主要根源
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选做题II
坚持包容精神,共建和谐世界。文明多样性是人类社会的基本特征,也是人类文明进步的重要动力。在
人类历史上,各种文明都以自己的方式为人类文明进步作岀了积极贡献。存在差异,各种文明才能相互借
鉴、共同提高;强求一律,只会导致人类文明失去动力、僵化衰落。各种文明有历史长短之分,无高低优劣
之别。历史文化、社会制度和发展模式的差异不应成为各国交流的障碍,更不应该成为相互对抗的理由。
我们应该尊重各国自主选择社会制度和发展道路的权利,相互借鉴而不是刻意排斥,取长补短而不是定
于一尊,推动各国根据本国国情实现振兴和发展;应该加强不同文明的对话和交流,在竞争比较中取长补
短,在求同存异中共同发展,努力消除相互的疑虑和隔阂,使人类更加和睦,让世界更加丰富多彩;应该以
平等开放的精神,维护文明的多样性,促进国际关系民主化,协力构建各种文明兼容并蓄的和谐世界。
摘自胡锦涛主席在联合国成立60周年首脑会议上发表的《努力建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界》的
讲话
结合材料回答问题
(1)运用辩证法的观点说明为什么不同文明要“在竞争比较中取长补短,在求同存异中共同发展”。
(2)简述中国坚持走和平发展道路对建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界的意义。
2006年考研思想政治理论试题
单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题
目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。
1世界上惟一不变的是变化。这一论断的含义是
A、变是世界的本质
B、世界上只有变,没有不变
C、变是绝对的,不变是相对的
D、变与不变是绝对对立的
docIn.
2.“只有音乐才能激起人的音乐感;对于没有音乐感的耳朵来说,最美的音乐也毫无意义。”这表明
A、人的认识是主体与客体相互作用的过程和结果
B、人的感觉能力决定认识的产生和发展
C、人的认识能力是因人的生理结构决定的
D、事物因人的感觉而存在
3.温家宝总理在给一位国务院参事回信中,引用了两句诗:“知屋漏者在宇下,知政失者在草野”。这一古训
蕴含的哲理是
A、人的经验是判断是非得失的根本尺度
B、直接经验比间接经验更重要
C、感性认识高于理性认识
D、人民群众的直接经验即实践是认识的重要基础
4…许多事情我们可以讲一千个理由、一万个理由,但老百姓吃不上饭,就没有理由。‘民以食为天”。这段话
表明()
A、人们首先必须吃、喝、住、穿,然后才能从事政治、科技、艺术、宗教等等活动
B、人的生理需求是历史的基础
C、人的自然属性决定着人的本质
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D、人的物质欲望是社会发展的根本动力
5.某资本家投资100万元,资本有机构成4:1,m'=100%,一年周转4次,其年剩余价值量和年剩余价值率
分别是()
A、80万,100%
C、40万,100%
D、80万,400%
6.商业资本作为一种独立的职能资本,也获得平均利润,其直接原因是
A、商业部门和产业部门之间的竞争和资本转移
B、产业资本家为销售商品将部分利润让渡给商业资本家
C、商业资本家加强对商业雇员的剥削
D、产业部门将工人创造的一部分剩余价值分割给商业部门
7现代企业制度的典型形式是()
A、股份制
B、股份合作制
C、合伙制
8.“墙上芦苇,头重脚轻根底浅;山间竹笋,嘴尖皮厚腹中空。”毛泽东在延安整风运动期间用这副对联形象
地讽刺了(
A、主观主义的学风
B、宗派主义的党风
C、党八股的文风
D、官僚主义的作风
w
9中国新民主主义革命时期的统一战线包括着两个联盟。其中基本的、主要的联盟是
A、工人阶级同城市小资产阶级的联盟
B、以工农联盟为主体的工人阶级同农民、小资产阶级等其他劳动人民的联盟
C、以工农联盟为主体的工人阶级同农民、小资产阶级和民族资产阶级的联盟
D、工人阶级同可以合作的非劳动人民的联盟
10.1939年毛泽东在《中国革命和中国共产党》中指出,中国是在许多帝国主义国家的统治或半统治之下,实
际上处于长期的不统一状态,再加上土地广大,其结果是
A、帝国主义侵略势力日益成为统治中国的决定性力量
B、封建经济在社会经济生活中占着显然的优势
C、经济、政治和文化的发展表现出极端的不平衡
D、人民的贫困和不自由的程度是世界所少见的
1],要实现我国经济发展的战略目标,必须加快经济增长方式的转变,其核心是正确处理好()
A、积累与消费关系
投入与产出的关系
C、速度与效益关系
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D、数量与质量的关系
12.创新是一个民族进步的灵魂,是一个国家兴旺发达的不竭动力,也是一个政党永葆生机的源泉。创新包括
理论创新、制度创新、技术创新、文化创新及其他各方面的创新。在各项创新中处于先导地位的是
A、科技创新
B、制度创新
C、文化创新
D、理论创新
13我国社会主义经济体制改革与政治体制改革的关系表现为()
A、前者是目的,后者是手段
B、前者是基础,后者是目标
前者是内容,后者是形式
D、二者相互依赖、相互配合
14.《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展的第十一个五年规划的建议》提出,“十一五”时期要做到资源利
用效率显著提高,单位国内生产总值能源消费比“十五”期末降低()
A、10%左右B、20%左右C、30%左右D、40%左右
15.2005年10月27日,十届全国人大常委会审议通过《关于修改<中华人民共和国个人所得税法>的决定》
将个人所得税工薪费用扣除标准调整为(
A、800元B、1200元C、1600元D、2000元
162005年5月底6月初,欧盟成员国法国和荷兰先后全民公决中以多数票否决了《欧盟宪法条约》,这一事
件说明(
A、欧盟已失去其吸引力
B、法、荷两国民众对欧洲一体化建设现状不满
C、法、荷两国将退出欧盟
欧盟宪法条约》与欧洲体化进程
ricIn.
二多项选择题:17~33小题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有一个选项是符合
题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选、少选或错选均不得分。
17.人对物质世界的实践把握是在实践的运行过程中实现的,其基本环节有()
A、区分实践活动的主体与客体
B、确立实践目的和实践方案
C、实践主体依据目的、方案,借助手段作用于客体
D、完成、检验和评价实践活动的结果,进行反馈调节
18.马克思指出:“一个社会即使探索到了本身运动的自然规律,……它还是既不能跳过也不能用法令取消自
然的发展阶段。但是它能缩短和减轻分娩的痛苦。”这表明()
A、人类社会的发展是合规律性与合目的性的统
社会发展过程与自然界演变过程一样都是自觉的
C、人的自觉选择在社会发展中具有重要作用
D、人类总体历史进程是不可超越的
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19据报载,北京市ⅩX区开展以文化育文明的活动,通过文化资源孕育文明、群众文化哺育文明,文化兴区
培育文明等三种途径,营造文明城区,这是因为()
A、文化和文明是没有区别的
B、文化中的积极成分构成文明
C、文化和文明都是人类活动的结果
D、文化进步程度与文明发展水平是同步的
20、深圳青年歌手从飞在8年时间内,捐资上百万元资助了很多贫困山区的失学儿童,而自己却身患癌症,
负债17万元。有人这样评价他:“从飞能够从帮助别人的过程中得到快乐。”丛飞的行为表明()
A、人的价值不包含个人的价值选择和目标设计等主观方面
B、人的价值的大小取决于对社会的贡献
C、人的价值不仅表现在物质方面,更表现在精神方面
D、社会价值的实现总是以个人价值的牺牲为代价
21在资本积累过程中,实现个别资本增大的形式是()
A、资本循环B、资本积聚C、资本周转D、资本集中
22.垄断资本主义的基本经济特征包括()
A、垄断组织在经济生活中起决定作用
B、资本输出有了特别重要的意义
C、在金融资本的基础上形成金融寡头的统治
D、垄断使竞争趋于缓和
in
23社会主义市场经济条件下按劳分配的特点有()
A、按劳分配中的“劳”不是直接的社会劳动
B、按劳分配中的劳动量按照劳动者实际付出的劳动量来计量
C、按劳分配在全社会范围内按统一标准实现
D、按劳分配必须通过商品货币形式实现
ocin.
24我国宏观经济调控政策有()
A、财政政策B、货币政策C、产业政策D、收入政策
25在土地革命战争后期和抗日战争时期,毛泽东思想得到系统总结和多方面展开而达到成熟。下列毛泽东的
科学著作中,写于这个时期的有()
A、《星星之火,可以燎原
B、《反对木本主义》
C、《新民主主义论》
D、《论联合政府》
26.1948年中国共产党制定了土地改革总路线。下列选项中对这一总路线所含内容理解正确的有()
A、按照平分土地的原则,满足贫雇农的要求
B、团结中农,允许中农保有比他人略多的土地
C、没收地主土地,不再对地主分配土地
D、实行耕者有其田,将土地的所有权分配给农民
27中华人民共和国的成立标志着(
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A、半殖民地半封建社会结束
B、中国进入新民主主义社会
C、中国进入社会主义社会
D、新民主主义革命基本胜利
28.“三个代表”重要思想深化了对中国特色社会主义的认识,表现在()
A、进一步回答了什么是社会主义,怎样建设社会主义的问题
B、明确提出了解放思想、实事求是的思想路线
C、创造性的回答了建设一个什么样的党,怎样建设党的问题
D、确定了党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线
29.“计划经济不等于社会主义,资本主义也有计划;市场经济不等于资本主义,社会主义也有市场,”邓小平
这一论断的内涵是
A、计划和市场都属于社会基木制度的范畴
B、计划和市场都是资源配置的方式
C、计划和市场不是社会主义与资本主义的本质区别
D、计划和市场是不能兼容的
30中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度,是我国的一项基本政治制度。多党合作的主要方式有(
A、各民主党派和无党派民主人士参加人大、政协参与管理国家和参政议政
B、共产党和各民主党派互派成员到对方担任领导职务
C、共产党和各民主党派通过多种渠道实行政治协商和民主监督
D、吸收各民主党派和无党派民主人士中的优秀人才到国家机关担任领导职务
31农业、农村和农民问题始终是我国现代化建设的根本性问题,在现代化建设中必须依靠广大农民群众、因
为(
A、广大农民是我国现代化事业发展中人数最多的依靠力量
B、工农联盟是人民民主专政的基础,也是实现社会主义现代化的保证
C、农业是国民经济的基础,保证和支持着整个国民经济的运行和稳定发展

D、没有农村的稳定和全面进步,就不可能有整个社会的稳定和全面进步
322005年9月15日,国家主席胡锦涛在联合国成立60周年首脑会议上,发表了《努力建设持久和平、共同
繁荣的和谐世界》的讲话,他提出(
A、坚持多边主义,实现共同安全
B、坚持互利合作,实现共同繁荣
C、坚持包容精神,共建和谐世界
D、坚持积极稳妥方针,推进联合国改革
33.主要在越南、泰国等东南亚国家发生的禽流感于2005年10月扩散到欧洲、中国、中东及美洲等地。一直
被认为是传染病“拒入”地带的俄罗斯、乌克兰、克罗地亚、希腊、瑞典和英国等欧洲国家也相继出现禽流感
疫情,世界各国都感到了危机。这一事件表明()
A、人类面临的全球性问题日益突出
B、发展中国家的贫困直接导致了这一全球问题
C、协商对话和携手合作是应对全球性问题的理性选择
D、全球公共卫生能力建设亟待加强
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分析題:34~-38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料回答问题。将答案写在答题
纸相应题位置上
34、从前,沧州城南有一座临河寺庙,庙前冇两尊面对流水的石兽,据说是“镇水”用的。一年暴雨成灾,大
庙山门倒塌,将那两尊石兽撞入河中。庙僧一时无计可施,待到10年后募金重修山门,才感到那对石兽之不
可或缺,于是派人下河寻找。按照他的想法,河水东流,石兽理应顺流东下,谁知一直向下游找了十里地,
也不见其踪影。这时,一位在庙中讲学的先生提出他的见解:石兽不是木头做的,而是由大石头制成,它们
不会被流水冲走,石重沙轻,石兽必然于掉落之处朝下沉,你们往下游找,怎么找得到呢?旁人听来,此言
有理。不料,一位守河堤的老兵插话:我看不见得,凡大石落入河中,水急石重而河床沙松者应求之于上游。
众人一下子全愣住了:这可能吗?老兵解释道:“我等长年守护于此,深知河中情势,那石兽很重,而河沙又
松,西来的河水冲不动石兽,反而把石兽下面的沙子冲走了,还冲成一个坑,时间一久,石兽势必向西倒
去,掉进坑中。如此年复一年地倒,就好像石兽往河水上游翻跟头一样。”众人听后,无不服膺。寻找者依照
他的指点,果真在河的上游发现并挖出了那两头石兽
请运用马克思主义哲学有关原理,结合材料回答问题
(1)僧按照常理,认为石兽应顺流而下,从真理的具体性分析其失当之处?(4分)
(2)守河堤老兵关于石兽“逆流而上”的见解对我们辩证的思考问题有何启示?并举一例说明之。(6分)
35、自2002年以来,南京、成都、石家庄等地相继发生奶农把鲜奶倒入下水道的事件
另据2004年7月15日中央电视台《经济半小时》报道,进入夏季之后,浙江某市160多户奶农业也频
频把鲜奶倒入水沟,有时在一天内倒掉14吨。倒奶那几天,畜牧兽医站的工作人员分头外出,帮助奶农联系
收购鲜奶的企业,但收效甚微。时隔一年,这样的事件又见诸媒体。2005年8月11日新华网报道,陕西某
村十几家奶农无奈把鲜奶倒进污水沟。
为帮助奶农售奶,当地政府联系了一家公司,收奶价格为每公斤1.2元。可就是这样的低价格,该企业
最后也不收了
人们不禁要问:如今牛奶多得喝不完了吗?
其实,全球年人均奶类消费量为93公斤,中国仅为7.2公斤。奶农倒奶固然与牛奶易变质且不能大量贮
存有关,但前几年一些地方农民一窝蜂地饲养奶牛,鲜奶的供应大量增加。同时,很多企业纷纷介入乳品加
根据以上材料回答问题
AewpeRpm-cIn.
(1)历史上资本主义国家经济危机时农场主把牛奶倒入大海的现象,与材料中的“倒奶事件”有何本质区别?(3

(2)倒奶事件”中隐含着什么样的经济规律?(3分)
(3)为避免发生类似的“倒奶事件”,你认为地方政府应如何作为。(4分)
36、新中国成立前夕,朱德在全国工会工作会议上的讲话中指出;“私人资本主义企中的职工,他们在经济上
还没有获得完全解放,他们还受着资本家的剥削,这种剥削在新民主主义时期只能够受到限制,而不能够消
灭”为了工人阶级根本的长远的利益,还必须“在现阶段自觉地忍受资本家之一定限度以内的剥削。
根据以上材料回答问题
1)新中国成立,工人阶级成了国家的主人,为什么私人资本主义企业中的职工还要“忍受”资本家的剥削?
分)
(2)既然如此,为什么1953年开始又要对私人资本主义进行社会主义改造?(5分)
37、建立健全与经济发展水平相适应的社会保障体系,是建成完善的社会主义市场经济体制的重要内容,是
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贯彻以人为本为核心的科学发展观、构建社会主义和谐社会的必然要求
胡锦涛同志《在省部级主要领导干部提髙枃建祉会主义和谐社会能力专題研讨班上的讲话》中指岀:“我
们所要建设的社会主义和谐社会,应该是民主法治、公平正义、诚信友爱、充满活力、安定有序、人与自然
和谐相处的社会。”而要“切实维护和实现社会公平和正义”,其中一项重要内容就是“进一步完善社会保障体
系,逐步扩大社会保障的覆盖面,切实保障各方面困难群众的基本生活,让他们感受到社会主义大家庭的温
根据以上材料回答问题
(1)从我国社会保障体系的主要内容说明,为何建立健全社会保障体系体现着科学发展观以人为本的本质和核
心?(5分)
(2)公平正义是社会主义和谐社会的重要特征。从社会保障的基本功能说明建立健全社会保障体系与实现公平
正义之间的内在联系。(5分)
38本题为选做题,请在Ⅰ、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一道作答,若两题都回答,只按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩记入总

选做题I
2005年X月X日下午,XX大学学生王文、李波、张彬在自习室相遇。
文:哎,你们注意没有,这两天,胡锦涛主席去北美访问,随行的居然有70多家像海尔集团这样的企
大腕。上次加拿大总理访华,来了27家企业,360多人。领导人出访,带这么多企业代表干什么?
李波:这有什么新鲜!当年克林顿一上台不就宣布在世界上推销美国产品是他的责任吗?韩国更绝,居
然要求所有的外交官都要成为韩国商品的推销员。
张彬:所以啊! EADSI的老总跟德国总理施罗德访华,拿到了价值13亿美元的合同,包括23架空中客
车,还有为北京奥运提供的安保系统
李波:施罗德有什么办法?国内经济不景气,他可以用这些订单来证明自己还是有海外营销能力的嘛
现在领导人岀访可不能只谈友谊,经济合作程度是考察领导人出访成果的一个主要指标
王文:难怪欧盟不顾美国反对,要取消对华武器禁运,看来也是出于经济利益考虑
张彬:经济全球化时代竞争这么激烈,要保护本国利益,又不能损害别国利盖,难啊。看来各国外交都
得为经济“打工
李波:有位外交家不是说,50年前,如果大使讲经济会被认为是笑柄,现在大使如果不懂经济更会成为
笑柄。冷战期间,国与国的较量,军事力量起着重要的作用。现在靠什么?还不是靠经济与技术
王文:看来,世界真的变了
注1:指欧洲航空防务及航天公司
根据以上材料回答问题
(1)他们正在讨论国际社会发生的一种什么样的变化?(4分)
(2)为什么“现在大使如果不懂经济更会成为笑柄”?(6分)
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选做Ⅱ
随着人口的急剧增长,人类社会面临着三种主要因素的制约,即经济增长、资源以及环境。人们将发现
我们面临的是相互制约的三重困境(如下图),人类必须从这种三重困境结构中寻找出路。
根据以上材料回答问题
(1)运用普遍联系的观点说明人类发展所面临的三重困境。(4分)
(2)分析人类发展走出三重困境的战略选择。(6分)
2005年考研思想政治理论试题
、单项选择题:1~15小题,每小题
共15分
1、广大农民在致富奔小康的过程中深切体会到:“要富口袋,先富脑袋”,这一说法在哲学上的含义是
A、精神是第一性的,物质是第二性的
B、精神的力量可以变成物质的力量
精神的力量可以代替
D、先有精神,后有物质

2、“当一位杰出的老科学家说什么是可能的时候,他差不多总是对的;但当他说什么是不可能的时候,他
差不多总是错的。”这一名言的哲学意蕴是()
A、在科学研究中,经验是不可靠的
事物的可能性是因人而异的
世界上一切事物只有可能性,没有不可能性
D、每代人所获得的真理性认识,既有绝对性,又有相对性
3、未来学家尼葛洛庞蒂说:“预测未来的最好办法就是把它创造出来。”从认识与实践的关系看,这句话
对我们的启示是(
A、认识总是滞后于实战
B、实践是认识的先导
C、实践高于认识
实践与认识是合一的
4、第十届全国人大二次会议通过的宪法修正案,将“国家尊重和保障人权”写入宪法。这标志着
A、我国社会主义生产关系的完善
B、我国社会主义政治文明的进步
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C、我国社会主义物质文明的发展
D、我国社会主义精神文明的升华
5、在市场上,一台笔记本电脑的标价是12000元,此时执行价值尺度职能的货币是
A、实在的货币
B、信用货币
C、观念上的货币
D、现金
6、某企业有一台髙精度磨床,价值为2000元,使用年限为10年,目前已使用2年。这时由于生产该种设
备的劳动生产率提高,所需社会必要劳动时间减少,其价值降为15000元。此时,这台高精度磨床的物质磨
损是()
B、2000元
C、3000元
D、4000元
7、社会主义社会实行按劳分配的前提条件是(
A、旧的社会分工的存在,劳动还是谋生的手段
B、社会主义生产力发展的水平
C、社会主义生产资料公有制
D、社会主义市场经济体制的建立
8、土地革命战争时期、毛泽东指出:“一国之内,在四周白色政权的包围中,有一小块或若干小块红色政
杈的区域长期地存在,这是世界各国从来没有的事。这种奇事的发生,有其独特的原因。”红色政权能够存
在和发展的根本原因是(
A、中国是一个经济政治发展极端不平衡的半殖民地半封建大国
B、国民革命的政治影响及良好的群众基础
C、全国革命形势的继续发展
ocin.
D、相当力量的正式红军的存在以及共产党组织的坚强有力和正确领导
9、建国初期,中国共产党在土地改革中对富农的政策是(
A、征收富农多余的土地财产
B、消灭富农经济
、保存富农经济
D、限制富农经济
10、“我们的共产党和共产党领导的八路军、新四军,是革命的队伍。我们这个队伍完全是为着解放人民
的,是彻底地为人民的利益工作的。”这段话所反映的思想观点是(
A、一切为了群众,一切依靠群众
B、从群众中来,到群众中去
C、一切从实际出发,理论联系实际
D、自力更生、艰苦奋斗
11、邓小平理论首要的基本理论问题是()
A、发展才是硬道理
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B、发展是党执政兴国的第一要务
C、解放生产力,发展生产力
D、什么是社会主义,怎样建设社会主义
12、在社会主义市场经济条件下,坚持为人民服务的价值取向,关键是要()
A、发扬艰苦奋斗的精神
弘扬爱国主义精神
C、正确处理国家、集体、个人三者之间的利益关系
D、发扬顾全大局、诚信友爱、扶贫济困的精神
13、科学技术是第一生产力,国家之间的竞争更多的将是科技力量的竞争,归根到底是()
A、经济实力的竞争
B、人才的竞争
C、军事实力的竞争
D、政治实力的竞争
14、2003年12月31日出台的《中共中央国务院关于促进农民增加收入若干政策的意见》提出,当前和今后
个时期做好农民增收工作的方针是(
A、“粮食增产、农民增收、农业增效”
B、“以工促农、以城带乡
C、“多予、少取、放活
D、“统筹、协调、扶持”
15、以色列议会于204年10月26日通过了沙龙总理提出的计划。根据计划,以色列将在2005年底前撤出
加沙地带所有的犹太人定居点和约旦河西岸4个定居点。这一计划称为()
A、双边行动计划
bsaw.
二、多项选择题:16~30小题,每小题2分,共30分
16、据媒体报道,美国哥伦比亚大学的社会学家利用互联网技术做了一次实验,证明只要通过“电子邮件的
6次信息接力”,一个人就可以同世界上任何一个陌生人联系上。这表明(
A、世界是相互联系的统一整体
B、事物之间的联系都是人为的
C、世界的普遍联系是通过“中介”实现的
D、信息是世界普遍联系的基础
17、党的十六大指出,要不断深化对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识。这
“三大规律”(
A、是有层次的
B、都是人的活动的规律
C、是人们在改造社会的实践活动中创造的规律
D、存在着个别、特殊和一般的关系
18、资本主义地租中的绝对地租(
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A、是农产品价值超过社会主义生产价格以上的超额利润
B、形成的条件是农业资本有机构成低于社会平均的资本有机构成
C、形成的原因是对土地的资本主义经营垄断
D、来源于农业工人创造的剩余价值
19、在我国现存的所有制结构中,私营经济()
A、不受公有制经济的影响和制约
B、以生产资料私人占有和雇佣劳动为基础
C、是由社会主义初级阶段的生产力发展状况决定其存在的
D、是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分
20、规范市场秩序所要建立健全的社会信用制度要以(
A、道德为支撑
B、行政为主导
C、产权为基础
D、法律为保障
21、近代中国社会的阶级结构是“两头小中间大”,“两头”是指(
A、无产阶级
B、农民阶级
C、地主大资产阶级
D、城市小资产阶级
OC(n
22、在新民主主义革命时期,中国共产党的建设面临的特殊困难是
A、党的理论长时期准备不足
B、中国
社会封建思想
的影响
时产的大位的是em
23、1956年召开的中共八大通过的政治报告指出,我国国内的主要矛盾是()
A、工人阶级同民族资产阶级之间的矛盾
B、人民对建立先进的工业国的要求同落后的农业国的现实之间的矛盾
C、发展重工业和发展农业、轻工业之间的矛盾
D、人民对于经济文化迅速发展的需要同当前经济文化不能满足人民需要的状况之间的矛盾
4、坚持与时俱进,就是党的全部理论和全部工作要()
A、体现时代性
B、把握规律性
C、富于创造性
D、注重协调性
我国走新型工业化道路必须大力推进产业结构优化升级,形成新的产业格局,其主要内容有(
以高新技术产业为先导
以基础产业和制造业为支撑
C、大力发展劳动密集型产业
D、服务业全面发展
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26、依法治国是党领导人民治理国家的基本方略,实行依法治国具有重大而深远的意义(
A、依法治国是发展社会主义市场经济的客观要求
B、依法治国是建设社会主义民主政治的基本保证
C、依法治国是社会主义文明进步的重要标志
D、依法治国是维护社会稳定、国家长治久安的重要保障
27、党的十六届四中全会通过的《中共中央关于加强党的执政能力建设的决定》指出,不断完善党的领导方
式和执政方式,必须坚持()
科学执政
B、民主执政
C、依法执政
有效执政
28、加强党的执政能力建设,不断提高构建社会主义和谐社会的能力的主要内容包括(
A、全面贯彻尊重劳动、尊重知识、尊重人才、尊重创造的方针,不断增强全社会的创造活力
妥善协调各方面的利益关系,正确处理人民内部矛盾:健全工作机制,维护社会稳定
C、加强社会建设和管理,推进社会管理体制创新
D、坚持党的群众路线,加强和改进新形势下的群众工作
29、从2003年8月至2004年6月,朝核问题第
三轮六方会谈均在北京举行,中国在解决朝核问题
上发挥的作用主要有
A、提出了和平解决朝核问题的总体目标、方向和途径,并得到广泛认同
B、推动形成了六方会谈框架,现已成为一个持续的过程
C、发挥了作为东道主的斡旋和调停作用,得到各方面的肯定
D、促成了朝韩双方《关于朝鲜半岛无核化共同宣言》的签订
30、坚持以人为本,这是科学发展观的本质和核心。以人为本,就是要把人民的利益作为一切工作的出发点
和落脚点,不断满足人们的多方面需求和促进人的全面发展。具体地说,就是
A、在经济发展的基础上,不断提高人民群众物质文化生活水平和健康水平
B、要尊重和保障人权,包括公民的政治、经济、文化权利
C、要不断提高人们的思想道德素质、科学文化素质和健康素质
D、要创造人们平等发展、充分发挥聪明才智的社会环境
三、辨析题:31~33小题,每小题6分,共18分。
31、元代许衡一年夏天外岀,天热口渴难耐,刚好道旁有棵梨树,众人争相摘梨解渴,惟独许衡不为所动。
有人问他为何不摘?他回答说:“不是自己的梨,岂能乱摘!”那人劝解道:“这梨是没有主人的。”许衡
答道:“梨无主人,难道我心中也无主吗?
请透过“这道旁的梨该不该摘?”这一问题,用马克思主义哲学价值观的有关原理对上述材料加以辨

32、以劳动力形式存在的流动资本,它的价值同原料、燃料和辅助材料等劳动对象的价值一样都是一次性地
转移到新产品中去
33、按照我国全面建设小康社会的要求,到2020年我国人均国内生产总值将由1000美元达到3000美元。这
是我国社会主义现代化进程中的一个关键时期,它既是一个“黄金发展期”又是“矛盾凸现期”。稳定与发
展似乎成了两难选择。有人认为,为了确保稳定,就要限制发展
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请结合材料,辨折这一观点
四、分析题:34~36小题,每小题9分,37小题10分,共37分
34、在数月前由国家有关部门举办的一次大型科普展中,有一个别具匠心的设计:三扇门上各有一个问题
“污染环境的是谁?”“饱受环境恶化之苦的是谁?”“保护环境的是谁?”拉开门,里面各是一面镜子,
照出的是参观者自己
请回答:
(1)这一精巧的设计反映了人类实践活动中的什么基本关系?
(2)如何理解“我们不要过分陶醉于我们人类对自然界的胜利。对于每一次这样的胜利,自然界都对我们进
行报复”?
(3)用辩证法关于度的观点说明:“地球能够满足人类的需要,但不能满足人类的贪婪。”
35、党的十六届三中全会提出,把扩大就业放在经济社会发展更加突岀的位置,实施积极的就业政策,努力
改善创业和就业环境。下表的数据反映了我国20世纪80~90年代以来,经济增长和就业增长的演变状况。
单位:%
年份1989199219951996199719981999200020012001203
GDP增长率就业增长率就业弹性系数4.11.830.44614.21.010.07110.50.900.0869.61.300.135
8.81.260.1437.81.170.1507.11.070.1518.00.980.1237
00.1738.00.980.1237.80.900.115
就业弹性系数指就业速度与经济增长速度的比值,即经济增长每变化1个百分点,所对应的就业数量变化
的百分值
请回答
(1)结合上述材料,分析说明为什么20世纪90年代以来我国经济在保持高增长速度的同时,却没有带来较
高的就业增长速度
(2)当前为了扩大就业,实施积极的就业政策,你认为应该从哪些方面采取措施

6、关于中国革命的性质与动力,在中国共产党早期历史上,曾经出现以下两种观点。一种认为,每个阶级
的革命,都要建立在每个阶级的力量上面;资产阶级的民主革命如果没有资产阶级的有力参加,便会失去革
命的阶级意义和社会基础。另一种认为,中国资产阶级民主革命,只有在坚决进行反对资产阶级的斗争中
才能得到彻底的胜利。
请回答
(1)上述两种观点分别存在什么错误倾向?
(2)毛泽东在1948年明确指出:“决定革命性质的力量是主要的敌人和主要的革命者。”请依据这一观点
分析建国前中国共产党所领导的人民革命的性质
37、本题为选做题,请在I、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一道作答,若两题都回答,只按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩记入
总分。
选做题I
材料1
2004年11月下旬,由于反对派质疑总统选举第二轮投票结果,乌克兰爆发了一场空前的政治危

莫斯科最难以容忍西方打着民主的旗号插手独联体国家的选举
格鲁吉亚已经是前车之鉴,如
果“玫瑰革命”在乌克兰再度得手,多米诺骨牌效应很可能会冲击其他独联体国家。如此一来,俄罗斯苫苦
经营的独联体战略空间将不复存在。……乌克兰大选危机发生后,欧盟采取了与俄罗斯的支持态度完全相反
的立场,立即以十分坚定强硬的态度对大选结果表示反对。……同欧盟以往处理热点问题时常常表现出的犹
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豫不决,议而难决的情景不同,欧盟在处理乌克兰危机时却态度坚决,行动迅速,………欧盟自今年5月扩大
至25国后,乌克兰成为欧盟的直接邻国
摘自《人民日报》2004年12月10日
材料2
北约是在1949年为对抗苏联而成立的。冷战结束后,北约无视俄罗斯的强烈反对,于1999年接纳波兰、捷
克和匈牙利3国加入该组织。今年3月29日,美国国务卿鲍威尔从保加利亚、罗马尼亚、斯洛伐克、斯洛文
尼亚、爱沙尼亚、拉脱维亚、立陶宛7国领导人手中接过入约批准书,布什还会见了他们,这标志着北约由
19国扩展到26国,从波罗的海到黑海的纵向防线被打通,其东部边界向前推进了1000多公里。
摘自《当代世界》2004年第5期
请结合地图和所给材料分析乌克兰的重要战略地位及俄欧、俄美之间的战略利益冲突。
选做题Ⅱ
材料1
世界石油经济战略态势(截至2003年底)
地区世界石油资源分布(亿桶)世界石油生产(万桶/天)世界石油消费(万桶/天)世界石油贸易
进口量出口量
中东73592045420501471
北美27271922331124158
西欧18456313901164437
C(n
亚太4597082086135121
东欧88399450699648
拉美1164954619188477
非洲105572723673597

材料2
我国石油的总资源量约为940亿吨,可开采资源量约是160亿吨。50多年来,仅找到60亿吨可采储量,这
就是说至少还有100亿吨左右的储量亟待我们进一步勘探发现。……有资料显示,我国的石油日消费量已达
约548万桶,仅次于美国。……我国石油储备的情况:长输管储存量为2~5天,铁路运输储量为7~15天,
水路运输储量为15~25天,石油系统内部原油的综合储量为21.6天。以上均为生产性储备,没有战略储
备。(国际能源机构要求其成员国建立可供90天需求的石油储备,发达国家一般有120~200天的战略储
备。)下表是我国石油长期供需平衡状况
单位:亿吨
项目2000年2010年2020年2050年
国内需求量2.03.04.05.0
国内产量1.61.71.81.0
供需缺口0.41.32.24.0
根据《石油与国家安全》和《中国国家战略问题报告》整理
(1)结合材料1,简要分析世界石油经济战略态势的特点
(2)结合材料1、2,分析我国可持续发展的能源战略面临的问题和解决的途径。
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don
2004年考研思想政治理论试题
、单选题
1、唯物史观认为,人类的第一个历史活动是
A.吃喝穿住
B.物质生活资料的生产

C.人的自觉意识活动
D.结成社会关系
2、20世纪50年代,北大荒人烟稀少、一片荒凉。由于人口剧增,生产力水平低下,吃饭问题成为中国面临
的首要问题,于是人们不得不靠扩大耕地面积增加粮食产量,经过半个世纪的开垦,北大荒成了()
A.人与自然的和谐最终以恢复原始生态为归宿
B.人们改造自然的一切行为都会遭到“自然界的报复”
C.人在自然界面前总是处于被支配的地位
D.人们应合理地调节人与自然之间的物质变换
3、在抗击“非典”的斗争中,许多患者被治愈后又捐出自己的血清,用于治疗其他患者,这说明
A.人的价值只体现在特定的场合和行为中
B.人的价值必须以满足个人需要为前提
C.人的价值是在满足自身和他人的需要中实现的
D.人的价值表现了人的能力的大小
4、社会总资本扩大再生产的前提条件是(
(V+M)=IC
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B I(V+M)=IC
I (V+M>IIC
D.Ⅱ(V+M)>IC
5、把公司全部资本分为等额股份,股东以其出资额为限对公司承担责任,公司以其全部资产对公司的债务承
担责任,这是
A.无限责任公司
B.股份有限公司
C.有限责任公司
D.合伙制企业
6、新民主主义革命的中心内容是()
A.没收封建地主阶级的土地归新民主主义国家所有
没收官僚垄断资本归新民主主义国家所有
C.没收封建地主阶级的土地归农民所有
D.保护民族工商业
7、毛泽东首次明确提出“新民主主义革命”这一科学概念的著作是(
A.《〈共产党人〉发刊词》
B.《中国革命和中国共产党》
《新民主主义论》
D.《论联合政府》
8、在中国共产党七届二中全会上,毛泽东告诫全党:“务必使同志们继续地保持谦虚、谨慎、不骄、不躁的
作风,务必使同志们继续地保持艰苦奋斗的作风。”其原因主要是
A.中国共产党即将成为执政党
B.党的工作方式发生了变化
C.全国大陆即将解放
主义
社会转变为社会

9、在农业社会主义改造中建立的初级农业生产合作社属于()
A.新民主主义性质
B.社会主义萌芽性质
C.半社会主义性质
D.社会主义性质
10、贯彻“三个代表”重要思想,关键在(
A.坚持党的先进性
B.坚持执政为民
C.坚持党的阶级性
坚持与时俱进
11、“三个代表”重要思想是我们党的立党之本、执政之基、力量之源。这里的“本”、“基”、“源”,说到底
就是()
A.发展先进生产力
B.发展先进文化
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C.人民群众的支持和拥护
D.人民群众生活水平的提高
12、某员工在外资企业工作,年薪5万元;利用业余时间在民营企业兼职,年薪2万元;购买股票分得的红
利2万元;出租住房收入2万元;转让一项技术收入1万元。该员工一年的劳动收入为(
A.12万元
B.9万元
C.8万元
D.7万元
13、2003年9月通过全民公决否决了加入欧元区议案的欧盟国家是()
A.瑞典
B.丹麦
C.英国
D.希腊
14、203年6月22日至27日,印度总理瓦杰帕伊对我国进行正式访问,这是印度总理10年来首次访华
访问取得了成功,两国签署了(
A.《中印关系原则和全面合作宣言》
B.《中印联合新闻公报》
《中印联合声明》
D.《关于中国西藏地方和印度之间的通商和交通协定》

15、2003年中国与欧盟关系有了进一步发展,其突出表现是
A.中国与欧盟领导人年度会晤机制起步
B.中国与欧盟建立全面伙伴关系
C.中国首次制定和发表《中国对欧盟政策文件
D.欧盟首次制订和发表《中国欧盟关系长期政策》
cIn.
、多选题
16、2003年6月23日,《城市生活无着的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》正式发布,并于8月1日正式实施
1982年发布的《城市流浪乞讨人员收容遣送办法》同时被废止。这一变化体现了
A.政治文明的进步
B.对人民群众根本利益的维护
对人权的尊重和保护
D.上层建筑不断变革完善的要求
E.生产关系的根本变革
17、有一幅广告幽默画,画的是几个行人在看一家饭店外贴的告示,上写:“快进来吃饭吧,否则你我都得挨
饿。”这幅广告画的寓意有
A.生产者和消费者是相互依存的
B.生产和消费具有直接的同一性
C.利己是人的一切活动的出发点
D.商品交换活动背后隐藏着人与人的关系
生产关系本质上是人与人之间的物质利益关系
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18、社会主义市场经济中按劳分配的“劳”是指
A.不同形式的具体劳动
B.通过价值形式来实现的劳动
C.直接的社会劳动
D.公有制企业的局部劳动
E.劳动者实际支出的劳动
19、利润转化为平均利润的过程,同时也是
A.资本有机构成提高的过程
B.价值转化为生产价格的过程
C.资本在不同部门之间发生转移的过程
D.资本家集团重新瓜分剩余价值的过程
E.超额利润消失的过程
20、新民主主义革命和社会主义革命的关系是()
A.新民主主义革命与社会主义革命可以“毕其功于一役”
B.新民主主义革命和社会主义革命的任务相同
C.两个革命之间需要有一个资本主义的过渡阶段
D.新民主主义革命是社会主义革命的必要准备
社会主义革命是新民主主义革命的必然趋势
21、中国共产党在把马克思列宁主义基本原理与中国革命实际相结合的过程中,在学风问题上曾经反对过的
主要错误倾向是()
A.投降主
B.经验主义
C.教条主义
D.冒险主义
E.机会主义
w
22、在社会主义改造基本完成以后,正确处理人民内部矛盾成为国家政治生活的主题。中国共产党提出的正
确处理人民内部矛盾的方针政策主要有()
统筹兼顾,适当安排
B.有理、有利、有节
C.百花齐放、百家争鸣
D.长期共存、相互监督
E.和平共处五项原则
23、1959年底至1960年初,毛泽东在读苏联《政治经济学教科书》时,认为社会主义社会的发展阶段有
A.不发达的社会主义
B.比较发达的社会主义
C.发达的社会主义
D.社会主义初级阶段
E.社会主义高级阶段
24、社会主义精神文明在社会主义现代化建设中具有的重要战略地位和作用,表现在()
A.为经济建设提供精神动力
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B.为现代化建设提供智力支持
为现代化建设创造良好的社会环境
D.为现代化建设的正确发展方向提供思想保证
E.它是构成综合国力的重要方面
25、邓小平关于社会主义本质的论断体现了()
A.解放生产力与发展生产力的统
B.生产力与生产关系的统
C.发展生产力与实现共同富裕的统
D.目的与手段的统
E.社会主义发展过程与最终目标的统
26、我国新型工业化道路的内涵是()
科技含量高
B.经济效益好
C.资源消耗低
D.产值增加快
E.环境污染少
27、“股份制是现代企业的一种资本组织形式,不能笼统地说股份制是公有还是私有”,这一观点表明()
由法人股东而不是个人股东构成的股份制是公有制
B.公有制与私有制都可以通过股份制这一形式来实现
C.有公有制经济参股的就是公有制

股份制本身不具有公有还是私有的性质
E.公有制经济占控股地位就具有明显的公有性
8、“中东和平路线图”计划实施进
A.以色列右翼势力的阻拦
B.巴勒斯坦激进组织的干扰
p OCIn.
C.美国偏袒以色列
D.伊拉克战争的爆发
E.俄罗斯对“中东和平路线图”计划持反对态度
29、2003年8月27-29日在北京举行的“六方会谈”,为和平解决朝?()
A.确定了朝鲜半岛无核化的目标,同时也都认识到需要考虑和解决朝鲜在安全等方面提出的关切
B.确认了通过对话以和平方式解决朝鲜半岛核问题的途径,维护半岛的和平与稳定
C.原则赞同解决核问题采取分阶段、同步或并行实施的方针,探讨并确定公正合理的总体解决方案
D.主张保持对话、建立信任、减少分歧、扩大共识,在和谈进程中不采取可能使局势升级或激化的言行
E.美朝双方初步达成了签署互不侵犯条约的共识
30、中共十六届三中全会强调,完善社会主义市场经济体制的主要任务是()
A.完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度
B.建立有利于逐步改变城乡二元经济结构的体制,形成促进区域经济协调发展的机制
C.建设统一开放竞争有序的现代市场体系,完善宏观调控体系、行政管理体制和经济法律制度
D.健全就业、收入分配和社会保障制度
建立促进经济社会可持续发展的机制
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三、辨析题
31、用马克思主义哲学有关原理对漫画中所反映的工作方式进行辨析。
32、2003年9月初,国家食品药品监管局等七部门联手岀击开展屠宰市场集中整治,严把肉品市场准
关,规定进入市场销售的肉品必须是由定点屠宰厂(场)生产、经检疫合格的产品。对失信企业实行“黑名
单”制度,其违法违规行为将被记录在案,公开曝光
根据材料辨析:有必要限制市场机制的作用,让拥有强制力的政府来干预。
3、在新民主主义革命时期,只有当民族资产阶级拥护革命时,才要保护民族资本主义。
四、分析题
34、闻一多有一次给学生上课,他走上讲台,先在黑板上写了一道算术题:2+5=?学生们疑惑不解。
然而闻先生却执意要问:2+5=?同学们于是回答:“等于7嘛!”闻先生说:“不错。在数学领域里2+5=7
这是天经地义的颠扑不破的。但是,在艺术领域里,2+5=10000也是可能的。”他拿出一幅题为《万里驰骋》
的图画叫学生们欣赏,只见画面上突出地画了两匹奔马,在这两匹奔马后面,又错落有致、大小不一地画了
五匹马,这五匹马后面便是许多影影绰绰的黑点点了。闻先生指着画说:“从整个画面的形象看,只有前后七
匹马,然而,凡是看过这幅画的人,都会感到这里有万马奔腾,这难道不是2+5=10000吗?
用认识论相关原理分析下列问题
①既然在数学领域2+5=7是颠扑不破的,为什么在艺术领域2+5=10000也是可能的?
②在认识活动中,正确处理理性与非理性的关系对科学创新有何重要意义?
35、据估计,今天在美国有6000家公司推行“雇员拥有股票计划”,其中包括西尔斯一罗伯克百货公司、美
国电话电报公司等。“雇员拥有股票计划”在这些公司的推行,使工人们积极地经营他们的公司,产生了一种
充满活力的责任感,在生产率、高质量和低成本等方面取得了巨大的成就。美国争取雇员拥有股票全国委员
会对350家高技术公司所作的一项调查发现,利用雇员拥有股票计划的公司要比没有利用这种计划的公司发
展快2-4倍
随着这一计划的推行,到2000年,全美国有25%的雇员分享他们公司的所有权。这种迅速出现的“工
人资本主义”概念也适用于相当大部分的美国经济。但是工人拥有股票不会轻易转变为工人管理。有的工人
股东说:“我看不出有什么变化。一切都和以前一模一样。”也有的工人股东认为,在“雇员拥有股票计划”
下,越是尽力干,得到的就越多
摘自W.E.哈拉尔著:《新资本主义》
请回答:
①根据材料分析当代资本主义社会实行“雇员拥有股票计划”的原因
②评析工人股东的两种看法
36、党的十六大指出,建设现代农业,发展农村经济,增加农民收入,是全面建设小康社会的重大任务。下
表反映的是我国2000年农业现状及2020年农业发展目标等方面的具体数字
①请结合材料说明为什么解决好“三农”问题是全面建设小康社会的重大任务。
②对比表中农业劳动力占总就业比重的数字,你认为应采取哪些措施来降低农业劳动力的比重?
37、选做题Ⅰ:材料1两个小时前,盟国空军部队开始向伊拉克和科威特的军事目标发动袭击。在我讲话的
同时,这些袭击正在继续进行。……在根据联合国决议和经美国国会同意采取这次军事行动之前,联合国
美国和许多其他国家进行了历时几个月的不间断的和几乎是无休止的外交活动。……在海湾地区派有部队的
28个国家已尽了一切应尽的努力来了达成和平解决,没有别的选择,只能用武力把萨达姆赶出科威特
在我们获得成功以后,我们将得到建立世界新秩序的真正机会。在那个新秩序中,可以依赖的联合国可以发
挥其维护和平的作用,将联合国创始人的诺言和远见卓识付诸实现。
摘自乔治。布什1991年1月16日的电视讲话材料2各位公民,此时美国和联盟部队已经开始了军事行
动,这次行动的目的是解除伊拉克的武装、解放这个国家的人民、保卫世界免遭严重危险。……美国人民和
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我们的朋友以及盟友不会听任一个以大规模杀伤性武器威胁和平的非法政权摆布。我们现在就要用我们的陆
军、空军、海军、海岸警卫队和海军陆战队对付这种威胁,这样将来我们就不必用大批的消防员、警察和医
生在我们的大街上应付这种威胁。……对我们的国家和整个世界的威胁将被消除。我们将度过这个危险时刻
并继续推进和平。我们将捍卫我们的自由。我们还将把自由带给其他人。
摘自乔治。W.布什2003年3月19日的电视讲话指出上述两次讲话内容的主要异同并分析其原因。
选做题Ⅱ:材料120世纪80年代末90年代初,东欧剧变、苏联解体,社会主义遭受重大挫折。对此西
方思想界的保守派纷纷著书重新审视西方“胜利”的历史原因和人类历史发展道路。美国学者弗朗西斯。福
山的《历史的终结及最后之人》便是这种背景的产物。福山在书中提出:一个值得注意的共识这几年已在世
界出现,因为自由民主已克服世袭君主制、法西斯与共产主义这类相对的意识形态。自由民主可能形成“人
类意识形态进步的终点”与“人类统治的最后形态”,也构成了“历史的终结”。自由民主的“理念”已不能
再改良了。最值得注意的发展是,在拉丁美洲和东欧、苏联、中东与亚洲,强固的政府都在这二十年间动摇
了。自由民主目前已及于全球的不同地区与文化,成为惟一一贯的政治憧憬对象
材料2改革开放20多年来,中国社会主义现代化建设以前所未有的速度向前发展,综合国力不断增强,
人民生活总体达到小康水平。根据世界银行的排名,2001年中国的经济总量仅次于美国、日本、德国、英国、
法国,位居世界第六位。对外贸易进出口总额在世界上的排位上升到第5位,2002年中国吸收外资超过美国,
成为吸收外资最多的国家。在下图中,作为衡量一国总体经济实力主要指标的GDP也真实地反映了中国近五
年来的变化
①结合材料评析资本主义是“人类统治的最后形态”的观点
②用唯物史观评析资本主义“自由民主的‘理念’已不能再改良了”的观点。
③在两制并存的背景下,社会主义国家如何才能更快地实现自身的发展?
2003年考研思想政治理论试题
下列每题的选项中,有一项最符合题意的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。(每小题1分,共15
分)
1.马克思主义哲学创立之后,开始出现了()
A.唯物论与唯心论的对立
B.可知论与不可知论的对立
C.辩证法与形而上学的对立
D.唯物史观与唯心史观的对立
2.在人与世界的相互作用中,人与世界同时得到了改变,并获得日益丰富的内容。造成这一变化的基础是
A.自然界自身的运动B.人的意识的能动作用
C.人的实践活动
D.工具的制造与使用
3.人的视觉器官有感觉外界物体的光和颜色的功能。可见光的波长范围一般是380nm(纳米)到780m,称为
可见光谱。在可见光谱范围内,不同波长的辐射使人感觉到不同颜色,一般来说,700mm为红色,580nm为黄
色,510m为绿色,470m为蓝色,400nm为紫色。这种现象表明(
A.人只能认识外界物体作用于感官形成的感觉
B.人的感官所具有的生理阙限是人的认识能力的界限
C.人的感觉中包含着对外界事物信息的选择、加工和转换
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D.人所形成的关于事物的感觉是人自身生理活动的结果
4.生产的社会条件中,最基本、最重要的是()
A.政治法律制度B.生产关系C.历史文化传统D.伦理道德规范
5.商品内在的使用价值和价值的矛盾,其完备的外在表现形式是
A.商品与商品的对立
B.具体劳动与抽象劳动的对立
C.私人劳动与社会劳动的对立D.商品与货币的对立
生产资本构成价值(单位:万元)
年周转次数
固定资本
1000
其中:厂房
机器
1/10
小工具100
1/4
流动资本
500
3.4
根据上述资料该企业预付资本总周转次数为
A.1.0次B.1.2次C.1.3次D.1.4次
7.在土地的资本主义经营垄断条件下,由于在同一块土地上连续追加投资的劳动生产率不同而形成的地租是
A.级差地租1B.级差地租ⅡC绝对地租D.垄断地租
8.中国共产党领导的新民主主义革命的根本目的是()
A.推翻帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的统治
B.改变中国半殖民地半封建社会的面貌
C.建立新民主主义的人民共和国
D.解放被束缚的生产力
9.在中国革命进程中,具有新民主主义革命和社会主义革命双重性质的事件是(
om
A.没收封建阶级的土地归农民所有
B.没收官僚资本归新民主主义国家所有
C.接收帝国主义在华企业归新民主主义国家所有
D.赎买民族工商业归人民民主专政国家所有
20世纪90年代,我国对外开放进入新阶段的重要标志是
A.形成了全方位、多层次、宽领域的对外开放格局
B.我国进入世界十大贸易国行列
引进外资规模居发展中国家首位
D.形成了沿海、沿江、沿边对外开放的新格局
11.发展社会主义民主政治,最根本的是要(
A.坚持党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的有机统
B.实现民主政治的制度化、规范化、程序化
C.充分发挥人民群众的监督作用
D.有领导、有步骤地推进政治体制改革
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12.在社会主义初级阶段,非公有制经济是(
A.社会主义公有制经济的补充
社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分
具有公有性质的经济
D.逐步向公有制过渡的经济
13.我国经济与社会发展的根本出发点是()
A.解放和发展生产力B.巩固社会主义制度
C.提高人民生活水平
增强综合国力
14.中国共产党的十六大报告指出,贯彻“三个代表”重要思想,本质在()
A.坚持以经济建设为中心B.坚持四项基本原则
C.坚持改革开放
D.坚持执政为民
15.中国共产党的十六大报告指出,中国共产党坚持先进性和增强创造力的决定性因素是(
A.坚持党的思想路线,解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进
B.搞清楚什么是社会主义以及如何建设社会主义
C.坚持党的基本路线和基本纲领
D.加强和改进新形势下党的群众工作,巩固党的执政基础
二、下列每题的选项中,至少有一项是符合题意的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。少选
该题不得分。(每小题2分,共30分
16.西周末年思想家史伯说:“和实生物,同则不继。以它平它谓之和,故能丰长而物归之”这里包含的辩证
法思想有(
A.矛盾的同一是包含差别的同
B.对立面的统一是事物发展的动力
C.不包含内部差别的事物就不能存在和发展
D矛盾的方只有克服另方才能达到统
E.事物是由不同方面、不同要素构成的统
ocIn.
17.下述有关历史创造者的观点中,属于唯物史观的有()
A.人人创造历史
B.历史活动是群众的事业
C.人们自己创造自己的历史
D.人们总是在既定的条件下创造历史
E.尊重社会发展规律与尊重人民历史主体地位是一致的
18.价值规律发挥作用的表现形式有
A.价格围绕价值上下波动
B.价格围绕交换价值上下波动
价格围绕成木价格上下波动
D.市场价格围绕生产价格上下波
E.市场价格围绕垄断价格上下波动
19.G-W-G‘之所以被称为资本的总公式,是因为它()
既包括买的过程,又包括卖的过程
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B.既包括商品运动,又包括货币运动
C.概括了各种资本运动的一般特征
D.概括了资本流通与商品流通的共同特征
E.体现了资本运动的根本目的
20.在其他条件不变的情况下,资本有机构成的提高会导致()
A.相对过剩人口的形成
B.利润率的提高
C.可变资本在总资本中比例的降低
D.资本周转速度的减缓
E.平均利润率的下降
21.股票价格
A.与银行存款利息率成反比
B.与预期股息收入成正比
C.是股息收入的资本化
D.是它所代表的实际资本价值的货币表现
E.不是股票的票面额
22.毛泽东思想、邓小平理论是中国化了的马克思主义,它们都
体现了马克思列宁主义的基本原理
B.反映了近代中国的时代要求
C.揭示了中国革命的特殊规律

D.包含了中华民族的优秀思想
E.包含了中国共产党人的实践经验
3.1945年4月,毛泽东在《论联
理论和实践相结合的作风
B.和人民群众紧密地联系在
moc
C.谦虚、谨慎、戒骄、戒躁的作风
D.自我批评的作风
E.艰苦奋斗的作风
24在社会主义条件下,中国共产党与各民主党派长期共存,是因为()
A.无产阶级政党可以同资产阶级结成统一战线
B.双方有长期团结合作的历史
C.各民主党派已经成为致力于社会主义事业的党派
D.各民主党派在政治上接受了共产党领导
E.各民主党派可以发挥对共产党的监督作用
25.我国现阶段分配制度中,按生产要素分配的依据是()
A.存在着多种所有制经济
B.社会主义市场经济的要求
C.各种生产要素都具有价值
D.实行多种经营方式的要求
E.各种生产要素在生产过程中都作出贡献
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26.发展之所以成为中国共产党执政兴国的第一要务,是因为()
A.发展是坚持党的先进性的要求
B.发展是发挥社会主义制度优越性的要求
C.发展是社会主义本质的要求
D发展决定着中国的前途和命运
E.发展是实现民富国强的要求
27.中国共产党的十六大报告提出的全面建设小康社会的目标有
A.国内生产总值到2020年比2000年翻两番
B.依法治国基本方略得到全面落实
C.仝民族的思想道德素质、科学文化素质和健康素质明显提高
D.推动整个社会走上生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路
基本实现现代化,建成富强民主文明的社会主义国家
28.中国共产党的十六大报告提出建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序的主张有()
A.政治上应相互尊重,共同协商
B.经济上应相互促进,共同发展
C.文化上应相互借鉴,共同繁荣
D.安全上应相互信任,共同维护
E.反对各种形式的权主义和强权政治
29.2002年9月17日,日本首相小泉纯一郎对朝鲜进行访问,双方领导人进行会谈,发表了《日朝平壤宣言》。
《宣言》除决定重开日朝邦交正常化谈判外,其他内容还有()
A.日本政府对过去在朝鲜实施的殖民统治表示深刻反省和诚势道歉,在邦交正常化的谈判中真诚地就两
国经济合作具体内容和规模进行协商
B.对于1945年以前发生的事情,双方相互放弃一切财产损失追索权
C.朝鲜将采取切实措施,以使关系到日本国民生命和安全的悬案问题不再发生
为了一揽子解决朝鲜半岛核问题,双方确认遵守一切相关的国际决议。朝鲜表明了将冻结导弹试射的
时限继续延长到2003年以后的意向
E.日、美、朝、韩即将就安全保障问题开展协商
30.2002年6月,上海合作组织在圣彼得堡召开峰会,签署了重要的政治、法律文件,其中有()
边界地区裁减军事力量和增加信任措施的协定
B.上海合作组织宪章
C.打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义公约
D.上海合作组织成员国元首宣言
E.关于地区反恐怖机构的协定
三、辨析题(共3题,每题6分,共18分)要求对所给命题或观点进行辨别、分析,观点正确,言之成理。
将答案写在答题纸相应位置上。
31.在文化对一个国家存在和发展的作用问题上,有一种说法:“欲灭一国,先灭其文化”。
32.资产阶级国家掌握和运用国有资本,是为了直接获取高额垄断利润
33.在中国社会主义改革与社会主义改造关系问题上,有人说:“早知今日,何必当初?
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四、分析题(共4题,其中第34、35、36题每题9分,第37题10分,共37分)要求结合所学知识分析材
料回答问题。将答案写在答题纸相应位置上
34.秦穆公见伯乐年事已高,请伯乐推荐继任者,伯乐说九方皋可堪此任。九方皋奉穆公之命外出找马,
∶月后复命说,马已找到。穆公问:何马也?九方皋答道:是一匹黄色的公马。穆公派人去取马,取马人回
报说是一匹黑色的母马。穆公不说,责备伯乐道:你推荐的那位相马者连马的黄黑公母都分辨不清,怎能鉴
别马的好坏呢?伯乐答道:“若皋之所观,天机也。得其精而忘其粗,在其内而忘其外。见其所见,下见其所
不见;视其所视,而遗其所不视。若皋之相者,乃有贵乎马者也。”马至,果千里之马。
伯乐之子把伯乐写的《相马经》读得烂熟。《相马经》上说,千里马是额头隆起,双眼突出,蹄如摞起的
酒曲块。他按照书上绘岀的各种图形,与他所见到的一一加以对照。结果,他找到一只癩蛤蟆
请用马克思主义哲学原理,分析回答下列问题
(1)九方皋相马方法的高明之处何在?
(2)伯乐之子“相马”失败的主要原因是什么?
(3)为什么说九方皋相马的思维方法比找到千里马具有更重要的意义?
35.1944年7月,毛泽东在延安同英国记者斯坦因谈中国共产党新民主主义政策的问题时指出:“任何地方的
共产党必须将共产主义的思想体系,和另一件全然不同的事物即共产主义的社会制度区分开来,因为后者是
这个思想体系的最终目标。”特别是在中国,我们必须严格地将观察、研究和解决社会问题的共产主义方法,
同我们实际采用的新民主主义政策加以区别。“”没有共产主义的思想方法,就不能正确地指导我们现在的社
会革命的民主阶段;而没有新民主主义政治制度,我们就不能将共产主义哲学正确地运用于中国的实际。“请
依据毛泽东的论述,分析中国共产党的新民主主义基本纲领、社会主义初级阶段基本纲领同实现共产主义最
终目标之间的关系
36.下列数据反映了20世纪90年代以来我国宏观经济的运行状况,以1997年为界,大致可分为两个不同的
阶段

91199219931994199519961997199819992000
9.214213.512.610.59.68.87.87.18.0
Gm
物价上涨
3.46.414.724.117.18.32.8
8-1.40.4

根据资料,请回答
(1)90年代以来,我国宏观经济运行两个阶段表现出来的基本特征,国家采取的宏观调控政策和措施
以及国家的调控目标
(2)结合我国90年代以来经济发展的实际,从理论上分析国家宏观调控的必要性。
37.本题为选做题,请在Ⅰ、Ⅱ两道试题中选取其中一道作答,若两题都回答,只能按第Ⅰ道试题的成绩记
入总分。
选做题I
传统学派认为,单极从根本上是不稳定的,美国任何轻微的违规之举都有可能引发危险的动荡。我认为
情况正好相反:单极是持久的,也是和平的,最大的危险是美国的行动太少。作为一个拥有无可争议的优势
的国家,美国比任何国家更有可能轻视这一国际系统和总的挑战。但由于这一系统是围绕美国建立起来的
这就要求美国进行约束和管理,美国对挑战的反应及提出的法令越有效,这一系统将越长久和越稳定
摘自[美]威廉·沃尔弗斯:《稳定的单极世界》,1990年
评析上述材料提出的观点及其实质并论述当前世界政治格局的发展趋势。
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选做题Ⅱ
工业国强加给进口农产品和加工食品的高贸易壁垒,再加上它们对农业的补贴,使发展中国家的这些商
品在世界贸易中所占的份额下降了。贸易的这种扭曲使最贫困的国家受到特别大的伤害。
摘自世界银行:《全球经济展望与发展中国家》,2001年世界1/6的人口生产了全部商品和服务的78%并
获得78%的世界收入——平均每天70美元,而世界人口有3/5生活在61个最贫困的国家,他们只获得总收
入的6%每天不到2美元。但是,他们的贫困不限于收入方面……界各国能否一起努力来减少极端贫困
人口?这是21世纪的根本挑战。
摘自世界银行:《2000年世界发展指标》
当面临资源短缺、人口迁移和贫困时,其结局无可避免地是冲突和不稳定,这将使世界变成一个充满冲
突的地方
摘自英国《观察家报》,2000年7月16日
请回答
(1)为什么说工业国与发展中国家贸易的“扭曲”,会“使最贫困的国家受到特别大的伤害”?
(2)从发展与和平的相互关系来说明南北差距拉大、南方贫困会引起世界的冲突与不稳定
(3)运用矛盾力量不平衡性的原理分析解决南北问题的正确途径

2002年考研思想政治理论试题

下列每题的选项中,有一项是最符合题意的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。(每小题1分,共
15分)
1.人类生活的现实世界是()
A.人化自然和人类社会的统一体B客观世界和主观世界的统一体
C.自在自然和人化自然的统一体D人类实践活动中所形成的人类社会关系的总和
2.马克思说:“搬运夫和哲学家之间的原始差别要比家犬和猎犬之间的差别小得多。他们之间的鸿沟是分工掘
成的。”这表明人的才能()
A.与人的先天生理素质没有关联B.主要来源于后天的实践
C取决于人的主观努力的程度
D是由人的社会政治地位决定的
3先进生产力的集中体现和主要标志是()
A.劳动者B.劳动对象C科学技术D管理方式
4理解马克思主义政治经济学的枢纽是()
A.剩余价值学说B.生产价格理论C.劳动二重性学说D劳动力商品理论
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5.一本书售价18元5角,这里的“元、角”是()
A.价格标准B价值尺度C观念货币D货币价值
6资本主义经济危机周期性的物质基础是()
A.生产的日益社会化B大规模的固定资本更新C国内有效需求的扩大D.生产集中程度的提高
7.毛泽东指出,解决中国一切革命问题的最基本的根据是()
A.正确分析中国社会的阶级状况B.正确分析中国社会的经济结构
C.认清中国社会的特殊国情
D.认清中国社会的主要矛盾
8.1930年5月,毛泽东的《反对本本主义》()
A.论证了土地革命、武装斗争、根据地建设三者的关系
B.孕育了实事求是、群众路线、独立自主三个方面的思想
C提出了实现马克思主义中国化的历史任务
D阐述了马克思主义与中国实际相结合的原则
9中国在对资本主义工商业实行社会主义改造的过程中,在利润分配上采取的政策是(
A.统筹兼顾B.劳资两利C.公私兼顾D四马分肥
10.社会主义改造基本完成后,中国共产党的中心任务是()
A.调动一切积极因素,为社会主义事业服务
B.正确处理人民内部矛盾,巩固社会主义制度

C集中力量发展生产力,建设社会主义现代化强国
D加强和改进党的建设,巩固党的执政地位
11当前,我国经济增长方式的转变是指()
A由速度型向效益型转变/B由外延型向内涵型
C由粗放型向集约型转变D由数量型向质量型转变
in.
12实现两岸和平统一的前提是
A.实现两岸三通
B坚持一个中国的原则
C发展两岸经贸关系D促进两岸关系良性互动
13.社会主义市场经济理论认为,计划经济与市场经济属于
A.不同的资源配置方式B不同的经济增长方式
C.不同的经济制度的范畴D.不同的生产关系的范畴
14社会主义民主政治的本质是
A.人民当家作主
B人民民主专政
C.人民代表大会制度D.人民参与国家管理
15.中国共产党十五届六中全会通过的《关于加强和改进党的作风建设的决定》指出,加强和改进党的作风建
设,核心问题是()
A.坚持理论联系实际
加强党内的批评与自我批评
C.保持党同人民群众的血肉联系D健全制度,从源头上预防和治理各种不良作风
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下列每题的选项中,至少有一项是符合题意的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。少选、多选、错
选,该题不得分。(每小题2分,共30分)
16孙中山先生指出,人的认识过程是“以行而求知,因知以进行”、“行其所不知以致其所知”、“因其已知而更
进于行”。这一思想表明了(
A.知行不可分割B知行合一C知行相互促进D行先知后E行难知易
17从物质与精神的关系来看,“画饼不能充饥”,这是因为(
A.精神与物质不具有同一性B.精神对物质具有相对独立性
C.精神不能转化为物质
D事物在人脑中的反映不等同于事物自身
E观念的东西不能代替物质的东西
18.马克思主义认为,人的全面发展(
A.是社会进步的重要内容B是一个逐步提高、永无止境的历史过程
C是社会发展的目的
D.既是社会发展的结果,又是社会发展的原因
E同推进经济、文化的发展和改善人民物质文化生活是互为前提和基础的
19对资本主义简单再生产过程分析的意义在于揭示()
A.资本主义再生产过程中资本运动所采取的形式
B可变资本是工人创造的价值的一部分
C.不仅可变资本而且全部资本都是工人的劳动创造的
D.工人的个人消费不过是为资本家再生产劳动力
E资本主义再生产过程是物质资料再生产与资本主义生产关系再生产的统
20.马克思的劳动价值论(
A.是对古典政治经济学劳动价值论的批判、继承和发展
B是剩余价值理论的基础
C.是研究价值分配的理论
揭示资本主义生产方式
M dacin.
E是随时代和实践的发展而不断发展的科学理论
21随着利润转化为平均利润(
A.价值便转化为生产价格
B全社会的平均利润总额与剩余价值总额不相等
C.有些部门获得的利润高于本部门生产的剩余价值
D.有些部门获得的利润低于本部门生产的剩余价值
E.生产价格的变动不再以价值的变动为基础
22.毛泽东在《<共产党人>发刊词》中阐明了中国共产党在中国革命中的几个基本问题,认为正确地理解了这
些问题及其相互关系,就等于正确地领导了全部中国革命。这些基本问题是
A.革命转变问题B统一战线问题C武装斗争问题
D国家政权问题E党的建设问题
23在中共八大上,陈云提出了关于我国社会主义经济体制的设想,其主要点包括
A.以国营经济为主体,以私营经济为补充
B.以国家与集体经营为主体,以个体经营为补充
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C.以计划生产为主体,以自由生产为补充
D.以国家统购统销为主体,以个体经销代销为补充
以国家市场为主体,以自由市场为补充
24社会主义精神文明建设的重要战略地位表现为()
A.为现代化建设提供精神动力
B为现代化建设提供智力支持
C.为现代化建设创造良好的社会环境D为现代化建设提供思想保证
E为现代化建设提供制度保证
25社会主义的根本任务是发展生产力,这是因为,发展生产力是
A.社会主义本质的内在要求B建立社会主义市场经济体制的要求
C解决社会主要矛盾的要求D巩固社会主义制度的要求
E提高人民生活水平的要求
26.非公有经济是我国社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,这表明:非公有经济()
A.在所有制结构中占主体地位B在国民经济中起主导作用
C.与公有经济可以共存
D.与公有经济共同推动生产力发展
E是市场经济发展的需要
27当前,调整经济结构的内容包括()
A.加强农业基础
B优化工业内部结构
C大力发展第三产业D加快基础设施建设E实施城镇化战略,促进城乡共同进步
28.2001年6月15日,“上海合作组织”六国元首共同签署“上海公约”,决定为维护本地区的安全与稳定,联
合打击(
A.恐怖主义B单边主义C.分裂主义D地区霸权主义E极端主义
29.2001年7月1日,江泽民同志在庆祝中国共产党成立80周年大会上的讲话中指出,看一个政党是否先进,
是不是工人阶级先锋队,主要应看党的理论和纲领(
A.是不是马克思主义的
B是不是规定党员队伍主要由工人组成
C是不是代表社会发展的正确方向D是不是代表最广大人民的根本利益
E是不是规定有健全的组织制度与严格的纪律
30.2001年10月在中国上海召开的亚太经合组织(APEC)第九次领导人非正式会议通过的《领导人宣言》
指出,亚太经合组织取得成功的关键在于坚持(
A.自主自愿、协商一致的原则B单边行动与集体行动相结合的原则
C.开放的地区主义”的原则D.灵活性与全面性相结合的原则
E循序渐进的原则
三、辨析题(共3题,每题5分,共15分)要求对所给命题或观点进行辨别、分析,观点正确,言之成理
将答案写在答题纸相应位置上
31对于右图,甲说,这是一只鸟;乙说,这是一只兔。这表明,人的认识结果是由认识主体决定的。
32民主革命时期,中国共产党党员的绝大多数来自农民,因而它不是工人阶级先锋队。
33.社会主义市场经济是法治经济,因此,在市场经济中人们的经济行为可以不受道德规范
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四、论述题(共2题,每题10分,共20分)要求论述紧扣题意,合乎逻辑。将答案写在答题纸相应位置上
论述过程联系题意不紧密、逻辑不清晰者可酌情扣分。
34邓小平在领导中国共产党进行指导思想的拨乱反正中如何正确评价毛泽东和毛泽东思想?这一正确
评价有何重大意义?
35改革开放以来,人们收入分配差距有所扩大。请结合我国社会主义初级阶段的收入分配理论和社会主
义最终要实现的目标,对这一现象进行分析。
五、材料题(共2题,每题10分,共20分)结合所学知识或原理分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在答题
纸相应位置上。仅简单复述材料者酌情扣分。
36以下是关于我国水资源及其开发利用的材料
材料1
中国可利用的水资源仅占世界的7%,全国年人均淡水量2400立方米,仅为世界人均占有量的1/4,而
且长江以南的水资源占全国的80%,长江以北占20%,其人均占有量是世界人均占有量的1/20.1999年全国
年污水排放总量为606亿立方米,其80%未经处理直接排入江河湖库。缺水的北方农业,采用传统的漫灌方
法,浪费十分严重。1998年中国长江等流域发生特大洪灾,表面上是水多了,实质上是森林过度采伐,生态
环境严重恶化,蓄水保水作用减弱所致
摘自《光明日报》2001年5月21日
材料
当人类改造自然能力显著提高,有能力迅速将自然环境和物质转化为经济效益之后,就往往偏爱于眼前
利益,忽略了所取得效益的由来和根本,演变为国家、地区、部1门、集团对资源的竞相占有,甚至导致总
体失控,进而遭到自然界的报复。滥垦滥伐导致水土流失;围垦河湖滩地导致洪水泛滥;不注意珍惜和合理
配置、节约、保护水资源导致干旱缺水;超采地下水导致地面下沉等,都是明显的例证,
摘自水利部部长汪恕诚在全国水利科技工作会议上的讲话
材料3
20世纪90年代以来,水资源危机日益突出,把海水转化为淡水的海水淡化工程日益获得广泛应用。反
渗透技术已相当成熟,并冇约20年的经验积累,已成为海水制取饮用水最廉价的方法。目前世界淡化水日产
量已达到2700万立方米,并以10%30%的年增长率攀升。实施此项工程的不仅有中东国家,还有美国、
俄罗斯、日本、意大利等许多发达国家的部分地区。其中美国有一家反渗透淡化厂规模就达到日产38万吨。
大型海水淡化吨成本一般在1美元左右或以下,在许多国家其价格与自来水价格相差无几或接近持平。
相比之下,我国海水淡化事业进展缓慢,在整个40年的发展过程中每跨一步都要经历10年之久。1958
年起步,1965年开始硏究反渗透技术,1986年建设日产3000吨的海水淡化装置,1997年建成舟山日产5000
吨海水反渗透淡化装置,与国际水平相差甚远。造成我国海水淡化进展缓慢的根本原因是思想不够解放,担
心海水淡化技术不可靠,成本过高等等。
摘自《中国化工报》2001年3月10
材料4
甘肃省张掖自古并不缺水,历史上黑河充沛的水量,曾经浇筑了河西走廊的辉煌,而张掖就位于河西走
廊的腹地,人称“金张掖”。但是随着人口和耕地的增长,近几十年来,水的矛盾越来越突出了。为了缓解水
事矛盾,100多万张掖农民在调整农业结构的时候,把水的压力变为动力,以节水为出发点,选择节水而高
效的种植业品种,不仅提高了农民收入,实现节水与增收双赢,而且转变了农业生产方式,使农业发展水平
跃上了一个新的台阶,并最终走向可持续发展的良性循环。
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摘自《人民日报》2001年5月22日
请回答
①结合材料1、2,运用马克思主义关于人类社会与自然的关系原理,分析我国水资源问题的产生原因。

②根据材料3,分析人们在解决水资源的过程中所体现的唯物辩证法矛盾的转化原理(3分)
③结合材料4,分析人类在应对水资源挑战的实践活动中主观目的和客观规律之间的关系。(3分)
37.下面是一组关于经济全球化方面的资料:
材料1
不断扩大产品销路的需要,驱使资产阶级奔走于全球各地。它必须到处落户,到处开发,到处建立联系
摘自马克思恩格斯:《共产党宣言》
美国联合技术公司为开发电梯新产品,充分利用全球各国的优势,如在法国制造电梯门系统,在德国制
造电子器件,在日本设计电动驱动装置,最后在美国组装。美国福特公司生产的轿车,外国部件占27%.日本
本田公司在美国制造的协和轿车有25%的零部件在海外制造。
20世纪80年代初至1996年,国际资本流量年均增长率高达20%,远超过国际贸易约5.5%的年均增长
速度。
如同交通工具的改进和铁路运费的降低曾经有力地推动了19世纪末各国的经济融合一样,20世纪80年
代以来现代通信业的革命,特别是近年来互联网络的迅速商业化运用,则大大降低了国际间的通讯费用和交
易成本。到1996年,世界最大的5叨家公司中已有80%在网上开设网址,已有186个国家和地区的1200万
台电脑连接入网,互联网用户达到6000万人。据一些研究机构预测,2001年全球信息产业产值将达到35
万。5万亿美元,成为世界第一大产业。
摘自《在动荡中发展》
材料2
w . col
20世纪80年代以来,许多亚洲和拉美地区的发展申国家大力推行外向型经济发展模式,积极引进直接
投资和其他形式的外国资本,并且采取一系列鼓励措施促进岀口。它们持续保持了5%-8%的年经济高速增长,
在较短的时间内成功地实现了由初级产品出口国向制成品出口国转变。据国际货币基金组织统计,1989-1994
年,发达国家的对外贸易年均增长率为3.65%,而发展中国家为8.59%其中发展最快的是东亚和东南亚地区
根据《全球化与中国》《当代世界经济与政治》整理
经济全球化使美国获得了巨额的国际资本。过去10多年里,美国始终是全球最大的资本输出国,同时也
是最大的资本输入国。大量的外资净流入,有效地抵销了国内私人储蓄水平持续下降和巨额贸易逆差的不利
影响,对于保持较高的就业和经济增长水平具有重要作用,同时为美国保持较低的物价水平做出了不小的贡
摘自《世界经济》1999年第8期
有资料显示,近儿年来,绝大多数最不发达国家除了得到捐赠和多边经济援助外,儿乎吸引不到任何外
国直接投资。
摘自《世界经济与政治》2000年第8期
有关统计资料表明,四十年前全世界最富、的人口和最穷的人口人均收入是30:1,而现在已上升到74
1.目前联合国成员国中有48个最不发达国家,而二十年前仅20有余
摘自江泽民《在联合国千年首脑会议上的讲话》
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材料3
各国应加强经济技术的交流与合作,逐步改变不公正不合理的国际经济秩序,使经济全球化达到共点和
共存的目的。
摘自江泽民《在庆祝中国共产党成立八十周年大会上的讲话》
请回答
①根据材料1说明经济全球化的原因。(3分)
②根据材料2分析经济全球化趋势对世界各国经济的影响。(3分)
③综合材料1、2、3,说明我国面对经济全球化的基木对策。(4分)


2001年考研思想政治理论试题
下列每题的选项中,有一项是最符合题意的。请在答题纸上将所选项的字母涂黑。(每小题1分,共
分)
1.“只要知道自然界一切组成部分的相对位置和全部作用,一亿年以前的情况和一亿年以后的状况,都可以
精确无误地演算岀来,因为未来的一切早就在宇宙诞生时便已完全被确定了。”这是()
A.唯心主义决定论的观点
B.辩证唯物主义决定论的观点
C.非决定论的观点
D.机械决定论的观点
2.鲁迅在评《三国演义》时说:“至于写人,亦颇有失,以致欲显刘备之长厚而似伪,状诸葛之多智而近妖
这一评述所蕴含的哲理是(
A.要区分事物的两重性
B.要把握事物的度
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C.对事物既要肯定,又要否定
D.要把事物看作一个整体
3.“心诚则灵,心不诚则不灵”的说法是()
A.主张物质和意识具有统一性的辩证唯物主义观点
B.主张思想就是物质的庸俗唯物主义观点
C.认为世界是绝对精神外化的客观唯心主义观点
D.夸大了意识能动作用的唯心主义观点
4.一般情况下,获利水平低于平均利润率的资本是()
A.产业资本B.商业资本C.银行资本D.借贷资本
5.资本主义再生产过程的实质是()
A.劳动过程和价值形成过程的统
B.劳动过程和价值增殖过程的统
C.物质资料再生产与资本主义生产关系再生产的统
D.物质资料再生产与劳动力再生产的统
6.抗日民主政权的“三三制”原则是指(
进步势力、中间势力、顽固势力各占三分之
B.共产党、国民党、民主党派各占三分之
C.共产党员、党外进步分子、中间分子各占三分
D.工人、农民、小资产阶级各占三分之一
1
7.20世纪30年代,中国共产党内最早提出反对教条主义任务的领导人是(
A.毛泽东B.刘少奇C.周恩来D.张闻天
ia.
8.20世纪50年代,毛泽东提出,中国工业化道路的问题主要是指()
A.优先发展重工业的问题
B.将落后的农业国建设成为先进的工业国的问题
重工业、轻工业和农业的发展关系问题
D.建立独立的比较完整的工业体系问题
9.社会主义改造基本完成后,我国国家政治生活的主题是()
集中力量发展社会生产力
B.正确处理人民内部矛盾
C.进行思想战线上的社会主义革命
D加强社会主义民主与法制建设
10.坚持四项基本原则的核心是()
A.坚持社会主义道路
B.坚持人民民主专政
坚持共产党的领导
D.坚持马列主义、毛泽东思想
11.社会主义精神文明建设的主要内容是()
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A.培育有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的新人
B.坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向和百花齐放、百家争鸣的方针
C.进行思想道德建设和教育科学文化建设
D.继承和发扬优秀民族文化传统和吸收各国优秀的思想文化成果
我国的根本政治制度是
A.人民民主专政
B.人民代表大会制度
C.民族区域自治制度
D.共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度
13.我国现阶段存在按劳动力价值分配的方式,其重要原因之一是存在着()
A.私营经济
B.个体经济
C.集体经济
D.股份合作制经济
14.十五届五中全会提出,实现我国国民经济持续快速健康发展的一项覆盖现代化建设全局的战略举措是
大力推进国民经济和社会信息化
B.合理调整生产力布局
C.加强人口和资源管理
D.重视生态建设和环境保护
C(n
15.2000年2月1日,美国众议院不顾中国政府的强烈抗议,通过了旨在加强美台军事关系、阻挠中国统
的()
A.与台湾关系法
B.加强台湾安全法
C.共同防御条
w
D战区导弹防御计划
下列每题的选项中,至少有一项是符合题意的。请在答题纸上将所选项的字母涂黑。少选、多选、错选
该题不得分。(每小题2分,共30分)
16.1999年,中美两国就中国加入w0达成了“双贏”的协议,它将对两国经济产生深远影响。这在辩证法
上的启示是(
A.矛盾的双方在相互斗争中获得发展
B.矛盾一方的发展以另一方的某种发展为条件
矛盾的一方克服另一方而使自身获得发展
D.矛盾双方既对立又统一,由此推动事物发展
E.矛盾双方可以相互吸取有利于自身的因素而得到发展
17.每一复杂的生物个体都是由各种不同的细胞构成的系统,其中每个细胞中的DNA都包含了该生物个体所有
性状的遗传信息。由此可见()
A.整体等于各部分的总和
整体具有部分所不具有的特性
C.整体的所有属性存在于部分之中
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D.整体和部分是相互渗透的
E.整体和部分在一定条件下相互生成和转化
18.马克思说,人的本质“在其现实性上,它是一切社会关系的总和”。其内涵有()
A.人的本质是单个人所固有的抽象物
B.人的本质在于人的社会性
C.人的本质是自由
D.人的本质形成于人的各种社会关系中
E.人的本质是具体的、历史的
19.资本家经营的畜牧场中的种牛,属于()
A.不变资本
B.可变资本
C.固定资本
D.流动资本
E.生产资本
20.1999年全球互联网上贸易额达1450亿美元,2000年将达2000~4000亿美元。电子商务的发展,对加快
资本周转速度起着重要作用,体现在缩短()
资本由货币资本转化为生产资本的时间
B.资本由商品资本转化为货币资本的时间
C.原材料的储备时间
D.劳动者加工劳动对象的时间
in
E.生产过程中自然力作用于劳动对象的时间
21.土地所有者从租种他的优等地的农业资本家那里获得的地租是农产品的
A.市场价格与成本价格的差额
B.生产价格与成本价格的差额
C.个别生产价格与社会生产价格的差额
morIn.
D.价值与生产价格的差额
E.价值与平均利润的差额
22.毛泽东指出,无产阶级要实现对同盟者的领导必须具备的条件有()
率领同盟者向着共同的敌人作坚决的斗争,并取得胜利
坚持独立自主的原则,对同盟者实行又联合又斗争的政策
C.对同盟者给以物质福利,至少不损害其利益,同时给予政治教育
D.对同盟者采取“有理、有利、有节”的策略原则
E.坚持发展进步势力、争取中间势力、孤立顽固势力的方针
23.我国对个体农业进行社会主义改造的成功经验主要有(
在土地改革基础上,不失时机地引导个体农民走互助合作道路
B.遵循自愿互利、典型示范、国家帮助的原则
C.实行“三级所有、队为基础”的农村集体经济体制
D.在有条件的地区推广农业生产责任制
E.采取从互助组到初级合作社到高级合作社的逐步过渡形式
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24.公有制的主体地位主要体现在()
A.公有资产在社会总资产中占优势
国有经济控制国民经济命脉,对经济发展起主导作用
公有资产在各个地方和产业中都占优势
D.国有经济在国民经济中的比重不断提高
E.国有经济的比重大于集体经济
25.邓小平指出:“没有民主就没有社会主义,就没有社会主义现代化”。这一理论命题的涵义是()
A.民主建设是社会主义现代化建设的重要内容
B.民主是社会主义的本质要求
C.民主建设是社会主义现代化建设的重要目标
D.民主是社会主义现代化的政治保证
E.民主是社会主义的内在属性
26.邓小平理论之所以成为马克思主义在中国发展的新阶段,是因为邓小平理论(
A.开拓了马克思主义的新境界
B.提出了新的世界观和方法论
C.把对社会主义的认识提高到新的科学水平
D.对当今时代特征和总体国际形势作出了新的科学判断
E.形成了新的建设有中国特色社会主义理论的科学体系
27.中共十五届五中全会强调,制定“十五”计划并顺利实现“十五”计划规定的我国经济社会发展的主要奋
斗目标,必须
A.把发展作为主题
B.把结构调整作为主线
C.把机构改革作为紧迫任务
D.把改革开放和科技进步作为动力
把提高人民生活水平作为根本出发点
ocin.
28.2000年2月,江泽民同志在广东视察时,提出了“三个代表”的重要论断,指出中国共产党要始终代表
中国
A.先进社会生产力的发展要求
B.现代市场经济的发展要求
C.先进科学技术的进步趋势
D.先进文化的前进方向
E.最广大人民的根本利益
29.在联合国千年首脑会议期间,五个常任理事国首脑举行会晤,中国国家主席江泽民提出,要使联合国和安
理会在重大国际问题上发挥积极作用,安理会五个常任理事国应遵循以下原则(
A.相互尊重,平等相待
B.履行义务,维护权威
C.扩大共识,求同存异
D.加强沟通,密切协调
E.顾全大局,促进合作
30.2000年6月,朝鲜与韩国最高领导人实现了历史性会晤。会晤取得的共识有
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A.应由朝鲜民族自主地解决朝鲜统一问题
B.致力解决离散家庭团聚等问题
C.加强经济文化等方面的交流与合作
D.尽快举行当局之间的对话
E.用联邦制的方式解决国家统一问题
三、辨析题(共3题,每题5分,共15分)要求对所给命题或观点进行辨别、分析,观点正确,言之成理
将答案写在答题纸相应位置上
31.随着信息时代的到来,由计算机网络建立的人与人之间的关系将成为社会的基本关系
32.中国的新民主主义革命属于世界无产阶级社会主义革命的一部分,具有无产阶级社会主义革命的性质。
33.我国社会主义初级阶段和过渡时期的所有制结构是不同的
四、论述题(共2题,每题10分,共20分)要求论述紧扣题意,合乎逻辑。将答案写在答题纸相应位置上
34.诺贝尔奖获得者、华裔科学家丁肇中在谈到他的科学研究体会时说:“20世纪70年代,人们已经知
道所有的基本粒子是由3种夸克组成的。我的问题是,为什么只有3种夸克?为了寻找新夸克,我决定建造
一个高灵敏度的探测器。当时所有的人都认为只有3种夸克,因为3种夸克可以解释所有的现象,所以这个
实验被费米国家实验室和西欧核子中心拒绝了,认为是不可能的。1972年到1974年间,我们在布鲁克考研
教育网国家实验室用一个比较低能的加速器来做这个实验,终于发现了一种新的夸克。这就表示,以前说
有3种夸克的观念是错的,有第四种夸克。有了第四种,就有可能有第五种、第六种,把以往的观念改变了。
(见2000年5月2日《人民日报》)
上述科学发现过程在认识论上对我们如何发现和发展真理有哪些启示?
35.世纪之交,中央作出了实施西部大开发的战略决策。试述中央在此时提出实施这一战略的依据,以及
实施这一战略对经济、社会发展的重大意义。你认为在实施这一战略过程中,应该处理好哪些关系?

五、材料题(共2题,每题10分,共20分)结合所学知识或原理分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在答题
纸相应位置上
36.以下是我国冶金企业的改革经验和效果的部分材料
材料
1990年,邯钢与其他钢铁企业一样,面临内部成本上升、外部市场疲软的双重压力,经济效益大面积滑
坡。当时生产的28个品种有26个亏损,总厂已到了难以为继的状况,然而各分厂报表中所有产品却都显示
出盈利,个人奖金照发,感受不到市场的压力。造成这一反差的主要原因,是当时厂内核算用的“计划价格”
严重背离市场,厂内核算反映不出产品实际成本和企业真实效率。
邯钢从199年开始推行了以“模拟市场核算、实行成本否决”为核心的企业内部改革。用产品的市场售
价减去目标利润,按厂内工序反向逐步推算成本,使日标成本等项指标真实地反映市场的需求变化
摘自《经济日报》1995年1月25日
邯钢由于紧紧抓住了单位产品劳动时间的节约,使它们的产品成本连年下降。按同口径计算,1991年下
降6.86%,1992年下降4.83%,1993年下降6.13%,1994年下降8.9%,1995年下降1%,利润同样连年
增长。
摘自《当代经济研究》1998年第3期
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材料
邯钢针对产品的不同情况,对原来亏损但有市场的产品要做到不赔钱或微利,原来盈利的产品要做到增
加盈利,对成本降不下来的产品停止生产
摘自《经济日报》1995年1月25日
从1991年到1997年,邯钢共投资40多亿元进行了22次大中型技改,每项均比别的企业少投入30%~
50%的资金,但效益却多产出50%以上……,为了满足国民经济对高品质钢材的需要,调整产品结构,改变
目前只能生产普通建筑钢材局面,形成以板材为主,建筑用钢材为辅的产品结构。
摘自《瞭望》1999年第6期
材料3
通过学习邯钢,邢钢〈邢台钢铁公司〉人学精了,学得有了市场观念……严格抓管理,吨钢成本下降,
产值和销售收入都比去年同期增长20%以上,总成本却比去年下降了5.9%
摘自《经济日报》1996年12月12日
济钢〈济南钢铁集团总公司〉是在学邯钢过程中,从冶金行业涌现出来的又一个典型。济钢学习邯钢既
掌握了邯钢经验的实质,同时又在具体方法上加以创新。其不仅依据市场情况和目标利润倒推岀成本计划,
而且把主要精力放在影响成本的主要经济技术指标上,根据经济技术指标达到同行业前三名和本企业历史最
好水平的原则,正算成本,然后比较修正,确定出科学的成本计划再进行层层分解、层层考核。从1993年到
1998年济钢在提取设备折旧率11.28%,比全行业平均水平几乎高出一倍的前提下,实现利润却由1.48亿元
提高到1.8亿元,增幅达21.6%。
摘自《经济日报》1999年7月8日
请回答
①从价值规律的要求出发,结合材料1说明邯钢主要改革举措的科学依据。(4分)
②结合材料2分析邯钢经营的成功所在。(2分
③结合材料1、2、3谈谈推广邯钢经验的意义。(4分)
In.
7.下面是20世纪二三十年代中国共产党内关于革命道路问题的几组材料
材料1
①乡村是统治阶级的四肢,城市才是他们的头脑与心腹,单只斩断了他的四肢,而没有斩断他的头脑
炸裂他的心腹,还不能制他的最后的死命
摘自李立三:《新的革命高潮前面的诸问题》(1930年6月)
②(有人)以为中国象西欧各国一样,大城市的经济力量可以统治全国,所以大城市暴动成功以后可以
影响小城市及乡村;而在中国,则找不到一个大城市的经济力量能统治全国的
摘自中共六届二中全会的政治问题报告(1929年6月)
③中国豪绅资产阶级因为资本主义发展的落后,不能成为一个整个儿阶级势力,他们内部分裂冲突,而
没有组织全国家中央集权政府的能力。因此,革命不能有夺取“首都”,一击而中的发展形势
摘自瞿秋白:《武装暴动的问题》(1927年12月)
材料2
①不要城市就是否认共产党是无产阶级政党,就是否认无产阶级对农民的领导,结果共产党只有变成
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资产阶级农民党。(你们)在斗争的布置上有用乡村包围城市的企图,这种倾向是极危险的。
摘自中共中央致湖北省委信(1929年2月)
②红军、游击队和红色区域的建立和发展,是半殖民地中国在无产阶级领导之下的农民斗争的最高形式
和半殖民地农民斗争发展的必然结果;并且无疑义地是促进全国革命高潮的最重要因素
摘自毛泽东:《星星之火,可以燎原》(1930年1月)
③现在就全国看来,农民运动的发展比较城市的工人运动要快得多。在这一种情势之下,若我们依然是
将大部分的力量都用在城市中,实不如用在农村中为好。革命势力占据了广大农村之后,可以结合起来包围
城市,封锁城市,用广大的农村革命势力向城市进攻,必然可以得着胜利
摘自中共中央机关刊物《红旗》(1930年5月)
④以为不要城市工人而用农村包围城市可以取得胜利,这无论在理论上与事实上都是不通的。假使没有
城市做领导,则任何乡村都是不能“联合起来”的。并且,有城市工人激烈斗争,则一切“包围城市”的计
划完全是空谈
摘自中共中央机关刊物《红旗》(1930年5月24日)
材料3
如果革命的队伍不愿意和帝国主义及其走狗妥协,而要坚持地奋斗下去,如果革命的队伍要准备积蓄和
锻炼自己的力量,并避免在力量不够的时候和强大的敌人作决定胜负的战斗,那就必须把落后的农村造成先
进的巩固的根据地,造成军事上、政治上、经济上、文化上的伟大的革命阵地,借以反对利用城市进攻农村
区域的凶恶敌人,借以在长期战斗中逐步地争取革命的全部胜利
摘自毛泽东:《中国革命和中国共产党》(1939年12月)
请回答
①分析材料1,说明近代中国社会城乡关系的特点及其原因。(3分)
②阅读材料2,分析材料中的不同观点及其分歧的实质。(3分)
③综合材料1、2、3,指出中国革命新道路的客观依据和革命新道路理论的基本点。(4分)

中国人民大学法学硕士初试:公共课英语(一)历年真题(2013-2003)
2013年考研英语(一)真题
说明:由于试题为一题多卷,因此现场试卷中的选择题部分,不同考生有不同顺序,请在核对答案时注
意题目和选项的具体内容
Section I Use of English
Directions
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, c or
D on ANSWER SHEET I(10 points)
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People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual
decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which
are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big
3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samles of information they were working
with. 4, he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft 6 crime might be more likely to
send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced
munity service on that day
this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process
of an
applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but
Dr. Simonsoho suspected the truth was 11
He studied the results of 9, 323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The
interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into
consideration. The scores were 15_ used in conjunction with an applicants score on the granduate
Managent Adimssion Test, or GMAT, a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make
a decision on whether to accept him or her
Dr. Simonsoho found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was
0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would
18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a
decrease a candidate could need 30 more gmat points than would otherwise have been 20
[A] gra
Submits
[C]transmits
D]delivers
2. [A]minor
[B Objective
[C]crucial
D] external
3. A]issue
Bvision
Picture
D]external
4. [A] For example
[B] On average
[CIIn principle
[ABOve all
5. [A] fond
[B] fearful
[C]capable
[D] thoughtless
6. AJin
B]on
C]to
7. [A]if
B until
IC] though
D]unless
8. [A] promote
B] emphasize
D]success
9. [A] decision
[B] quality
[C] status
success
10. [A] che
[B]
[C] found
11.[A] exceptional [B] defensible
[C] replaceable
[D] otherwise
12. [A]inspired
B] expressed
D] secured
13. [ A] assigned
[B]rated
[C] matched
D] arranged
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15. [A]instead
[B] the
[C]
] rather
16. [A] selected
[B]passed
marke
D] introduced
17. [A]before
B] after
above
below
18. JUmp
B] float
cI dro
D] fluctuate
19. [A] achieve
Bl undo
IC] maintain
[] disregard
20. [A] promising
B]possible
[C]necessary
[D] helpful
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (40 points)
Text
In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda priestly, played by Meryl Streep,
her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesnt affect her, Priestly explains
how the deep blue color of the assistants sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to
departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment
the this top-down conception of the fashion business couldnt be more out of date or at odds with
the feverish would described in Overdressed, Eliazabeth Clines three-year indictment of"fast
fashion". In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as
Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely
Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels
encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two
although they dont advertise that -and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering
on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking
an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace
The victims of this revolution, of course are not limited to designers For h&M to offer a $5.95
knit miniskirt in all its 2, 300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor
order in volumes that strain natural resources and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals
Overdressed is the fashion worlds answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan
The Omnivore's Dilemma. Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is
non-durable and wasteful, "Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year
about 64 items per person-and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste
owards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a brooklyn woman named Sarah
Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes-and beautifully. But as Cline is the
first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example cant be knocked off
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Though several fast-fashion panies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the
environment- including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line-Cline believes lasting
change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism mon to many advocates of
sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more
sustainably when they cant afford not to
21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her (
[A] poor bargaining skill
B]insensitivity to fashion
[C] obsession with high fashion
[D lack of imagination
22. According to Cline mass-maket labels urge consumers to
[A] bat unnecessary waste
b] shut out the feverish fashion world
[C]resist the influence of advertisements
[D] shop for their garments more frequently
23. The word"indictment"(Line 3, Para. 2)is closest in meaning to (
[A] accusation。
B] enthusiasm。
w
C] indifference
[D」 tolerance
24. Which of the following can be inferred from the lase paragraph?
[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists
[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability
[C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments
[ Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing
25. What is the subject of the text?
[A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle
[B Challenge to a high-fashion myth
[C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industr
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[D] Exposure of a mass-market secret
Text 2
An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows
which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching
what people search for, click on and say online, panies can aim"behavioural"ads at those most
likely to buyo
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained
information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads?
Or should they have explicit permission?
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Cornmission(FtC) proposed adding a"do not track
"(dNt) option to internet browsers, so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be
followed. Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer dnT; Google's Chrome is due to
do so this year. In February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance(DAa)agreed that the industry
would get cracking on responging to DNT requests
On May 3 lst Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appea
windows 8 would have dnt as a default
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to
stop tracking, although some panies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone
really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsofts default, some may
ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which
ill ply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google
which relies almost wholly on default will bee the norm. dnt does not seem an obviously huge
selling point for windows 8-though the firm has pared some of its other products favourably with
Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde: we believe
consumers should have more control. " Could it really be that simple?
26. It is suggested in paragraph I that"behavioural"ads help advertisers to:
[A]ease petition among themselves
[B] lower their operational costs
[C] avoid plaints from consumers
DI provide better online services
27. "The industry"(Line 6, Para. 3)refers to:(
[A online advertisers
[B]e-merce conductors
[C] digital information analysis
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internet browser developers
28. Bob Liodice holds that setting dnt as a default
[A] many cut the number of junk ads
B fails to affect the ad industry
IC] will not benefit consumers
DI goes against human nature
29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph 6
[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose
[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT
[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers
[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads
30. The author' s attitude towards what Brendon lynch said in his blog is one of
A] indulgence
B]understanding
[C] appreciation
[D] skepticism
Text 3
w
Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of
threats facing us, from asteroid strike to pandemic flu to climate change. You might even be tempted
to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to
But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for
millions of years-so why shouldn t we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and
it bees clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands
of years(see100,000 AD: Living in the deep future"). Look up Homo sapiens in the IUCN's"Red
List"of threatened species, and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely
distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall
population decline
So what does our deep future hold? a growing number of researchers and organisations are now
thinking seriously about that question. For example, the long Now Foundation, based in Sar
francisco, has created a forum where thinkers and scientists are invited to project the implications of
heir ideas over very long timescales. Its flagship project is a mechanical clock, buried deep inside a
mountain in Texas, that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence
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Then there are scientists who are giving serious consideration to the idea that we should
recognise a new geological era: the Anthropocene. They, too, are pulling the camera right back and
asking what humanity's impact will be on the planet- in the context of stratigraphic time
ma Perhaps perversely, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more
immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is
dazzlingly plicated, and it's perhaps best left to science-fiction writers and futurologists to explore
the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new
publication dedicated to the near future
But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable
assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the
long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts
about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves
This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a
passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy: while our species may flourish, a great many
individuals may not. But we are now knowledgeable enough to mitigate many of the risks that
threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to e. Thinking about
our place in deep time is a good way to focus on the challenges that confront us today, and to make a
future worth living in
31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by
[A]our desire for ares of fulfillment
[B]our faith in science and teched
时cin.cm
32. The IUCN"Rod Listsuggest that human beings on
[AJ a sustained species
B the word's deminant power
[C] a threat to the environment
[I a misplaced race
33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5(
[A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies
[B] Technology offers solutions to social problem
[C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise
[D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive
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34. To ensure the future of mankind. it is crucial to
[A] explore our planets abundant resources
B] adopt an optimistic view of the world
[C] draw on our experience from the past
[D] curb our ambition to reshape history
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Uncertainty about Our Future
[B] Evolution of the Human Species
C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind
[D] Science, Technology and Humanity
Text 4
Text 4
On a five to three vote, the Supreme court knocked out much of Arizona's immigration law
Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of
the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration's effort to upset the balance of
power between the federal government and the states
Q In Arizona V. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of
conas controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The
onstitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to"establish a uniform rule of
Naturalization and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial, Arizona had attempted
to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones
Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Courts liberals, ruled
that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held the
congress had deliberately"occupied the field"and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal's
leged
However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of
people who e in contact with law enforcement. Thats because Congress has always envisioned
joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share
information and cooperate with federal colleagues
Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this
Constitutional logic but disagreed about which arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The
only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense o
state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts
The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his
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objection as "a shocking assertion assertion of federal executive power". The White House argued that
Arizona's laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws plied with federal
statutes to the letter. In effect, the white house claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise
legitimate state law that it disagrees with
Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the
borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to
check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that
because it didnt want to carry out Congress's immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so
either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim
36. Three provisions of Arizona's plan were overturned because they
a]deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers
b disturbed the power balance between different states
[C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law
[D contradicted both the federal and state policies
37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph4?
a Federal officers'duty to withhold immigrants'information
b States independence from federal immigration law
[C] States legitimate role in immigration enforcement
fore
i cm be intere from pangs s that the
[A violated the Constitution
b] undermined the states'interests
[C] supported the federal statute
D stood in favor of the states
39. The white House claims that its power of enforcement
[a outweighs that held by the states
b is dependent on the states support
[C is established by federal statutes
[D rarely goes against state laws
40. What can be learned from the last paragraph?
[a Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress
[b Justices intended to check the power of the Administrstion
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[C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress
[D The Administration is dominant over immigration issues
Part B
Directions
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the
most suitable one from the list A-g to fit into each of the numbered blank There are two extra choices
which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were
half a million professi
social scientists from all fields in the world working both inside and outside academia. according to
the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen
by about 11%every year since 2000
Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today's global challenges including
climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)
Humanity has the necessary
agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to arificial fertilizers
Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity
(42) This is a shame-the munity should be grasping the opportunity to raise its
influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no
radical innovation without creative destruction
Today the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly
debates, rather than on topics with external impact
Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords "environmental changed"or
climate change"have increased rapidly since 2004, (43)
When social scientists do tackle practical issues, their scope is often local: Belgium is interested
mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example And whether the munitys work
contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful
The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding(44 this is an adequate
amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who plain about a lack of
funding should not expect more in todays economic climate
The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have
long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be
changed: Horizon 2020, a new program to be enacted in 2014, would not have such a category This has
resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the
plete opposite (45) That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop
projects aimed directly at solving global problems
[A] It could be that we are evolving two munities of social scientists: one that
discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented
and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs
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B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1, 600 of the 100,000 social-sciences
papers published globally included one of these Keywords
CI the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and
demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and
Inclusive. innovative and secure societies
D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic munity, and what it considers to be
its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from
scientists, especially the young ones
E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior. all require behavioral change and social
innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as
much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing
clean energy
[F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in
Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science
research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development
G During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a
percentage of all research and development funds- including government, higher education, non-profit
and corporate-varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%
Section Il Translation
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
ranslation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them the need
for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express,
fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge;(46)Yet when one looks at the
photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles.
these gardens speak os various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative
expression。
One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a"still
point of the turning world, to borrow a phrase from T.S. Eliot (47)A sacred place of peace, however
crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.
This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the
fomer bees all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of
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one's relation to one's environment (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless
gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn't exist or was not discernible as
such In so doing they give posure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they
take their stand。
Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that
we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of
trees,(49)most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some
psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as
if by magico In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is
unfeasible, yet even so the positions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of
materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as
well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some
basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that
fully justifies the use of word garden though in a"liberated"sense, to describe these synthetic
constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming
uncanny representational forms
Section Iv Writing
Part A
51.Directions:
rite an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a
judge for the uping English speech contest. You should include the details you think
necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at
the end of the e-mail, Use"Li Ming" instead
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Part B
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
1)describe the drawing briefly
2)explain its intended meaning, and
3)give your ments
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2. (20 points)
3
华业生


doc(n

2012年考研英语(一)真题
Section i Use of english
Directions
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Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D
on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have bee an important issue recently.
The court cannot 1 its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law_2 justices behave like
politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that 3 the courts reputation for being
independent and impartial
Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it
less likely that the courts decisions will be 4 as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the
justices are not 5 by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself to the code
of conduct that 7 to the rest of the federal judiciary
This and other similar cases 8 the question of whether there is still a 9 between the court and
olitics
The framers of the Constitution envisioned law 10 having authority apart from politics. They
gave justices permanent positions ll they would be free to 12 those in power and have no need
to 13 political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely
because they are so closely 14
Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social 15
like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it 16 is
inescapably political-which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily17as
The justices must 18 doubts about the court's legitimacy by making themselves 19 to the
code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, 20
convincing as lay
1. EMphasize
B maintain
C] modify
D] recognize
2. [A]when
[B Lest
[C]before
[D] unless
3.[A]r
[B]weakened
[C]established D]eliminated
4. A]challenged
IB]promised [C]suspected
[D] accepted
dvance
[C]bound
[D]founded
6. [ A]resistant
B]su
Immune
D]prone
[B]sticks
8. [LEvade
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9. AJline
B]barrier
[C]similarity
Conflict
10. [Aby
B Jas
C]though
D]toward
11.[A]so
[B since
[Provided
12. [A]serve
Clupset
D]replace
13. Confirm
B]express
[C]cultivate
D]offer
14. GUarded
[B]followed
[C]studied
[ Tied
15. [A]concepts
[C]divisions
D]conceptions
16. [EXcludes
uestIons
17. [DIsmissed
released
[]ranked
[Distorted
18. [A]suppress
EXploit
[ADdress
Jignore
19. [ACcessible
b ]amiable
[C]agreeable
D Accountable
20. A]by all mens [B Jat all costs
[DJas a result
Part A
c(n
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, c or D. Mark
your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
Text 1
wW. docIn.
Come on-Everybody's doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us
think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her
new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she
calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals
improve their lives and possibly the word
Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South
Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In
South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as Love Life recruits young people to promote safe sex among
their peers
The idea seems promising, and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness
of many pubic- health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and
they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology. Dare to be different, please dont
smoke! pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who
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desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought
to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure
But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is
filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors
that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it's presented here is
that it doesn't work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut
Evidence that the love life program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed
There's no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of
research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friend
ommunication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day
Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their
activities in virtuous directions, It's like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing
them with better-behaved classmates. the tactic never really works. and that' s the problem with a social cure
engineered from the outside: in the real world as in school, we insist on choosing our own friend
21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as
] a supplement to the social cure
B a stimulus to group dynamics
(
[C] an obstacle to school progress
[]a cause of undesirable behaviors
22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates sho
acin.
[A] recruit professional advertisers
B]learn from advertisers'experience
[C] stay away from mercial advertisers
[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements
23. In the author's view, rosenbergs book fails to
[A] adequately probe social and biological factors
B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure
[ C] illustrate the functions of state funding
[D]produce a long-lasting social effect
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24. Paragraph shows that our imitation of behaviors
[A]is harmful to our networks of friends
[B] will mislead behavioral studies
[C]occurs without our realizing it
[ can produce negative health habits
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is
[A] harmful
[B] desirable
CI profound
[D] questionable
Text 2
a deal is a deal-except, apparently when Entergy is involved. The pany, a major energy supplier in New
England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding
mitment to abide by the strict nuclear regulations
Instead, the pany has done precisely what it had long promised it would not challenge the constitutionality
of Vermont's rules in the federal court, as part of a desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant
ning It's a stunning move
The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont's only nuclear power plant
an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale, the pany agreed to seek
permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any
extension of the plants license be subject to Vermont legislature's approval. Then, too, the pany went alon
Either Entergy never really intended to live by those mitments, or it simply didnt foresee what would
happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an
underground pipe system leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee's safety and Entergy's
management-especially after the pany made misleading statements about the pipe. Enraged by Entergy
behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an extension
low the pany is suddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of the 2006 legislation, and
that only the federal government has regulatory power over nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure
whereas the Supreme Court has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal
scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend. Certainly, there are
valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy
kept its word, that debate would be beside the point
The pany seems to have concluded that its reputation in vermont is already so damaged that
it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission
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to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 1 l other reactors in the United States, including
Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the pany has applied for
federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) reviews the panys application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy are
26. The phrase"reneging on (Line 3. para. 1)is closest in meaning to
[A] condemning
[B] reaffirming
C] dishonoring
27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to
[A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators
[B] seek favor from the federal legislature
[C] acquire an extension of its business license
n
[D] get permission to purchase a power plant
28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its

[A]managerial practices
bI technical innovativeness
C] financial goals
[ i business vision
29. In the authors view the Vermont case will test
[A]Entergy's capacity to fulfill all its promises
[B] the mature of states patchwork regulations
C
federal authority over nuclear issues
[D] the limits of states'power over nuclear issues
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
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[AJ Entergy's business elsewhere might be affected
[B] the authority of the nRC will be defied
[ C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application
[D Vermonts reputation might be damaged
In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected
by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of
science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and plicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot
escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what
we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and
self-deception abound
Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims
they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature
discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher's me, here, now bees the
munity's anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point
Once a discovery claim bees public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with minin
laims. the cor
ity takes control of what happens next. Within the plex social structure of the scientific
munity, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication
process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other
scientists)receives the new discovery and possibly acpanying technology. as a discovery claim works it through
the munity, the interaction and confrontation between shared and peting beliefs about the science and the
technology involved transforms an individuals discovery claim into the munity 's credible discovery
Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on
some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as inplete or incorrect. Little reward
acpanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed. The goal is
new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible
discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential
modification or refutation by future researchers. Second novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief.
Nobel laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as"seeing what
everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. But thinking what nobody else has
thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimes years are
required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated
In the end, credibility"happens"to a discovery claim-a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette
Baier has described as the mons of the mind. We reason together, challenge, revise, and plete each other's
reasoning and each other's conceptions of reason
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31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its
[AJ uncertainty and plexity
B] misconception and deceptiveness
[ C] logicality and objectivity.
[D] systematicness and regularity
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires
[A] strict inspection
[B] shared efforts
[C] individual wisdom
Persistent innovation
33. Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim bees credible after it
[A]has attracted the attention of the general public
B]has been examined by the scientific munity

C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers
[D ]has been frequently quoted by peer scientists
ocIn.
34. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi would most likely agree that
[A] scientific claims will survive challenges
B]discoveries today inspire future research
[C] efforts to make discoveries are justified
[D]scientific work calls for a critical mind
35. Which of the following would be the best title of the test?
[AJ Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development
B]Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery
[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science
[]Challenge to Credibility at the gate to Science
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Text 4
If the trade
st Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant
When Hoffa's Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten american government workers
belonged to a union; now 36%do. In 2009 the number of unionists in America's public sector passed
that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers
but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized
There are three reasons for the public-sector unions'thriving. First, they can shut things down
without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated
A quarter of America's public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate
left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go back a long way. Britains Labor Party, as its name
mplies, has long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his
position to votes from public-sector unions
At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. mark baldassare of the public
Policy Institute of California points out that much of the states budget is patrolled by unions. The
teachers'unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOa on prisons and a variety of labor groups on
health care
In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But
the real gains e in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly"backloaded
public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially
pensions that are already generous
Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter
schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence
that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers' unions have fought against
getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.
As the cost to everyone else has bee clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In
Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline
Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too
John Donahue at Harvards Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil
services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American
public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the
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president of the United States. Bankers' fat pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a
ublic-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America
36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that
[A]Teamsters still have a large body of members
[B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant
[C]unions have enlarged their public-sector membership
[D]the government has improved its relationship with unionists
37. which of the following is true of paragraph 2?
[A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions
[B Education is required for public-Sector union membership
[ C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions
[]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions
38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the ine in the state sector is
[A] illegally secured
[B] indirectly augmented
[C] excessively increased

[D]fairly adjusted
39. The example of the unions in wisconsin shows that unions
LAJoften run against the current political system
[B]can change peoples political attitudes.
[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms
D]are dominant in the government
40. John Donahue's attitude towards the public-sector system is one of
[A]disapproval
[B]appreciation
olerance
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[D indifference
Part B
Directions
In the following tert, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from
the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the
blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEETI. (10 points
Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying
higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of
your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream e true.
The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour
to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and
gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)
The networked puter is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the mode of production
means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The puter is the 21st century's culture
But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the puter, we must also tread with caution. (42)I call it a secret
war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong mercial agendas at work to keep them
in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked puters to upload are not even
aware of the significance of what they are doing
All animals download, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yet for the most part,
the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make
tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods- paintings, sculpture and architecture
and superfluous experiences-music, literature, religion and philosophy. (43)
For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. Even after
the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading
naterial, a slightly larger group menting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content
to just consume. (44)
Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn
the power off after he has turned it on
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What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of"stickiness"-creations
and experiences to which others adhere
[A]Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it
is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond
downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity
[B Applications like tumblr. , which allow users to bine pictures, words and other media in
creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and
enlightening others
[C Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed
to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day
[D] This is because the networked puter has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading-between
passive consumption and active creation- whose oute will shape our collective future in ways we can only begi
to imagine
[E] The challenge the puter mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one format bein
another in the manner of record players being replaced by CD players
[F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world
media culture has been defined by a single medium -television-and television is defined by downloading
[G ] The networked puter offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful
downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading
Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific
enterprise. In some ways, this quest for monalities defines science. Newton's laws of motion and
Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.
46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of
everything-a single generative equation for all we see. It is being less clear, however, that such a
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theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless,
unification of sorts remains a major goal
This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here
Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share mon origins it seems reasonable to
suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the
bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection
perhaps the worlds languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by
universal features. ( 48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand
how plex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms
That, at least, is the hope. But a parative study of linguistic traits published online today
supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the
evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in languag
The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are
born with an innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative
rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language which is why children
can learn it so quickly
(49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying
traits(particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that
result from cognitive constraints
Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them
represent more than 2,000 languages. (50)Chomsky's grammar should show patterns of language change
that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian
universality predicts strong Co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of
these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire
age-specific and not governed by universals
Section III Writing
Part A
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51. Directions
ity. Write them an email in the
Students' Union to
) extend your wele and
2) provide some suggestions for their campus life here.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWEr SHEET2 Do not sign your name at the end of the
letter. Use"Li ming?" instead
Do not write the address(10 points)
Part B
52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
1)describe the drawing briefly
2)explain its intended meaning, and
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2. (20 points
全完了1
幸公点儿
ENA
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2011年考研英语(一)真题
Section I Use of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], B], [C] or d]on
ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as"a bodily exercise precious to health. "But
some
claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does 2 short-term
hanges in the function of the heart and its blood vessel
hard laughter is difficult to 4, a good laugh is unlikely to have
benefits the way, say, walking or jogging
does. 6, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently acplishes the 7
studies dating back to the 1930s indicate that laughter 8 muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes
after the laugh dies down
Such bodily reaction might conceivably help 9 the effects of psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing
probably does produce other types of 10 feedback, that improve an individuals emotional stat
classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end
of the 19century that humans do not cry 13 they are sad but they bee sad when the tears begin to flow
Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow 15 muscular responses
In an experiment published in 1988, social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of wurzburg in Germany asked
volunteers to 16 a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile-or with their lips, which
would produce a(n) 17 expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles 18 more exuberantly
to funny cartons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, 19 that expressions may influence
emotions rather than just the other way around 20, the physical act of laughter could improve mood
1. AJamong
EXcept
DEspite
Like
2. [A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce
3. [A]stabilizing B boosting [CJimpairing [D]determinin
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4. [A]transmit B]sustain
C]eval
OBserve
5. Ameasurable B]manageable C]affordable renewable
6. [AJIn turn
[BIn fact
[CIIn addition [DJIn brief
7. [A]opposite Impossible [C
verage
EXpected
8. [AJhardens [B]weakens
[ ]rela
9. LAJaggravate [B ]generate [C]moderate
]enhance
0. [Aphysical [B]mental
[C]subconscious INternal
11. [AExcept for [B]According to [C]Due to
DJAS for
12. [A]with
[C]in
at
13. [AJunless
Blunt
Cif
[D]b
14. [A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes D]suppress
15. AInt
[C]towards
[D]beyond
16. [A]fetch
B ]bite
[C]pick
D ]hold
17. [A]disappointed [BJexcited
ICljoyful
Indifferent
18. [ AJadapted
B]catered
[C]turned
D]reacted

19. [A]suggesting B ]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
20. [AJEventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly DJO
over
Section II Reading Comprehension
PartA

Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], IC] or [D]. Mark your
answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (40 points)
Text 1
The decision of the New york philharmonic to hire alan gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the
classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the
response has been favorable, to say the least. "Hooray! At last! wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided
classical-music critic
One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is paratively little
known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert's appointment in the Times, calls himan unpretentious
musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him. As a description of the next music director of an
orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have
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struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.
For my part, I have no idea whether gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs ar
impressive variety of interesting positions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere
else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my puter and
download still more recorded music from iTunes
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point
For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must pete not only with
opera houses, dance troupes, theater panies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great
classical musicians of the 20 century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher
in artistic quality than today's live performances; moreover, they can be"consumed "at a time and place of the
listener's choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution
of the traditional classical concert
One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available or
record. Gilberts own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described
him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into"a markedly different, more vibrant organization. " But
what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra's repertoire will
and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America's oldest orchestra and
the new audience it hops to attract
21. We learn from Para. 1 that Gilbert's appointment has
cin.
LAJincurred criticism
[B]raised suspicion
[C]received acclaim
Aroused curiosity
22. Tommasini regards gilbert as an artist who is
[INfluential
B]modest
[C]respectable
D]talented
23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers
Ajignore the expenses of live performances
[B]reject most kinds of recorded performances
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[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances
D overestimate the value of live performances.
24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings
[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality
B]They are easily accessible to the general public
[C]They help improve the quality of musi
[D]They have only covered masterpieces
25.Regarding Gilbert's role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels
LAJdoubtful
B]enthusiastic
[C]confident.
[Puzzled
Text 2
When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of Am
straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving"to
pursue my goal of running a pany. Broadcasting his ambition was"very much my decision, "McGee says
within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which
named him CEO and chairman on September 29
McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of no
run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isnt alone. In recent weeks
the No. 2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post
As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don' t get the nod also may
wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague
pronouncements cloud their reputations
As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a
net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they
had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders
The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and
headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEo candidates are the ones who must be poached
Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey: I cant think of a single search I,'ve done where a board has not
instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first
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Those who jumped without a job havent always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of
Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a ceo. It was a year before she became head of a tiny
Internet-based modities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He
finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later
Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers, The financial crisis has made it more
acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. " The traditional rule was it's safer to stay where you are, but
thats been fundamentally inverted, says one headhunter. "The people who've been hurt the worst are those whove
stayed too long;”
26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as bein
[ARrogant
B]frank
[C]self-centered
Impulsive
27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives quitting
[AJtheir expectation of better financial status
B]their need to reflect on their private li
[C]their strained relations with the boards
[D]their pursuit of new career goals
28.The word"poached" (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means
n.
[APproved of.
B Attended to
[C]hunted for
Guarded against
29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[ATop performers used to cling to their posts
BJloyalty of top performers is getting out-dated
[ C]top performers care more about reputations
Jits safer to stick to the traditional rule
30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?
LAJCEOS: Where to Go?
B]CEOs: All the Way Up?
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[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net
] The Only Way Out for Top Performers
Text 3
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional
paid "media- such as television mercials and print advertisements- still play a major role, panies today
can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create"owned"media by
sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site The way consumers now
approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media
Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products For earned media, such
marketers act as the initiator for users'responses But in some cases, one marketer's owned media bee another
marketer's paid media- for instance, when an e-merce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such
sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-merce
engines within that environment. This trend, which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers
and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson Johnson, for example, has
created Baby Center, a stand-alone media property that promotes plementary and even petitive products
Besides generating ine, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives panies
opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other panies marketing, and may help expand
user traffic for all panies concerned
The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse
munications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker,
more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or
campaign bees hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a
brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure
on the businesses that originally created them
If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of
the target pany at risk. In such a case, the pany's response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and
the learning curve has been steep Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis
earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included
efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg
31. Consumers may create"earned"media when they are
obsessed with online shopping at certain Web sites
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B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them
IC] eager to help their friends promote quality products
[D] enthusiastic about remending their favorite products
32. According to Paragraph 2, sold media feature
[A]a safe business environment
[B] random petition
[C] strong user traffic
flexibility in organization
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media
[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers
B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing
[C] may be responsible for fiercer petition
D] deserve all the negative ments about them
34. Toyota Motor's exp
ited as an example of
[A] responding effectively to hijacked media

B] persuading customers into boycotting products
[C] cooperating with supportive consumers
D] taking advantage of hijacked media
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about
ocin.
LAJ Alternatives to conventional paid media
B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media
[C] Dominance of hijacked media
D Popularity of owned medi
Text 4
It's no surprise that Jennifer Senior's insightful, provocative magazine cover story, I love My Children, I Hate
My Life, is arousing much chatter- nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything
less than a pletely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either
happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be
measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the
day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that"the very things that in the
moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight
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The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child
image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive- and newly single- mom Sandra
Bullock, as well as the usual"Jennifer Aniston is pregnant"news. Practically every week features at least one
celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstand
In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children
is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing It doesn't seem quite fair, then, to pare the regrets of
parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn t have had kids
but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the
world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives
Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely
unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that
parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering
how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on
their"own"(read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cak
It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make
it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it's interesting to wonder if the images
we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren't in some small, subconscious way
contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped
getting"the Rachel" might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston
o
Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring
LAJtemporary deli
B]enjoyment in progress
IC]happiness in retrospect
D]lasting reward
37. We learn from Paragraph 2 that
LA]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip.
B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention.
[C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining
]having children is highly valued by the publie
38. It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks
AJare constantly exposed to criticism
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B]are largely ignored by the media
ICfail to fulfill their social responsibilities
IAre less likely to be satisfied with their life
39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is
B]ambiguous
[C]pensator
Misleading
40. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms
[B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing
IC]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life
[D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing
Part B
Directions:
The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these
paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph
E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[AJ No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand
points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral
degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before
getting their degrees
[B His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines
that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business pared with only 2%
history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a
grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on
what a"general education"should look like. At Harvard, Mr Menand notes, "the great books are read because they
have been read"-they form a sort of social glue
[C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There
are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs. But fewer students
ant to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor's degrees in 1970-71 than they did
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20 years later. Fewer students requires fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of theses-writing, many humanities
students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained.
[DI One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they can cut across the insistence by top
American universities that liberal-arts educations and professional education should be kept separate, taught in
different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end
up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before
embarking on a professional qualification
E] Besides professionalizing the professions by this separation, top american universities have professionalised the
professor. The growth in public money for academic research has speeded the process: federal research grants rose
fourfold between 1960and 1990, but faculty teaching hours fell by half as research took its toll. Professionalism has
turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career: as late as 1969a third
of American professors did not possess one. But the key idea behind professionalisation, argues Mr Menand, is that
the knowledge and skills needed for a particular specialization are transmissible but not transferable. So disciplines
acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of
knowledge
[F] The key to reforming higher education, concludes Mr Menand, is to alter the way in which"the producers of
knowledge are produced. Otherwise, academics will continue to think dangerously alike increasingly detached from
he societies which they study, investigate and criticize "Academic inquiry, at least in some fields, may need to
bee less exclusionary and more holistic. Yet quite how that happens, Mr Menand dose not say
[G] The subtle and intelligent little book The Marketplace of ldeas: Reform and Resistance in the american
University should be read by every student thinking of applying to take a doctoral degree. They may then decide to
go elsewhere. For something curious has been happening in American Universities, and Louis Menand, a professor
of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully.
G→41.→42.→E→43.-44.-45
Part C
Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation
should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
With its theme that"Mind is the master weaver, " creating our inner character and outer circumstances the book
As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing
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46)Allen's contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control
our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think
that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen
believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able
to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question:
"Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that?"
Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded
We do not attract what we want, but what we are. Achievement happens because you as a person embody the
external achievement; you don' t"get "success but bee it. There is no gap between mind and matter.
APart of the fame of Allens book is its contention that"Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him. (48)
This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those
at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom.
This, however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad
offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, the
humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us
and if we feel that we have been"wronged"then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our
situation. Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a persons early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to
an individual
The sobering aspect of Allen,s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition excel
ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were
experts in the array of limitations, now we bee authorities of what is possible.
Section Il writing
Part A
lDirections
Write a letter to a friend of yours to
1) remend one of your favorite movies and 2) give reasons for your remendation
Your should write about 100 words on aNSWEr sheet 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User" LI MING instead
Do not writer the address. (10 points)
Part B
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52. Directions
Write an essay of 160---200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
I )describe the drawing briefly,
2 )explain it's intended meaning, and
3)give your ments
Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2(20 points)
旅程之“余”
dos
2010年考研英语(一)真题
Section I Use of English
Directions
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A] [B], [C]
or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
In 1924 American'National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments
at a telephone parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how
stop-floor lighting_ 1 workers productivity. Indeed, the studies ended 2 _giving their name to the
Hawthorne effect "the extremely influential idea the very 3 to being experimented upon changed
subject s behavior
The idea arose because of the 4 behavior of the women in the plant. According to 5 of the
experiments their hourly out put rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It
did not 6 what was done in the experiment;_7 something was changed, productivity rose. A(n)
8 that they were being experimented upon seemed to be 9 to alter workers' behavior 10 itself.
After several decades, the same data were 11 to econometric the analysis. Hawthorne experiments
has another surprise store 12 the descriptions on record no systematic 13 was found that levels
of productivity were related to changes in lighting
It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to 14 interpretation
of what happened 15, lighting was always changed on a Sunday. When work started again on
Monday, output 16 rose pared with the previous Saturday and 17 to rise for the next couple
of days 18, a parison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that
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output always went up on Monday, workers 19 to be diligent for the first few days of the week
any case, before_20 a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged"Hawthorne
effect"is hard to pin down
I.A affected
B] achieved
C] extracted
D] restored
2. [A]at
B
3. [A] truth
[B] sight
[C]
[D] proof
4. [A] controversial [B] perplexing [C] mischievous [D] ambiguous
5. [A]requirements [B] explanation [C] accounts
D] assessments
6.[A]
Blatter
C] indicate
ID] work
7. A as far as
B for fear that [C] in case that [ D] so long as
8. [A] awareness [B] expectation [C] sentiment [D] illusion
9. [A] suitable
B]excess
[D] abundant
10.[A]about
B] for
[D] by
11.[A] pared [B]sho
[ C] subjected [D] conveyed
12. [A] contrary to B] consistent with[c] parallel with [D] peculiar to
[A]
[B] guidance [C] implication [D]source
14.[A] disputable [B] enlightening [C] reliable
)] misleading
15. [A] In contrast [B] For example [C] In consequence [D] As usual
16.A] duly
B]accidentally [C]unpredictably [D] suddenly
17. A] failed
B ceased
C] started
ID continued
20.[A] breaking B] climbing [C] surpassing [D] hitting
Section II Reading Comprehension
n
Part a
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [Al, [B], [C] or
[D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (40 points
Of all the changes that have
in English-language newspapers during the
quarter-century, perhaps the most
ching has been the inexorable decline in the scope
seriousness of their arts coverage
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine
a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable
number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20 century consisted in larg
part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents
were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies
We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England
between the turn of the 20 century and the eve of World War Il, at a time when newsprint was
dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it
appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in
detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those
reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be
trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud
to be published in the daily press. So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep
their own end up in journalism, "Newman wrote, that I am tempted to define 'journalism'as'a term
of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are
Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester
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Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essay
on the game of cricket. during his lifetime, though, he was also one of Englands foremost
classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography(1947) became a best-seller
He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in
print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists
Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote
Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death and postmodern readers have little use for the
richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music
criticism has been in headlong retreat
21. It is indicated in Paragraphs I and 2 that
A] arts criticism has disappeared from big- city newspapers
[B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews
[C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers
DI young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies
22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by
[A] free themes
[B] casual style
[C] elaborate layout.
radical viewpoints
23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
[A]It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals
[B It is contemptible for writers to be journalists
[C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism
D Not all writers are capable of journalistic writin
24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs
om
[A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today
[B His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute
C] His style caters largely to modern specialists
[D His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition
25. What would be the best title for the text?
A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days
B] The Lost horizon in Newspapers
[C Mournful Decline of Journalism
[D] Prominent Critics in Memory
Text 2
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business
methods. Amazon. received one for its "one-click"online payment system. Merrill Lynch got
legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box
Now the nation,s top patent court appears pletely ready to scale back on business-method
patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move
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that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.s. court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it
would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the
case is known, is"a very big deal", says Dennis D. Crouch of the University of Missouri School of
law. It"has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face. because it was the federal
circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case,
approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in
business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet panies trying to stake out exclusive
rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established panies raced to add such
patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In
2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents
despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street
investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in
court cases opposing the practice
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The
Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's
judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should
reconsider"its state street Bank ruling
The Federal Circuit's action es in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme
Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the
justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for"inventions"that are obvious. The
judges on the Federal circuit are"reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court", says Harold
C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School
26, Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
al their limited value to business
[B] their connection with asset allocation
C] the possible restriction on their granting
D the controversy over authorization
27. Which of the following is true of the bilski case?
in.
[A] Its ruling plies with the court decisions
[B] It involves a very big business transaction
C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S
28. The word"about-face"(Line l, Para 3 )most probably means
[AJ loss of good will
B]increase of hostility
[ C] change of attitude
D] enhancement of dignity
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
[C] lower the esteem for patent holders
D] increase the incidence of risks
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30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
[AJA looming threat to business-method patents
[B Protection for business-method patent holders
[C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
[D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
Text 3
In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that social epidemics are driven in large
part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually
informed, persuasive, or well-connected. The idea is intuitively pelling, but it doesn 't explain how
deas actually spread
The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested
theory called the two step flow of munication": Information flows from the media to the
influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because
suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most of
the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain
looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some
small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid
attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can
drive trends
hay in their recent work, however, some researchers have e up with the finding that influentials
re far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they dont seem to be
required of all
The researchers' argument stems from a simple observing about social influence, with the
exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey- whose outsize presence is primarily a function of
media, not interpersonal, influence even the most influential members of a population simply don't
interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity influentials who, according to the
two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and
colleagues directly. For
ocial epidemic to occur, however, each
person so
ffected. must then
influence his or her own
stances. who must in turn influ
lence theirs, and so on; and just how
many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential If people
in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example fror
the initial influential prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or
affect many people
Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of
populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of
variables relating to people's ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work
shows that the principal requirement for what we call"global cascades"the widespread propagation
of influence through networks-is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass
of easily influenced people, each of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a
single adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can exert
global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a chain reaction
31. By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to
[A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics
B] discuss influentials' function in spreading ideas
[C] exemplify people's intuitive response to social epidemics
[D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials
32. The author suggests that the"two-step-flow theory
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[A] serves as a solution to marketing problems
B] has helped explain certain prevalent trend
C] has won support from influentials
[D] requires solid evidence for its validity
33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that
a] the power of influence goes with social interactions
[B]interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public
[D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention
34. The underlined phrase"these people"in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who
[A] stay outside the network of social influence
B have little contact with the source of influence
[D] are influenced by the initial influential
[C] are influenced and then influence othe
35. what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
A] The eagerness to be accepted
[B] The impulse to influence others
C] The readiness to be influenced
[D] The inclination to rely on others
Text 4
Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have
been taking aim at someone else: the accounting standard-setters Their rules, moan the banks, have
forced them to report enormous losses, and it's just not fair. These rules say they must value some
assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to
fetch
Unfortunately, banks' lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but
the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being
promised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the bankin
system will be difficul
After a bruising encounter with Congress, America's Financial Accounting Standards Board
(FASB)rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid
assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long-term assets in their ine statement. Bob
Herz, the FasB's chairman, cried out against those who"question our motives. "Yet bank shares rose
and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls"the use of judgment by management
European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IasB)
do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold
when it pletes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. Charlie McCreevy, a European
missioner, warned the iasb that it did"not live in a political vacuum"but "in the real word"and
that Europe could yet develop different rules
It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today
they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of
markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank's shares
trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect
the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all
those supposed bargains
To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America's new plan
to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive
Successful markets require independent and even bative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB
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have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility
from special interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more
concessions
36. Bankers plained that they were forced to
[A] follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules
B] collect payments from third parties
C] cooperate with the price managers
D] reevaluate some of their assets
37. According to the author, the rule changes of the FASB may result in
[A] the diminishing role of management
[B] the revival of the banking system
[C] the banks'long-term asset losses
[D] the weakening of its independence
38. According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the lASB's attempt to
A]keep away from political influences
B] evade the pressure from their peers
[C] act on their own in rule-setting
[D] take gradual measures in reform
39. The author thinks the banks were " on the wrong planet" in that they
[A] misinterpreted market price indicators
[B] exaggerated the real value of their assets
[C] neglected the likely existence of bad debts
[D] denied booking losses in their sale of assets
40. The author's attitude towards standard-sette
efn.
[A] satisfaction
B] skepticism
[C]objectiveness
[D] sympathy
Part B
Directions
For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the
numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one
paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
A] The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for eating out; the
consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has risen from about 32 percent of total
consumption in 1995 to 35 percent in 2000 and is expected to approach 38 percent by 2005. Thi
development is boosting wholesale demand from the food service segment by 4 to 5 percent a year
across Europe, pared with growth in retail demand of 1 to 2 percent. Meanwhile, as the recessi
is looming large, people are getting anxious. They tend to keep a tighter hold on their purse and
consider eating at home a realistic alternative
B] Retail sales of food and drink in Europe's largest markets are at a standstill, leaving European
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grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow. Most leading retailers have already tried
e-merce, with limited success, and expansion abroad. But almost all have ignored the big
profitable opportunity in their own backyard: the wholesale food and drink trade, which appears to be
just the kind of market retailers need
such variations bring about a change in the overall structure of the food and drink
market? Definitely not. The functioning of the market is based on flexible trends dominated by
potential buyers. In other words, it is up to the buyer, rather than the seller, to decide what to buy at
any rate, this change will ultimately be acclaimed by an ever-growing number of both domestic and
international consumers, regardless of how long the current consumer pattern will take hold
[D] All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers could profitably apply the
scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and
marketing intelligence. Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect
to rake in substantial profits thereby. At least, that is how it looks as a whole. Closer inspection reveals
important differences among the biggest national markets, especially in their customer segments and
wholesale structures, as well as the petitive dynamics of individual food and drink categories. Big
retailers must understand these differences before they can identify the segments of European
wholesaling in which their particular abilities might unseat smaller but entrenched petitors. New
skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too
E] Despite variations in detail, wholesale markets in the countries that have been closely
examined-France, Germany, Italy, and Spain are made out of the same building blocks. Demand
es mainly from two sources: independent mom-and-pop grocery stores which, unlike large retail
chains, are two small to buy straight from producers, and food service operators that cater to
consumers when they don't eat at home. Such food service operators range from snack machines to
large institutional catering ventures, but most of these businesses are known in the trade as"horeca
hotels, restaurants, and cafes. Overall, Europe's wholesale market for food and drink is growing at the
same sluggish pace as the retail market, but the figures, when added together, mask two opposin
trend
[F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales e to $268 billion in France, Germany, Italy
pain, and the united Kingdom in 2000 more than 40 percent of retail sales. Moreover, average
overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sect
is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the petitive dynamics
this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consolidate
G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retailers (and even some large good
producers and existing wholesalers) from trying their hand, for those that master the intricacies o
wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable gains
4→42-43-44→E→45
Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
anslation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most
members of the land munity have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the
biotic munity and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.
When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it. We invert
excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be
disappearing. (46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect
that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them the evidence had to be economic in order to
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be valid
It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land ethic yet, (47)but we
have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right,
regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us
a parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds (48) Time was
when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game
by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on"worthless"species
Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because th
grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops. (49) In Europe, where forestry is
ecologically more advanced, the non-mercial tree species are recognized as members of native
forest munity, to be preserved as such, within reason.
To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly
lopsided. (50)It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate. many elements in the land
munity that lack mercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes,
falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts
Section III Writing
Part a
51.D
OCn豆
nle ou are supposed to write for the postgraduate association a notice to recruit volunteers for an
temational conference on globalization, you should conclude the basic qualification of applicant and
the other information you think relative
You should write about 100 words, Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. US
postgraduate association"instead
Part B
52. Directions
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1)describe the drawing briefl
2)explain its intended meaning, and then
3)give your ments
You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
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文化“火锅”既美味又营养


2009年考研英语(一)真题
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C
D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are. 1 the
fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer's piece in the Science Times on Tuesday. Fruit flies
who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives. This suggests that
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3 bulbs burn longer, that there is an 4 in not being too terrifically bright
Intelligence, it 5 out, is a-high-priced option It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is
slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning -a gradual 7
instead of instinct
Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they 've apparently learned is when to
Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That's the question behind this new research
like it. Instead of casting a wistful glance 10 at all the species we've left in the dust I.Q. -wise, it
implicitly asks what the real 11 of our own intelligence might be. This is 12 the mind of
every animal r've ever me
Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would 13
on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in
operant conditioning. we believe that 15 animals ran the labs, they would test us to 16_the
limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain. They would try to decide what
intelligence in humans is really 17, not merely how much of it there is. 18 they would
hope to study a 19 question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? 20 the
results are inconclusive
1.[A]Su
B Consider
[C] Observe
[B] feared
bene
DI threatened
3.[A]thinner
[B] stabler
D] dimmer
4.[A] tendency
B] advantage [C] inclination D] priority
5「 Al insists on
B sums up
C]turns out
D] puts forward
6.[A]off
Bbehind
[C]over
I along
7. [A] incredible
[B spontaneous [C] inevitable [D] gradual
8.[A] fight
DU
[C]
[D] think
9.[A] invisible
[C] indefinite D] different
0.A upward
B forward
C] afterward D] backward
11.A] features
B] influences [C] results
12. [A]outside
D] across
13.[A] deliver
B]carry
[C] perform [D] apply
14.[A]by chance
B in contrast [C]as usua
D for instance
15.[A]if
B]unless
DI lest
16.A] moderate
Ci determine D] reach
17.[A]at
[B] fo
[C] after
[D with
18.A] Above all
C] However
[D] Otherwise
19.[A] fundamental [B] prehensive [C] equivalent [D] hostile
20.A By accident B In time
IC]So far
D Better sti
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points
Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and
relaxing into the unconscious fort of familiar routine. "Not choice. but habit rules the unreflecting
herd, "William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 2lst century, even the word
habit"carries a negative connotation
So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But
brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel
synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new
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innovative tracks
But dont bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the
hippocampus, they're there to stay. Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves
create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads.
he first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder says Dawna Markova
author of"The Open Mind"and an executive change consultant for Professional Thinking Partners
But we are taught instead to 'decide, just as our president calls himself 'the Decider She adds
however, thatto decide is to kill off all possibilities but one. a good innovational thinker is always
exploring the many other possibilities
All of us work through problems in ways of which we're unaware, she says. Researchers in the
late 1960 covered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways
analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At puberty, however, the
brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most
valuable during the first decade or so of life
The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that
few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. "This breaks the major
rule in the american belief system- that anyone can do anything, "explains M.J. Ryan, author of the
2006 book "This Year I Will... "and Ms. Markova's business partner. That's a lie that we have
perpetuated, and it fosters monness. Knowing what you're good at and doing even more of it
creates excellence. "This is where developing new habits es in
21. The view of Wordsworth habit is claimed by being
A. casual
B. familiar
C. mechanical
D. changeable
22. The researchers have discovered that the formation of habit can be
A predicted B regulated C traced
D. guided
23."ruts"(in line one, paragraph 3 )has closest meaning to
A. track
B. series
C. characteristics D. connections
om
24. Ms. Markova's ments suggest that the practice of standard testing
A, prevents new habits form being formed
B, no longer emphasizes monness
C, maintains the inherent American thinking model
D, plies with the American belief system
25. Ryan most probably agree that
A. ideas are born of a relaxing mind
B innovativeness could be taught
C. decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas
D curiosity activates creative minds
Text 2
It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal(fatherly)
wisdom-or at least confirm that he's the kid's dad. All he needs to do is shell our $30 for paternity
testing kit(PtK)at his local drugstore- and another $120 to get the results
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More than 60,000 people have purchased the PtKs since they first bee available without
prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fog, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the
over-the-counter kits. More than two dozen panies sell dNA tests Directly to the public, ranging
in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2500
Among the most popular: paternity and kinship testing, which adopted children can use to find
their biological relatives and latest rage a many passionate genealogists-and supports businesses that
offer to search for a family's geographic roots
for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to pare DNA. it to the pany
Most tests require collecting cells by webbing saliva in the mouth and sendi
But some observers are skeptical, There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people
claiming they are doing ancestry testing says Trey duster, a New York University sociologist. He
notes that each individual has many ancestors-numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back.
Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through
men in a fathers line or mitochondrial dnA, which a passed down only from mothers. This dna can
reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three
generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other
great-great-grandparer
Critics also argue that mercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to
which a sample is pared. Databases used by some panies don't rely on data collected
systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects. This means that a
DNA database may differ depending on the pany that processes the results. In addition, the
puter programs a pany uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer
review or outside evaluation
26. In paragraphs I and 2, the text shows PTKs
[A] easy availabilit
ocIn.
[B] flexibility in pricing
[C]successful promotion
[] popularity with
27. ptK is used to
A]locate one's birth place
[B] promote genetic research
[C] identify parent-child kinship
[D] choose children for adoption
28. Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to
[A] trace distant ancesto
[B]rebuild reliable bloodlines
[C] fully use genetic information
[D achieve the claimed accurad
29. In the last paragraph, a problem mercial genetic testing faces is
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[A] disorganized data collection
[B] overlapping database building
[C] excessive sample parison
[D] lack of patent evaluation
30. An appropriate title for the text is most likely to be
A] Fors and Againsts of DNA testing
[ B DNA testing and It,'s probler
[C] DNA testing outside the lab
[D] lies behind DNA testing
Text 3
The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely
misunderstood by economists and politicians alike progress in both area is undoubtedly necessary for
the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies; however, the
conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid
economic development in poor countries is wrong. We are fortunate that is it, because new educational
systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would
require two or three generations. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that
workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radical higher productivity and, as a result
radically higher standards of living
Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States. Not long ago, with the
country entering a recessing and Japan at its pre-bubble peak. The U.s. workforce was derided
poorly educated and one of primary cause of the poor U.S. economic performance. Japan was, and
remains, the global leader in automotive-assembly productivity. Yet the research revealed that the U. S
factories of Honda Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese
counterparts-a result of the training that U. s. workers received on the job
More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate
non-English- speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor
productivity standards despite the plexity of the building industry's work
What is the real relationship between education and economic development? We have to suspect
that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments
don't force it. After all, that's how education got started. When our ancestors were hunters and
gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn't have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food
Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things
As education improved, humanity's productivity potential, they could in turn afford more
education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient
condition for the plex political systems required by advanced economic performance. Thus poor
countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be
possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn't constrain
the ability of the developing world's workforce to substantially improve productivity for the forested
future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn,'t developing
more quickly there than it is
31. The author holds in paragraph I that the important of education in poor countries
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[A] is subject groundless doubts
B has fallen victim of bias
[C] is conventional downgraded
[D] has been overestimated
32. It is stated in paragraph l that construction of a new education system
[A] challenges economists and politicians
B] takes efforts of generations
[C] demands priority from the government
[D] requires sufficient labor force
33. A major difference between the Japanese and U. s workforces is that
[A]the Japanese workforce is better disciplined
[B] the Japanese workforce is more productive
Ci the u.s workforce has a better education
[D] the U.S workforce is more organize
34. The author quotes the example of our ancestors to show that education emerged
[a when people had enough time
[B] prior to better ways of finding food
[C] when people on longer went hung
in
35. According to the last paragraph, development of education
[A]results directly from petitive environments
b does not depend on economic performance
[C] follows improved productivity
[D] cannot afford political changes

Text 4
The most thoroughly studied in the history of the new world are the ministers and political
leaders of seventeenth-century New England. According to the standard history of American
philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was"So much important attached to intellectual pursuits
According to many books and articles, New Englands leaders established the basic themes and
preoccupations of an unfolding, dominant Puritan tradition in American intellectual life
To take this approach to the New Englanders normally mean to start with the Puritans theological
innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church-important subjects that we may not neglect
But in keeping with our examination of southern intellectual life, we may consider the original
Puritans as carriers of European culture adjusting to New world circumstances. The New England
colonies were the scenes of important episodes in the pursuit of widely understood ideals of civility
and virtuosity
The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in
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England. Besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade
after 1629, There were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and
official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston. There men wrote and published extensively,
reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere o
intellectual earnestness
We should not forget, however, that most New Englanders were less well educated. While few
crafts men or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary positions to be analyzed, The
in thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality. a tailor named John Dane, who emigrated in
the late 1630s, left an account of his reasons for leaving England that is filled with signs. sexual
confusion, economic frustrations, and religious hope-all name together in a decisive moment when he
opened the bible, told his father the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words
e out from among them, touch no unclean thing, and I will be your God and you shall be my
people. One wonders what Dane thought of the careful sermons explaining the bible that he heard in
puritan churched.
Meanwhile, many settles had slighter religious mitments than Danes, as one clergyman
learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not e to the New world for
religion. " Our main end was to catch fish
36. The author notes that in the seventeenth-century New england
[A] Puritan tradition dominated political life.
[B] intellectual interests were encouraged
[C] Politics benefited much from intellectual endeavors
[D] intellectual pursuits enjoyed a liberal environment

37. It is suggested in paragraph 2 that New Englanders
A] experienced a paratively peaceful early history.
b brought with them the culture of the old World
[C] paid little attention to southern intellectual life
n.
[D] were obsessed with religious innovations
38. The early ministers and political leaders in Massachusetts Bay
[A] were famous in the New World for their writings
B] gained increasing importance in religious affairs
[C] abandoned high positions before ing to the New World
[D] created a new intellectual atmosphere in New England
39. The story of John Dane shows that less well-educated New Englanders were often
[A] influenced by superstitions
[B] troubled with religious beliefs
[C] puzzled by church sermons
[D] frustrated with family earnings
40. The text suggests that early settlers in New england
[A] were mostly engaged in political activities
[B] were motivated by an illusory prospect
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[C] came from different backgrounds
D] left few formal records for later reference
Part B
Directior
Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (41-45)
choose the most suitable one from the list A-g to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two
extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10
Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist
Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory
of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human
societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41
American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in
the late 1800s. Morgan, along with Tylor, was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his
work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of
societies. 42
In the early 1900s in North America, German-born American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a
new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized
the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology. 43
Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and
not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture
44
Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology
largely through the influence of many students of boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early
1900s also rejected the particulari
y of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed
virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that
according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 45
Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Emile durkheim developed a theory of culture that
would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to
reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and
culture-known as functionalism--became a major theme in European, and especially British
anthropology
[A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single
origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism
[B In order to study particular cultures as pletely as possible, Boas became skilled in
inguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and
anatol
[C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the"survival of the
fittest, in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced
races and societies
[D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people's social structure
such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children s entrance into adulthood
[E] Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms o
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marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems
of food production, all changed as societies evolved
[F Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep
a society functioning
G For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W.J. Perry incorrectly
suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all
originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural
developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world
Part C
Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
There is a marked difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others,
and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural
and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. (46) It may be said that the measure
of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience: but this effect
is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure
the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify
appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to
others, etc. (47) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually
still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our
industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional
reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little
attention as pared with physical output
But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in
importance. (48 )While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their
disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure
to acplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly
out of account. (49) Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a mon life we
cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If
humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its
distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through
dealings with the young
(50)We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so
far considering, a more formal kind of education --that of direct tuition or schooling In undeveloped
social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling
needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to
their group.
Section III Writing
Part A
51. Directions
Restrictions on the use of plastic bags have not been so successful in some regions. White
pollution"is still going on. Write a letter to the editor(s)of your local newspaper to
give your opinions briefly and
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ake twe
three sug
You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use
Ming"instead. You do not need to write the address
Part B
52. Directions
In your essay, you should
1)describe the drawing briefly,
2)explain its intended meaning and then
3)give your ments
You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
网络的“近”与“远”
In.
2008年考研英语(一)真题
Sectioni Use of English
Rear ipnsfollowing text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A, B, c
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D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those
hypotheses that dare not speak its name, But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway. He is that
2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution. He helped popularize the idea
ot 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested
5 he however. might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do together with another
two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more
intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in 8are
a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection
This group generally do well in IQ test,_9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100,
and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their
elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13. They also suffer more often than most
people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, 14, have
previously been thought unrelated. The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a stron
tradition of 16 education. The latter was seen as a(an) 17 of genetic isolation. Dr
Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted
in this 20 state of affairs
1.[A] selected [B] prepared
C] obliged
[D] pleased
UNique
BI particular C]
rare
3.A of
B with

4.[A] subsequently [B] presently
[C] previously [D] lately
5.[A]Only
BSo
[C] Even
[] Hence
6.[A] thought
B sight
D] risk
7.A advises
B suggests
CI protests d] objects
8. [A] progres
B fact
[D]」 question
9.[A] attaining [B]scoring
[C] reachi
D] calculating
ngm
10.[A] normal [B] mon [C]mean
[D] total
11.[A]unconsciously[ B] disproportionately[c] indefinitely d]unaccountably
12. [A] missions B] fortunes
C] interests
3.[A
14.[A]moreover [B] therefore [C] however
[D] meanwhile
15.[A] given up [B] got over [C] carried on [D] put down
16.[A] assessing B ]supervising [C] administering [D] valuing
17.a developmentB] origin
C] consequence D] instrument
18.A linked
B]integrated [C]
D bined
19.[A] limited [B] subjected [C] converted [D] directed
20.[A] paradoxical [B] inpatible [C] inevitable [D] continuous
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part a
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, b, C or D
Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points
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Text 1
While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead
It least one undesirable category. " Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and
anxiety disorders in response to stress pared to men, "according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist
at New York's veterans Administration Hospital
Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress
response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under
the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries(the
female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males
Adding to a womans increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased"opportunities" for
stress."It's not necessarily that women dont cope as well. It's just that they have so much more to
cope with, says Dr. Yehuda. "Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than mens,
she observes, "it's just that theyre dealing with so many more things that they bee worn out from
it more visibly and sooner
Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. "i think that the kinds of things that
women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are
exposed to bat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of
interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately,
parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that es
from these longer relationships can be quite devastating
Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college
struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to
go to school, and get ahead and do better "Later, her marriage ended and she became a single mother
It's the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay
the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.
wol,. Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most
en today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez's
experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your
health and your ability to function
21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?
A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress
B Women are still suffering much stress caused by men
C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress
DI Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress
22. Dr. Yehuda' s research suggests that women
A need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress
[ B] have limited capacity for tolerating stress
[C] are more capable of avoiding stress
D are exposed to more stress
23. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be
[A] domestic and temporary
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[B]irregular and violent
C] durable and frequent
[D」 trivial and random
24. The sentence"I lived from paycheck to paycheck. (Line 6, Para. 5)shows that
[AJ Alvarez cared about nothing but making money
[B] Alvarez's salary barely covered her household expenses
C] Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs
[D] Alvarez paid practically everything by check
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text
[A]Strain of Stress: No Way Out?
[B] Responses to Stress: Gender Difference
IC] Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say
[D] Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress
It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would
submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors names
and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the ments
received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the
journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the
journal
o longer. The Internet-and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why
mercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it
Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. The
report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and graham Vickery of the OECD
nakes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than
that It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor
The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part
upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing
market is estimated at between S7 billion and S1l billion The International Association of Scientific
Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide
specializing in these subjects. They publish more than 1. 2 million articles each year in some 16,000
journals
This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now
online. Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report
authors. There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of
online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically
supported by asking the author(or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there
are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support
institutional repositories. Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delaye
open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before
making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. All this could change the traditional form
of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers
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26. In the first paragraph, the author discusses
[A] the background information of journal editing
[B the publication routine of laboratory reports
[C] the relations of authors with journal publishers
[D] the traditional process of journal publication
27. Which of the following is true of the OECd report
A] It criticizes government-funded research
[B] It introduces an effective means of publication
[ C] It upsets profit-making journal publishers
[] It benefits scientific research considerably
28. According to the text, online publication is significant in that
[A]it provides an easier access to scientific results
[B]it brings hu
fits to scientifie
[Cl it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge
[D] it facilitates public investment in scientific research
29. With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper is required to
[A] cover the cost of its publicati
[ B] sub
to the journal publishing it
[C] allow other online journals to use it freely
m
D] plete the peer-review before submission
30. Which of the following best summarizes the text?
a] The Internet is posing a threat to publishers
[B] A new mode of publication is emerging
In.
[C] Authors wele the new channel for publication
[D Publication is rendered easier by online service
Text 3
In the early 1960s wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball
Association(NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would hay
been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatic
years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers
of bigger, longer frames
The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally
stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today's people
especially those born to families who have lived in the U.s. for many generations - apparently
reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they arent likely to get any taller. In the general
population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we've pretty much gone as far as we can go
says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players,
their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly mon practice of recruiting players
from all over the world
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Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients-notably,
protein-to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood
infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average
increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in
height. Yet according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average height-5 9"for men,
54 for women- hasnt really changed since 1960
Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth,
larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans
have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture
and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs. "There are some real
constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism, "says anthropologist
William Leonard of northwestern University
Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior
anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick,
ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms
and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of
military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near
future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, you could use today's data and
feel fairly confident
31. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to
[A]illustrate the change of height of NBA players
B show the popularity of nba players in the u. s
[C] pare different generations of NBA players

[] assess the achievements of famous NBa players
32. Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?
[A]Genetic modification
B]Natural environment

CILi
[D] Daily exercise.
33. On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
[AJ Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation
B] Human height is conditioned by the upright posture
[ C] Americans are the tallest on average in the world
[D] Larger babies tend to bee taller in adulthood
34. We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future
[a] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size
b the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged
[C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen
[D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable.
35. The text intends to tell us that
a]the change of human height follows a cyclic patten
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[B] human height is being even more predictable
[C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit
[D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altere
Text 4
In 1784, five years before he became president of the United States, George Washington, 52, was
nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw having extracted them
from the mouths of his slaves
Thats a far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from
their history books. But recently, many historians have begun to focus on the roles slavery played in
the lives of the founding generation. They have been spurred in part by dna evidence made available
in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave
Sally Hemings And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined history from the bottom up
Works of several historians reveal the moral promises made by the nation's early leaders and the
fragile nature of the country's infancy. More significantly, they argue that many of the Foundin
Fathers knew slavery was wrong-and yet most did little to fight it
More than anything, the historians say, the founders were hampered by the culture of their time
While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste for slavery, they also understood that
was part of the political and economic bedrock of the country they helped to create
For one thing, the South could not afford to part with its slaves. Owning slaves was like having
a large bank account, " says Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves,
and the Creation of America. The southern states would not have signed the constitution without
protections for the"peculiar institution, including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a
man for purposes of congressional representation
And the statesmens political lives depended on slavery. The three-fifths formula handed
Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 by inflating the votes of the southern
ates in the Electoral College. Once in office, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase
in 1803; the new land was carved into 13 states, including three slave states
Still, Jefferson freed Hemings's children-though not Hemings herself or his approximately 150
other slaves. Washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing
the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War, overcame the strong opposition of his
relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will. Only a decade earlier, such an act would have
required legislative approval in Virginia
36. George Washingtons dental surgery is mentioned to
A] show the primitive medical practice in the past
B] demonstrate the cruelty of slavery in his days
C] stress the role of slaves in the U.S. history
[D] reveal some unknown aspect of his life
37. We may infer from the second paragraph that
[AJ DNA technology has been widely applied to history research
B]in its early days the U.S. was confronted with delicate situations
C] historians deliberately made up some stories of Jefferson's life
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D] political promises are easily found throughout the U.s. history
38. what do we learn about Thomas Jefferson?
[A] His political view changed his attitude towards slavery.
[B] His status as a father made him free the child slaves
[C] His attitude towards slavery was plex
D] His affair with a slave stained his prestige
39. Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A] Some Founding Fathers benefit politically from slavery
[B] Slaves in the old days did not have the right to vote.
[ C] Slave owners usually had large savings accounts
[D] Slavery was regarded as a peculiar institution
40. Washingtons decision to free slaves originated from his
A] moral considerations
[B] military experience
[C] financial conditions
D] political stand
Part B
Directions
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the
most suitable one from the list a-g to fit into each of the numbered blanks there are two extra
choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything el
lse instead of
writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and
sit, stand up or lie down to write. (41)
Be flexible. Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point to the next, but do not
permit it to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft
(42
Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what
you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a
nervous search for errors
Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a
paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will not lose any writing on the other side
If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions
and deletions as well as move entire paragraphs by making just a few simple keyboard mands
Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements in your writing
These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on
revisions
Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that is unrelated to your thesis and
add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who
wrote"The a p as a State of Mind""wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy
displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women. (45)
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Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times-and
then again- working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire
versions of the paper. Rewrite The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic
Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts
Awkward or wordy phrasing or unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and
prodded into shape
easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only one side of the paper es so that you can
[A To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lir
B] After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particul
attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs It's probably best to write the introduction
last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal
attention because they leave the reader with a final impression
[C] It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look
terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers
prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing
any material because of power failures or other problems
D] It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic
into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have
E] Although this is an interesting issue, it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how
le setting influences Sammys decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added
one that described Lengel's crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the a P
policy he enforces
F In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in"a& p, the student brin
together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel's store policies
G By using the first draft as a means of thinking about what you want to say, you will ver
likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers dont use outlines at
all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not attempt to pose a perfectly correct draft

the first tir
Part c
Direction
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
In his autobiography, Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary
modesty. He points out that he al ways experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and
concisely, but(46) he believes that this very difficulty may have had the pensating advantage of
forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in
reasoning and in his own observations. He disclaimed the possession of any great quickness of
apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. (47) He asserted, also, that his power to follow a
long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he
never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy
So poor in one sense was it that he never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a
line of poetry. (48)On the other hand. he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of
his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning. This, he thought, could
not be true, because the" Origin of Species" is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and
has convinced many able men. No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing
power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that"I have a fair share of invention, and of mon
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sense or judgment, such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in
any higher degree. (49) He adds humbly that perhaps he was"superior to the mon run of men in
noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully
Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind
had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of
many kinds gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable, and music
very great, delight. In 1881, however, he said: "Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of
poetry. I have also almost lost my taste for pictures or music. (50)Darwin was convinced that the
loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect,
and more probably to the moral character
Section Ill writing
Part A
51. Directions
You have just e back from Canada and found a music CD in your luggage that you forgot to
return to Bob, your landlord there. Write him a letter to
1)make an apology, and
2)suggest a solution
You should write about 100 words on ansWer sheet 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use"Li Ming" instead
Do not write the address. (10 points
Part B
52. Directions
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1)describe the drawing briefly
2)explain its intended meaning, and ther
3)give your ments
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 (20 points)
你一条腿,我一条腿;
你我一起,走南闯北
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2007年考研英语(一)真题
Section I Use of english
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark [al, Bl
[C]or D] on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points
By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had bee independent nations. The
roughly 20 million 1 of these nations looked_ 2 to the future. Born in the crisis of the old regime
and Iberian Colonialism, many of the leaders of independence 3 the ideas of representative
government, careers 4 to talent, freedom of merce and trade, the_5 to private proper
and a belief in the individual as the basis of society, 6 there was a belief that the new nations
should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated
by a 7 set of laws
On the issue of 8 of religion and the position of the church, g, there was less agreement 10 the
leadership. Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one ll by the Spanish crown
12 most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism 13 the official religion of the new states, some
sought to end the 14 of other faiths. The defense of the Church became a rallying 15 for the
conservative forces
The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarian, valuing equality of
everything. Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had 16 in return to abolish slavery in the areas he
liberated. By 1854 slavery had been abolished every where except Spain's 17 colonies. Early promises
to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much 18 because the new nations stil
needed the revenue such policies 19 Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass
of the population was 20 self-rule and democracy
1.[A]natives [B]inhabitants [C] peoples
DI individuals
2.[]confusedly [B] cheerfully [C]
3.[A] shared
Cl attained
[ rejected
a
B] clo
[C]
5.[A]access
[B] succession [C] right
[D]return
6.[A]Presumably [B] Incidentally [C] Obviously [D] Generally
7[UNique
B mon
C] particular [ D] typical
8.[A] freedon
Bl origin
D]reform
9. [A] therefore [ B]however
[C] indeed
DI moreover
10.[A] with
[D] by
11.[A]allowed B] preached
[C] granted D] funded
12. A] Since
B If
[C」 Unless
DI While
13.[A]as
b fo
[C]under
D] against
14.[A] spread [B] interference [C] exclusion [D] influence
15.A] support B] cry
[C] plea
16.[A]urged B] intended
[C] expected [D] promised
17. A]controlling [B] former
[C] remaining D] original
18.[A] slower [B] faster
[C]
D] tougher
19.[] created B] produced
[C] contributed
D] preferred
20.[A] puzzled by B] hostile to
[C] pessimistic about D] unprepared for
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Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions
Read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing [al, [b], [Cl, or
D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
ext 1
If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006s World Cup
tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to
have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months. If you then examined the
European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this
strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced
What might account for this strange phenomenon? Here are a few guesses: a) certain astrological
signs confer superior soccer skills; b)winter-born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity, which
increases soccer stamina; c) soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime, at
the annual peak of soccer mania; d none of the above
Anders Ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State University, says he believes
strongly in"none of the above. Ericsson grew up in Sweden, and studied nuclear engineering until he
realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology
His first experiment, nearly 30 years ago, involved memory: training a person to hear and then repeat
a random series of numbers. With the first subject, after about 20 hours of training, his digit span had
risen from 7 to 20, " Ericsson recalls. " He kept improving, and after about 200 hours of training he had
risen to over 80 numbers
This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined
led ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive
one. In other words, whatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize
those differences are swamped by how well each person"encodes" the information. And the best way
to learn how to encode information meaningfully, Ericsson determined, was a process known as
deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Rather, it involves
setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on
oute
Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of
pursuits, including soccer. They gather all the data they can, not just performance statistics and
biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers. Their
work makes a rather startling assertion: the trait we monly call talent is highly overrated. Or, put
another way, expert performers-whether in memory or surgery, ballet or puter programming-are
nearly always made, not born
21.The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to
[A] stress the importance of professional training
B] spotlight the soccer superstars in the World Cup
[C] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance
[D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others
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22.The word"mania"(Line 4, Paragraph 2)most probably means
B]craze
C] hysteria
[D] excitement
23. According to erics
d r
A] depends on meaningful processing of information
B results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises.
[C]is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors
[]requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration
24. Ericsson and his colleagues believe that
a] talent is a dominating factor for professional success.
B] biographical data provide the key to excellent performance
[C] the role of talent tends to be overlooked
D] high achievers owe their success mostly to nurture
25. Which of the following proverbs is closest to the message the text tries to convey?
[A]“ Faith will move mountains.”
B"One reaps what one sows
[C]"Practice makes perfect
[D]“ Like father, like son.”
Text 2
For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called
' Ask Marilyn. "People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental
level of someone about 23 years old; that gave her an IQ of 228-the highest score ever recorded. IQ
tests ask you to plete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut,
and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks. So it is a bit confusing when vos
Savant fields such queries from the average Joe(whose IQ is 100)as, What's the difference between
love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? It's not obvious how the capacity to
visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded
some of the best poets and philosophers
Clearly, intelligence enpasses more than a score on a test. Just what does it mean to be smart?
How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology,
genetics, puter science and other fields?
The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though iQ tests are
not given as often as they used to be. The test es primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales(both e in adult and childrens version)
Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although
variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web Superhigh scores like vos Savant's
are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age
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peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100
Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (Sat)and the graduate record
Exam(GRE), capture the main aspects of iQ tests
Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school
and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg. In his article"How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing
Sternberg notes that traditional test best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure
creativity and practical knowledge, ponents also critical to problem solving and life success
Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change
Research has found that iQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress
conditions, but under high-stress conditions, IQ was negatively correlated with leadership-that is, it
predicted the opposite. Anyone who has toiled through Sat will testify that test-taking skill also
matters, whether it's knowing when to guess or what questions to skip
26. Which of the following may be required in an intelligence test?
A Answering philosophical questions
B] Folding or cutting paper into different shapes
[ C] Telling the differences between certain concepts
[D] Choosing words or graphs similar to the given ones
27. What can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?
[A] People no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence
[B]More versions of iQ tests are now available on the Internet.
[ C] The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.
DI Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence
28 People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savants because
a]the
B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now
C] vos Savants case is an extreme one that will not repeat
[Di the defining characteristic of iQ tests has changed
29. We can conclude from the last paragraph that
[A] test scores may not be reliable indicators of one's ability
BIQ scores and sat results are highly correlated
[C]testing involves a lot of guesswork
[] traditional test are out of date
30. What is the author's attitude towards iQ tests?
A] Supportive
BI Skeptical
[ C] Impartial
[D] Biased
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Text 3
During the past generation, the American middle-class family that once could count on hard work
Now a pink slip, a bad diagnosis, or a disappearing spouse can reduce a family from solidly midd qn
and fair play to keep itself financially secure had been transformed by economic risk and new realit
class to newly poor in a few months
In just one generation, millions of mothers have gone to work, transforming basic family
economics. Scholars, policymakers, and critics of all stripes have debated the social implications of
these changes, but few have looked at the side effect: family risk has risen as well. Today's families
have budgeted to the limits of their new two-paycheck status. As a result, they have lost the parachute
they once had in times of financial setback-a back-up earner(usually Mom) who could go into the
workforce if the primary earner got laid off or fell sick. This"added-worker effect"could support the
safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad
times. But today, a disruption to family fortunes can no longer be made up with extra ine from an
otherwise-stay-at-home partner
During the same period, families have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement
ine. Steelworkers, airline employees, and now those in the auto industry are joining millions of
families who must worry about interest rates, stock market fluctuation, and the harsh reality that they
may outlive their retirement money. For much of the past year, President Bush campaigned to move
Social Security to a saving-account model, with retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed
payments for payments depending on investment returns. For younger families, the picture is not any
better. Both the absolute cost of healthcare and the share of it borne by families have risen-and newly
fashionable health-savings plans are spreading from legislative halls to Wal-Mart workers, with much
higher deductibles and a large new dose of investment risk for families futur山E
ddle
family,
ing a we
elderly pare
and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance- have jumped eightfold in just one
generation
From the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an
opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening
acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. The
financial fallout has begun, and the political fallout may not be far behind
31.Today's double-ine families are at greater financial risk in that
a] the safety net they used to enjoy has disappeared
B] their chances of being laid off have greatly increased
[C] they are more vulnerable to changes in family economics
[D they are deprived of unemployment or disability insurance
32. As a result of President Bush's reform, retired people may have
[AJ a higher sense of security
B]less secured payments
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C] less chance to invest
[] a guaranteed future
33. According to the author, health-savings plans will
[A] help reduce the cost of healthcare
B] popularize among the middle class
[C] pensate for the reduced pensions
[D increase the families' investment risk.
34. t can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[A] financial risks tend to outweigh political risks
B] the middle class may face greater political challenges
C] financial problems may bring about political problems
[D] financial responsibility is an indicator of political status
35. Which of the following is the best title for this text?
A]The Middle Class on the alert
B The Middle Class on the cliff
[C] The Middle Class in Conflict
[D] The Middle Class in Ruins
Text 4
It never rains but it pours. Just as bosses and boards have finall
d out the
and pliance troubles, and improved their feeble corporation governance, a new problem threatens
to earn them-especially in America- the sort of nasty headlines that inevitably lead to heads rolling
in the executive suite: data insecurity. Left, until now, to odd, low-level IT staff to put right, and seen
as a concern only of data-rich industries such as banking, teles and air travel, information
protection is now high on the boss's agenda in businesses of every variety
Several massive leakages of customer and employee data this year- from organizations as diverse
as Time Warner, the American defense contractor Science Applications International Corp and even
the University of California, Berkeley -have left managers hurriedly peering into their intricate IT
systems and business processes in search of potential vulnerabilities
Data is being an asset which needs to be guarded as much as any other asset, "says Hain
Mendelson of Stanford Universitys business school. "The ability to guard customer data is the key to
market value, which the board is responsible for on behalf of shareholders. "Indeed, just as there is the
concept of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles(GAaP), perhaps it is time for GASP, Generally
Accepted Security Practices, suggested Eli Noam of New York's Columbia Business School. "Settin
the proper investment level for security, redundancy, and recovery is a management issue, not a
technical one, he says
The mystery is that this should e as a surprise to any boss. Surely it should be obvious to th
dimmest executive that trust, that most valuable of economic assets, is easily destroyed and hugely
expensive to restore-and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a pany lettin
sensitive personal data get into the wrong hand
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The current state of affairs may have been encouraged -though not justified-by the lack of legal
penalty (in America, but not Europe) for data leakage. Until California recently passed a law
American firms did not have to tell anyone, even the victim, when data went astray. That may change
fast: lots of proposed data-security legislation is now doing the rounds in Washington, D. C.
Meanwhile the theft of information about some 40 million credit-card accounts in america
disclosed on June 17th, overshadowed a hugely important decision a day earlier by americas Federal
Trade Commission(FTC)that puts corporate America on notice that regulators will act if firms fail to
provide adequate data security
36. The statement "It never rains but it pours is used to introduce
[C] the threat from news report g p
[A] the fierce business petition
[B the feeble boss-board relation
[D] the severity of data leakage
37. According to Paragraph 2, some organizations check their systems to find out
A] whether there is any weak point
[B]what sort of data has been stolen
[C] who is responsible for the leakage
[D] how the potential spies can be located
38. In bringing up the concept of gasp the author is making the point that
[A] shareholders' interests should be properly attended to
B]information protection should be given due attention
Cl businesses should enhance their level of accounting security
[D] the market value of customer data should be emphasized

39. According to Paragraph 4, what puzzles the author is that some bosses fail to
[A] see the link between trust and data protection
[B] perceive the sensitivity of personal data
[C] realize the high cost of data restoration
[D] appreciate the economic value of trust
40. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that
data leakage is more severe in Europe
[B]FTC's de
[C] California takes the lead in security legislation
D] legal penalty is a major solution to data leakage
Part B
Directions
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to
guide their children into adulthood Choose a heading from the list A-g that best fits the
meaning of each numbered part of the text (41-45 ). The first and last paragraphs of the text are
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not numbered There are two extra headings that you do not need to use mark your answers on
ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
A Set a good Example for Your kids
B. Build your kids?Work skills
C. Place Time Limits on Leisure Activities
D. Talk about the Future on a Regular Basis
E Help Kids Develop Coping Strategies
F Help Your Kids Figure Out Who They Are
G. Build Your Kids Sense of responsibility
How Can a Parent Help?
Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids even if a
job's starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adults need for rapid content,
transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here
are a few measures, drawn from my book Ready or Not, Here Life Comes, that parents can take to
prevent what I call "work-life unreadiness
You can start this process when they are ll or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and
weaknesses with them and work together on any shortings, like difficulty in municating well
or collaborating. Also, identify the kinds of interests they keep ing back to, as these offer clues to
the careers that will fit them best
Kids need a range of authentic role models-as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and
got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids tol
aunted athletes Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how the
form some ideas about their own future. When asked what they want to do, they should be
discouraged from saying"I have no idea. They can change their minds 200 times, but having only a
foggy view of the future is of little good
Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should be responsible for teachin
them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are
and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities ification
met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification
Playing video games encourages immediate content And hours of watching TV shows with
canned laughter only teaches kids to process information in a passive way. At the same time, listening
through earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to stay inside
their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. all these activities can prevent the growth of
important munication and thinking skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kind of
sustained concentration they will need for most jobs
They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. They should
lso learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically
Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to
everyday life situations
What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly
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through early adulthood? Parents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have
to be careful not to e across as disappointed in their child. They should exhibit strong interest and
respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adult(as naive or ill conceived as it may seem)
while being a partner in exploring options for the future. Most of all, these new adults must feel
that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them
Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European
universities. However, only in recent years has it bee a feature of undergraduate programs in
Canadian universities. (46) Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the
special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated
person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a
number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law
If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of a general education, its aims
and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages
responsible judgment On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice,
democracy and freedom. (47)On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner_
which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and ment on the news
For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process
of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing
and reflecting on law is a desirable ponent of a journalist s intellectual preparation for his or her
career
(48) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary
itizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the
news media. Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists
The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (49)In
fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the
Canadian Constitution can do a petent job on political stories
Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for
journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst
many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (50)While ment and reaction
from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of
significance and make their own judgments. These can only e from a well-grounded
understanding of the legal system
Section Ill Writing
Part A
51.Directions:
Write a letter to you university library, making suggestions for improving its service
You should write about 100 words on aNSWEr sheet 2
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Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use"Li Ming " instead
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Part B
52. Directions
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing In your essay you should
1)describe the drawing briefly,
2)explain its intended meaning, and then
3)support your view with an example/examples
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 (20 points

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2006年考研英语(一)真题
Sectioni Use of english
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [a] [b ic
r [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The homeless make up a growing percentage of America's population. 1 homelessness has
reached such proportions that local governments can't possibly 2_. To help homeless people 3
independence, the federal government must support job training programs, 4 the minimum wage,
and fund more low-cost housing
everyone agrees on the number of americans who are homeless. Estimates 6 anywhere from
600.000 to 3 million
One of the federal government's studie another matter: that the number
the figure may vary, analysts do agree on
of the homeless is
that th
homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade
Finding ways to 10 this growing homeless population has bee increasingly difficult. 11
when homeless individuals manage to find a 12 that will give them three meals a day and a place
to sleep at night, a good number still spend the bulk of each day 13 the street. Part of the problem
is that many homeless adults are addicted to alcohol or drugs. And a significant number of the
homeless have serious mental disorders. Many others, 14 not addicted or mentally ill, simply lack
the everyday 15 skills needed to turn their lives 16. Boston Globe reporter Chris Reidy notes
that the situation will improve only when there are 17 programs that address the many needs of
the homeless._ 18 Edward Zlotkowski, director of munity service at Bentley College in
Massachusetts, 19 it, "There has to be_ 20 of programs. What's needed is a package deal
1. [AJ Indeed B Likewise [C Therefore D] Furthermore
2. [A] stand [B]cope
[C] approve [D] retain
3.[A]
C] with
[D] toward
4. [A]raise
B] add
[C] take
D] ke
5. [A] generally [B]almost [C] hardly [D]not
6. [A] cove
B change C] rang
dI differ
7. [A] Now that [B] Although [C] Provided [D] Except that
8. [A]inflating [B] expanding [C] increasing [D] extending
9. [A] predicts [B] displays [C] proves
ID] discovers
10. AJ assist
B track
C] sustain
DI dismiss
11.[A]
[B But
IC]Ev
[D] Only
12. [A] lodging [B] shelter [C] dwell
[] house
13. [A] searching B] strolling [C] crowding D] wandering
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14. [A] wher
B]once
[C] while
D] whereas
15. [A]life
B] existence [C survival [D] maintenance
16. A around B]over
D up
17. [A] plex B] prehensive [C] plementary [D] pensating
18.[A]So
B Since
DI Thu
19. [A]puts
[B]interprets [C]
[D]makes
20. [A]supervision[B] manipulation [C]regulation D] coordination
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C],or
D]. Mark your answers on ANS WER SHEET 1 (40 points)
In spite of endless talk of difference, American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing
people. There is the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse, and the casualness and absence
of deference"characteristic of popular culture. People are absorbed into"a culture of consumption
hunched by the 19th-cen
atmosphere. Instead of intimate shops catering to a knowledgeable elite, these were stores"anyone
could enter, regardless of class or background. This turned shopping into a public and democratic act
The mass media, advertising and sports are other forces for homogenization
Immigrants are quickly fitting into this mon culture, which may not be altogether elevating
but is hardly poisonous. Writing for the National Immigration Forum, Gregory rodriguez reports that
todays immigration is neither at unprecedented levels nor resistant to assimilation. In 1998
immigrants were 9.8 percent of population; in 1900, 13.6 percent. In the 10 years prior to 1990, 3.1
mmigrants arrived for every 1, 000 residents; in the 10 years prior to 1890, 9.2 for every 1,000. Now
consider three indices of assimilation--language, home ownership and intermarriage
The 1990 Census revealed that"a majority of immigrants from each of the fifteen most mon
countries of origin spoke English wellor'very well after ten years of residence. The children of
immigrants tend to be bilingual and proficient in English. ""By the third generation, the original
language is lost in the majority of immigrant families. Hence the description of America as a
graveyard for languages. By 1996 foreign-born immigrants who had arrived before 1970 had a
home ownership rate of 75.6 percent, higher than the 69.8 percent rate among native-born Americans
Foreign-born Asians and Hispanics"have higher rates of intermarriage than do U.s.-born whites and
blacks. By the third generation, one third of Hispanic women are married to non-Hispanics, and 41
percent of Asian-American women are married to non-Asians
Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are fans of superstars like
Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet"some Americans fear that immigrants living within
the United States remain somehow immune to the nations assimilative power
Are there divisive issues and pockets of seething anger in America? Indeed. It is big enough to have a
bit of everything. But particularly when viewed against America's turbulent past, today's social
indices hardly suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment
21. The word"homogenizing"(Line 2, Paragraph 1)most probably means
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A] identifying
[B] associating
D] monopolizing
22. According to the author, the department stores of the 19th century
[A]played a role in the spread of popular culture
[B] became intimate shops for mon consumers
[C] satisfied the needs of a knowledgeable elite
[D] owed its emergence to the culture of consumption
23. The text suggests that immigrants now in the U.s
[A] are resistant to homogenization
[B] exert a great influence on American culture
C] are hardly a threat to the mon culture
[D] constitute the majority of the population
24. Why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph 5?
AI To prove their popularity around the world
[B] To reveal the public's fear of immigrants
[C] To give examples of successful immigrants
[D] To show the powerful influence of American culture
25. In the authors opinion, the absorption of immigrants into American society is
[A]rewardin
B] successful
CI fruitless
[D] harmful
w
Text 2
Stratford-on-Avon, as we all know, has only one industry-- William Shakespeare --but there are
two distinctly separate and increasingly hostile branches. There is the Royal Shakespeare Company
(RSC), which presents superb productions of the plays at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre on the
Avon. And there are the townsfolk who largely live off the tourists who e, not to see the plays, but
to look at Anne Hathaway's Cottage, Shakespeare's birthplace and the other sights
The worthy residents of Stratford doubt that the theatre adds a penny to their revenue. They
frankly dislike the RSC's actors, them with their long hair and beards and sandals and noisiness. It's
all deliciously ironic when you consider that Shakespeare, who earns their living, was himself an actor
with a beard) and did his share of noise-making
The tourist streams are not entirely separate. The sightseers who e by bus--and often take in
Warwick Castle and Blenheim Palace on the side --don't usually see the plays, and some of them are
even surprised to find a theatre in Stratford. However, the playgoers do manage a little sight-seeing
along with their playgoing. It is the playgoers, the rsc contends, who bring in much of the towns
revenue because they spend the night (some of them four or five nights pouring cash into the hotels
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and restaurants. The sightseers can take in everything and get out of town by nightfall
The townsfolk don't see it this way and local council does not contribute directly to the subsidy
of the royal shakespeare Company. Stratford cries poor traditionally. Nevertheless every hotel in
town seems to be adding a new wing or cocktail lounge Hilton is building its own hotel there, which
you may be sure will be decorated with Hamlet Hamburger Bars, the Lear Lounge, the Banquo
Banqueting Room, and so forth, and will be very expensive
Anyway the townsfolk cant understand why the royal shakespeare Company needs a subsidy
(The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row. Last year its 1, 43 1 seats were 94
percent occupied all year long and this year they'll do better. The reason, of course, is that costs have
rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low
It would be a shame to raise prices too much because it would drive away the young people who
are Stratford's most attractive clientele. They e entirely for the plays, not the sights. They all seem
to look alike(though they e from all over)--lean, pointed, dedicated faces, wearing jeans and
sandals, eating their buns and bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre to buy
the 20 seats and 80 standing-room tickets held for the sleepers and sold to them when the box office
opens at 10: 30 am
26. From the first two paragraphs, we learn that
[a] the townsfolk deny the rsc's contribution to the towns revenue
bi the actors of the rsc imitate Shakespeare on and off stage
[C] the two branches of the RSC are not on good terms
[D] the townsfolk earn little from tourism
27. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that
a the sightseers cannot visit the Castle and the palace separately
[B] the playgoers spend more money than the sightseers
[C] the sightseers do more shopping than the playgoers

[D] the playgoers go to no other places in town than the theater
28. By saying ""Stratford cries poor traditionally"(Line 2-3, Paragraph 4), the author implies
that
[A] Stratford cannot afford the expansion projects
[B] Stratford has long been in financial difficulties
C] the town is not really short of money
[D] the townsfolk used to be poorly paid
29. According to the townsfolk, the rsc deserves no subsidy because
a ticket prices can be raised to cover the spendin
B the pany is financially ill-managed
C] the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable
[D] the theatre attendance is on the rise
30. From the text we can conclude that the author
[A] is supportive of both sides
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BI favors the townsfolk's view
[C] takes a detached attitude
D is sympathetic to the rsc
Text 3
When prehistoric man arrived in new
of the world, something strange happened to the large
animals. They suddenly became extinct. Smaller species survived. The large, slow-growing animals
were easy game, and were quickly hunted to extinction. Now something similar could be happening in
the oceans
That the seas are being overfished has been known for years. What researchers such as Ransom
Myers and boris Worm have shown is just how fast things are changing. They have looked at half a
century of data from fisheries around the world. Their methods do not attempt to estimate the actual
biomass(the amount of living biological matter) of fish species in particular parts of the ocean, but
rather changes in that biomass over time. According to their latest paper published in Nature, the
biomass of large predators(animals that kill and eat other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on
average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation. In some long-fished areas, it has halved
again since then
. Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative. One reason for this is that fishing
echnology has improved. Todays vessels can find their prey using satellites and sonar, which were
not available 50 years ago. That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so tho
real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in
catch sizes. In the early days, too, longlines would have been more saturated with fish. Some
individuals would therefore not have been caught since no baited hooks would have been available to
trap them, leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past. Furthermore, in the early days of
longline fishing, a lot of fish were lost to sharks after they had been hooked. That is no longer a
problem, because there are fewer sharks around now.
Dr Myers and Dr. Worm argue that their work gives a correct baseline, which future management
efforts must take into account. They believe the data support an idea current among marine biologists
that of the"shifting baseline. The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes
which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time
into the past. That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be
cropped from a fishery es when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels
Most fisheries are well below that, which is a bad way to do business
31. The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that
[A]large animal were vulnerable to the changing environment
B] small species survived as large animals disappeared
C] large sea animals may face the same threat today
[D] slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones
32. We can infer from Dr Myers and Dr Worms paper that
[A] the stock of large predators in some old fisheries has reduced by 90%
[B] there are only half as many fisheries as there were 15 years ago
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C] the catch sizes in new fisheries are only 20% of the original amount
[D] the number of larger predators dropped faster in new fisheries than in the old
33. By saying"these figures are conservative" Line 1, paragraph 3), Dr. Worm means that
[A] fishing technology has improved rapidly
[B] the catch-sizes are actually smaller than recorded
[C] the marine biomass has suffered a greater loss
[D the data collected so far are out of date
34. Dr. Myers and other researchers hold that
[A]people should look for a baseline that can work for a longer time
B] fisheries should keep their yields below 50% of the biomass
C] the ocean biomass should be restored to its original level
[DI people should adjust the fishing baseline to the changing situation
35. The author seems to be mainly concerned with most fisheries
A]management efficiency
bI biomass level
C] catch-Size limits
[D] technological application
Text 4
Many things make people think artists are weird. But the weirdest may be this: artists only job is
to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad
This wasn't always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for
expressing joy But somewhere from the 19th century onward, more artists began seeing happiness as
meaningless, phony or, worst of all, boring, as we went from Wordsworth's daffodils to Baudelaire's
flowers of evil
You could argue that art became more skeptical of happiness because modern times have seen se
much misery. But it's not as if earlier times didnt know perpetual war, disaster and the massacre of
innocents. The reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the
world today
After all, what is the one modern form of expression almost pletely dedicated to depicting
happiness? Advertising. The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media,
and with it, a mercial culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology
People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived
with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass munication and literacy, the most
powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger
and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to
be a bummer too
Today the messages the average Westerner is surrounded with are not religious but mercial
and forever happy. Fast-food eaters, news anchors, text messengers, all smiling, smiling, smiling. Our
magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages
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have an agenda-- to lure us to open our wallets-- they make the very idea of happiness seem
unreliable. "Celebrate! " manded the ads for the arthritis drug celebrex before we found out it
could increase the risk of heart attacks
But what we forget-what our economy depends on us forgetting-is that happiness is more than
pleasure without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and
disappointment. Today, surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need art to tell us, as religion
once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness es
not in denying this but in living with it. It's a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet,
somehow. a breath of fresh air
iting the examples of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show th
[A] poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music
B] art grows out of both positive and negative feeling
[C] poets today are less skeptical of happiness
D]artists have changed their focus of interest
37. The word"bummer" Line 5, paragraph 5)most probably means something
三ocn
ente
[D cor
38. In the authors opinion, advertising
[A] emerges in the wake of the anti-happy art
B] is a cause of disappointment for the general public
C] replaces the church as a major source of information
[D] creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself

39. We can learn from the last paragraph that the author believes
[A happiness more often than not ends in sadness
B] the anti-happy art is distasteful but refreshing
[C] misery should be enjoyed rather than denied
[D] the anti-happy art flourishes when economy booms
40. Which of the following is true of the text?
[A] Religion once functioned as a reminder of misery
[B] Art provides a balance between expectation and reality.
[C] People feel disappointed at the realities of modern society
D] Mass media are inclined to cover disasters and deaths
Part B
In the following article some sentences have been removed For Questions 41-45, choose the most
suitable one from the list
to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There are two extra choices,
which you do not need to use in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10
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On the north bank of the ohio river sits evansville. Ind. home of david williams. 52 and of a
riverboat casino(a place where gambling games are played. During several years of gambling in that
casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never
gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling
He visited the casino lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost s800. The casino issued to
him, as a good customer, a"Fun Card, which when used in the casino earns points for meals and
drinks, and enables the casino to track the user's gambling activities. For Williams, those activities
bee what he calls"electronic heroin"
(41)
In 1997 he lost $21, 000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost
$72, 186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m
then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it
should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem
In March 1998 a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for
addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of williamss gambling problem. The casino included a
photo of williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a"cease admissions?"letter
Noting the medical/psychological nature of problem gambling behavior, the letter said that before
being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information
demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being
The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: Enjoy the fun... and always
bet with your head, not over it. Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the
Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing
he was" helplessly addicted to gambling, intentionally worked to"lure' him to"engage in conduct
against his will. " Well. (43)
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says
pathological gambling "involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than
of thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall
Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once
were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities
Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying de
egrees
dependent on - you might say addicted to -- revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet
gambling site was created in 1995, petition for gamblers'dollars has bee intense. The Oct. 28
issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1, 800 virtual casinos every week. With
$3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web's
most profitable business
[A] Although no such evidence was presented, the casino's marketing department continued to pepper
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him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected
[B] It is unclear what luring was required, given his pulsive behavior. And in what sense was his
will operative?
[C] By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit
One night he won $5, 500, but he did not qui
[D] Gambling has been a mon feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly
considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive
promoter of gambling in America is the government
E] David Williams's suit should trouble this gambling nation. But dont bet on it
[F It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as
addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will
[G The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conducive to
pulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what
would be its grounds for doing so?
Part C

Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society?
it is the intellectuals who have rejected America. But they have done more than that. They have grown
dissatisfied with the role of intellectual. It is they, not America, who have bee anti-intellectual
First, the object of our study pleads for definition. What is an intellectual? 46) I shall define him
as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a
Socratic j* E)way about moral problems. He explores such problems consciously, articulately,
and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggestil
action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has
obtained. 47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing
in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision
This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals-- the average
scientist, for one. 48)I have excluded him because, while his acplishments may contribute to the
solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual
aspects of those problems. Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in the everyday
performance of his routine duties --he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence
or doctor his reports. 49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his
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activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of
conduct in business. During most of his waking life he will take his code for granted, as the
businessman takes his ethics
The definition also excludes the majority of teachers, despite the fact that teaching has
traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living. 50) They may teach ver
well and more than earn their salaries but most of them make little or no independent reflections on
human problems which involve moral judgment. This description even fits the majority of eminent
scholars. Being learned in some branch of human knowledge is one thing, living in "public and
illustrious thoughts, as Emerson would say, is something else
Section ii writing
You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area. Write
a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what
kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out your plan
Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use"Li Ming"instead
Do not write the address. (10 points)
dOc(n
Part B
52. Directions
Study the following photos carefully and write an essay in which you should
describe the pI
2. interpret the social phenomenon reflected by them, and
om
3. give your point of view
You should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2(20 points)
BECKHAMe
把紫拜写在脸上
花300元做个“小贝头”
注Bkh页克汉师)英国足球明星
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有两幅图片,图1把崇拜写在脸上;图2花300元做“小贝头”
注: Beckham是英国足球明星
有两张照片,一张照片上有一位男士脸上写着足球明星的名字,另一张照片上有一个男子在理发,他要求理
发师为他设计一个小贝克汉姆的发型。
2005年考研英语(一)真题
Sectioni Use of english
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [a],[B],[C
or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points)
The human nose is an underrated tool. humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers
pared with animals, I this is largely because
animals, we stand upright. This means
that our noses
to perceiving those smells which float through the air,_ 4 the majority of
surfaces. In fact
we are extremely sensitive to smells,6 we do no
generally realize it. Our noses are capabl
human smells even when these are 8 to far
below one part in one million
Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, 9 othe
are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. This may be because some people do not have the genes
necessary to generate 10 smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense
to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a
certain smell 12 can suddenly bee sensitive to it when 13 to it often enough
The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that the brain finds it 14 to keep all smell
receptors working all the time but can 15 new receptors if necessary. This may 16 explain
why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells--we simply do not need to be. We are not 17
of the usual smell of our own house but we 18 new smells when we visit someone elses the
brain finds it best to keep smell receptors 19 for unfamiliar and emergency signals 20 the
smell of smoke. which might indicate the danger of fire
1. [A]although
[C] but
[] while
2. [A]above
[B] unlike
[C] excluding [D] besides
3. [A] limited
[B] mitted [C] dedicated [D] confined
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4. [A] catching
B
[C] missing
[ tracking
5. [A]anyway
[B] though
[C]instead
[D] therefore
6. [A]even if
B if only
[C] only if
ID] as if
7. a distinguish
b discovering c determining
DI detecting
8. [A] diluted
[B] dissolved
perse
D] diffused
9. [A] when
Clfo
10. [A]unusual
BI particular
[C]unique
[D] typical
11. [A]signs
B stimuli
messages
12. [A] at first
B] at all
C] at large
13. [A] subjected
[B] left
[D] exposed
14. [A]ineffective
B]inpetent [C] inefficient
insufficient
15. [A]introduce
B summon
IC] trigge
16. [A] still
B also
IC] otherwise
nevertheless
17. A]sure
aware
18. [A] tolerate [B] repel
[C] neglect
I notice
19. [A]available [B] reliable [C] identifiable [D] suitable
20. [A] similar to [B] such as [C] along with [D] aside from
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [a, [B], [c] or
D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
Text
Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague
has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged
Such behaviour is regarded as"all too human, "with the underlying assumption that other animals
would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and
Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature,
suggests that it is all too monkey, as well
he researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. Th
are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their
female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value ofgoods and
services than males
Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnans and dr. de waal's study The
esearchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the
monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two
monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other
was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different
In the world of capuchins, grapes are luxury goods(and much preferable to cucumbers). So whe
one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over
for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in
exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or
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(without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin er chamber
refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the othe
The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In
the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species. Such co-operation is likely to be stable only
when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the
preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward pletely makes these feelings abundantly clear
to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in
capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the mon ancestor that the species had 35 million
years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question
21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by
B justifying an assumption
[C] making a parison
[D] explaining a phenomenon
22. The statement"it is all too monkey"(Last line, Paragraph D)implies that
[A] monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals
B]resenting unfairness is also monkeys
[C] monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other
D] no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions
23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are
[A] more inclined to weigh what they get
B attentive to researchers'instructions
Clnice in both appearance and temperament
[D] more generous than their male panions
cin.
24. Dr Brosnan and Dr de waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys
[A prefer grapes to cucumbers
B] can be taught to exchange things
[ C] will not be co-operative if feeling cheated
[] are unhappy when separated from others
25. What can we infer from the last paragraph
be trained to develop social emoti
[B] Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source
[C] Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do
[D] Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild
ex
Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the
doubters insisted that we didn 't know for sure? that the evidence was inconclusive. the science
uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should
stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million
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smokers went to early graves
There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the
owing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences,
enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely warming and that the
problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves
The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the
panel's report: Science never has all the answers. But science does provide us with the best available
uide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best
judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions
Just as on smoking, voices now e from many quarters insisting that the science about global
warming is inplete, that it's OK to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is
a dangerous game: by the time 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks
obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now
Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the
president's advisers still dont take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue
to press for more research-a classic case of"paralysis by analysis.
o serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmosph
oceanic research. But research alone is inadequate If the administration wont take the legislative
initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures. a bill by Democratic
Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry, is a
promising start. Many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants to meet
our energy needs. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be
environmentally sound
26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that
In.
[A] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death
[B] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant
[C] people had the freedom to choose their own way of lif
[D] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense
27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as
A] a protector
[B] a judg
Cl a critic
D] a guide
28. What does the author mean by"paralysis by analysis" Last line, Paragraph 4)?
[AJ Endless studies kill action
B] Careful investigation reveals truth
C] Prudent planning hinders progress
[D] Extensive research helps decision-making
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29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about global warming?
[A]Offer aid to build cleaner power plants
B Raise public awareness of conservation
C Press for further scientific research
DI Take some legislative measures
30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because
[A] they both suffered from the government's negligence
B]a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former
[C] the oute of the latter aggravates the former
[D] both of them have turned from bad to worse
Text 3
Of all the ponents of a good nights sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In
dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago,
Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious
desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just"mental
noise"--the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep Now researchers
suspect that dreams are part of the mind's emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain
off-line. And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only
harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better, "It's your
dream, "says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago's Medical Center. "If you don't like
it change it
Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during rem(rapid eye
movement) sleep -- when most vivid dreams occur--as it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric
Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the
limbic system(the"emotional brain")is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex(the center of
intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those
feelings can stay with us all day. says Stanford sleep researcher Dr. William Dement
The link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in Cartwrights clinic. Most
people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before
awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day
Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we dont always think about the emotional
significance of the days events--until, it appears, we begin to dream
And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believe
the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just
enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep
At the end of the day, theres probably little reason to pay attention to our drea
eep us from sleeping or"we wake up in a panic, Cartwright says. Terrorism, economic uncertainty
and general feelings of insecurity have increased people's anxiety. Those suffering from persistent
nightmares should seek help from a therapist For the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working
through bad feelings. Sleep--or rather dream--on it and you ll feel better in the morning
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31. Researchers have e to believe that dreams
[A] can be modified in their courses
B are susceptible to emotional changes
CI reflect our innermost desires and fears
[]are a random oute of neural repairs
32. By referring to the limbic system the author intends to show
al its function in our dreams
[B] the mechanism of REM sleep
[C] the relation of dreams to emotions
D] its difference from the prefrontal cortex
33. The negative feelings generated during the day tend to
a aggravate in our unconscious mind
b] develop into happy dreams
till the time we fall asle
D] show up in dreams early at night
34. Cartwright seems to suggest that
[A] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dream
B] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under conko
[C] dreams should be left to their natural progression

[D] dreaming may not entirely belong to the unconscious
35. What advice might Cartwright give to those who sometimes have bad dreams?
Al Lead your life as usual
[B] Seek professional help
[C]E
El
[D] Avoid anxiety in the daytime
Text 4
Americans no longer expect public figures, whether in speech or in writing, to mand the
English language with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such mand themselves. In his latest
book, Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We Should, Like
Care, John Mc Whorter, a linguist and controversialist of mixed liberal and conservative views, sees
the triumph of 1960s counter-culture as responsible for the decline of formal english
Blaming the permissive 1960s is nothing new, but this is not yet another criticism against the
decline in education. Mr. Mc Whorter's academic speciality is language history and change, and he
sees the gradual disappearance of"whom, " for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the
loss of the case-endings of Old English
But the cult of the authentic and the personal, doing our own thing, has spelt the death of formal
speech, writing, poetry and music. While even the modestly educated sought an elevated tone when
they put pen to paper before the 1960s, even the most well regarded writing since then has sought to
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capture spoken English on the page. Equally, in poetry, the highly personal, performative genre is the
only form that could claim real liveliness. In both oral and written English, talking is triumphing over
speaking, spontaneity over craft
Illustrated with an entertaining array of examples from both high and low culture, the trend that
Mr. McWhorter documents is unmistakable. But it is less clear, to take the question of his subtitle
why we should, like, care. As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language,
including non-standard ones like Black English, can be powerfully expressive -- there exists no
language or dialect in the world that cannot convey plex ideas. He is not arguing, as many do that
we can no longer think straight because we do not talk proper.
Russians have a deep love for their own language and carry large chunks of memorized poetry
their heads, while Italian politicians tend to elaborate speech that would seem old-fashioned to most
English-speakers. Mr. Mc Whorter acknowledges that formal language is not strictly necessary, and
proposes no radical education reforms-he is really grieving over the loss of something beautiful
more than useful. We now take our English"on paper plates instead of china. A shame, perhaps, but
probably an inevitable one
36. According to Mc Whorter, the decline of formal English
[A] is inevitable in radical education reforms
B]is but all too natural in language development
[C] has caused the controversy over the counter-culture
[] brought about changes in public attitudes in the 1960s

37. The word"talking"(Line 6, Paragraph 3)denotes
BI personality
C] liveliness
[] informality
w
38. To which of the following statements would Mc Whorter most likely agree?
[A] Logical thinking is not necessarily related to the way we talk
[B Black English can be more expressive than standard English.
C] Non-standard varieties of human language are just as entertaining
[D] Of all the varieties, standard English can best convey plex ideas
39. The description of russians love of memorizing poetry shows the authors
[A]interest in their language
[ B] appreciation of their efforts
Cl admiration for their memory
D] contempt for their old-fashionedness
40. According to the last paragraph,“ paper plates"is to“ china”as
A] temporary”isto‘ permanent
[B]“ radical”i
[C]“ functional”isto" artistic
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[D] humble”isto“ noble
Part B
Directions
In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most
suitable one from the list A-g to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices,
which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
Canadas premiers(the leaders of provincial governments), if they have any breath left after
plaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something,
together, to reduce health-care costs
Theyre all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing ponent of which are
pharmaceutical costs
[ E] According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have
risen since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending. Part of the increase es fre
drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatments. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more
than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices
What to do? Both the Romanow mission and the Kirby mittee on health care--to say
nothing of reports from other experts-remended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead
of each province having its own list of approved drugs, bureaucracy, procedures and limited
bargaining power, all would pool resources, work with Ottawa, and create a national institution
IC What does"national" mean? Roy romanow and Senator Michael Kirby
remended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council
But"national doesn't have to mean that. National" could mean interprovincial--provinces
bining efforts to create one body.
Either way, one benefit of a"national"organization would be to negotiate better prices, if
possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one province--or a series of hospitals within a
province- negotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would
negotiate on behalf of all provinces
Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency
would negotiate on behalf of 3 1 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential
consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price
43.[G]Of course the pharmaceutical panies will scream. They like divided buyers; they
can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another
They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its list, the pressure will cause others to include
it on theirs. They wouldn't like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with
A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian
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Co-ordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment, funded by ottawa and the provinces Under
it, a Common Drug review remends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included
Predictably, and regrettably, Quebec refused to join
ap A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They(particularly Quebec
one reason why the idea of a national list hasn't gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast at's
and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any, strings attached. TI
[F] So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run
it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save administrative costs,
prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices
Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanow's report selectively, especially the parts about more
money. Perhaps they should read what he had to say about drugs: "A national drug agency would
provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical panies in order to constrain the
ever-increasing cost of drugs
B Or they could read Mr. Kirby's report: the substantial buying power of such ar
agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible
purchase prices from drug panies
So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual plaint list, they should
also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients
LAJ Quebec's resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a
national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebecs Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs
skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3 per cent to 26.8 per cent
B Or they could read Mr. Kirbys report
"the substantial buying power of such an agency would
trengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase
prices from drug panies
C What does "national"mean? Roy romanow and Senator Michael Kirby remended a
federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council
[D] The problem is simple and stark: health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase
faster than government revenues
[E] According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen
since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending. Part of the increase es from drugs
being used to replace other kinds of treatments. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than
older kinds. Part of it is higher prices
[F] So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting
with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save administrative costs, prevent one
province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices
[G] Of course, the pharmaceutical panies will scream. They like divided buyers; they can lobby
better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to anothe
h
that, if one province includes a drug on its list, the pressure will cause others to include it on theirs
They wouldnt like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it
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Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANS WER SHEET 2. (10 points)
It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant pha
European history. History and news bee confused, and one's impressions tend to be a mixture of
skepticism and optimism. 46) Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and
conveyed--and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations
as in the recent events in Europe The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its
peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European
television scene. 47) In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful
groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work
in relation to one another. One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell
and Murdoch e to mind
Clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television panies are going to be able to pete
in such a rich and hotly-contested market. 48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is
television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 190g tics that show that out of eighty European
not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by stati
Moreover, the integration of the European munity will oblige television panies to
cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution
49)Creating a"European identity " that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make
up the connecting fabric of the old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice - that of
producing programs in Europe for Europe. This entails reducing our dependence on the North
American market, whose programs relate to experiences and cultural traditions which are different
In order to achieve these objectives, we must concentrate more on co-productions, the exchange
of news, documentary services and training. This also involves the agreements between European
countries for the creation of a European bank for Television Production which, on the model of the
European Investments Bank, will handle the finances necessary for production costs. 50)In dealing
with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say"United we stand, divided we fall-and
if I had to choose a slogan it would be"Unity in our diversity A unity of objectives that nonetheless
respect the varied peculiarities of each countr
Section iii Writing
Part a
51. Directions
Two months ago you got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs Fashions. But now you
find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang
telling him your decision, stating your reason(S), and making an apology
Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use"Li Ming"instead
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You do not need to write the address. (10 points)
Part B
52. Directions
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should first
describe the drawing, then interpret its meaning, and give your ment on
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)
二儿子
老父亲
小女儿
养老“足寨”

2004年考研英语()真题

Section I Listening Comprehension
Directions
This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a
selection of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that acpany them. There are
three parts in this section Part A. part b and part c
Remember, while you are doing the test, you should first put down your answers in your test
booklet. At the end of the listening prehension section, you will have 5 minutes to transfer all your
answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET
Now look at Part a in your test booklet
Part A
For questions 1-5, you will hear a talk about the geography of Belgium. While you listen, fill out the
table with the information you have heard. Some of the information has been given to you in the table
Write only l word or number in each numbered box. You will hear the recording twice. You now have
25 seconds to read the table below. (5 points)
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Geography of Belgium
Three main regions
coastal plain
central plateau
highlands
Highest altitude of the coastal plain
Climate near the sea
Humid
Mild
Particularly rainy months of the years
April
November
Average temperatures in July in Brussels low 13C
hgh22℃5
Part B
Directions:
For Questions 6-10, you will hear an interview with Mr. Saffo from the Institute for the Future
While you listen, plete the sentences or answer the questions. Use not more than 3 words for each
answer. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the sentences and
What is Saffo according to himself?
The Institute for the Future provides services to private panies and
The Institute believes that to think systematically about the long-range future is
To succeed in anything, one should be flexible, curious and
What does saffo consider to be essential to the work of a team?
A(technology) forecaster
government agencies
open to change
I Trust and cooperation
cu eGio dom
Part C
Directions
You will hear three pieces of recorded material. Before listening to each one, you will have time
to read the questions related to it. While listening, answer each question by choosing [A],[B, [C] or
[D]. After listening, you will have time to check your answers. You will hear each piece once only. (10
points
Questions 11-13 are based on the following talk about naming newborns. You now have 15
seconds to read Questions 11-13
11. What do we often do with the things we love?
Al Ask for their names
B Name babies after them
C] Put down their names
[D] Choose names for them
12. The unpleasant meaning of an old family name is often overlooked if
[A] the family tree is fairly limited
[B the family tie is strong enough
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CI the name is monly used
[] nobody in the family plains
13. Several months after a babys birth, its name will
show the beauty of its own
B] develop more associations
[C] lose the original meaning
[D] help form the baby's personality
Questions 14-16 are based on the biography of Bobby Moore, an English soccer player. You now have
15 seconds to read Questions 14-16
14. How many matches did moore play during his professional career?
[B]108
C]180
[D]668
15. In 1964, Bobby Moore was mac
A] England,s footballer of the year
[B] a soccer coach in West Germany
[C] a medalist for his sportsmanship
[D a number of the Order of the British Empire

16. After Moore retired from playing, the first thing he did was
[A] editing Sunday sport
B working for Capital Radio
C] managing professional soccer teams
[D] developing a sports marketing pany
cIn. CO
Questions 17-20 are based on the following talk on the city of Belfast. You now have 20 seconds to
read Questions 17-20
17. Belfast has long been famous for its
B linen textiles
[d de
18. Which of the following does belfast chiefly export
Ste
19. When was Belfast founded?
[A]In1177
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BlIn 1315
[C] In the 16th cent
D In the 17th century
20. What happened in Belfast in the late 18th century?
[A] French refugees arrived
[B] The harbor was destroyed
[C] Shipbuilding began to flourish
[D] The city was taken by the English
You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET 1
Section ii use of english
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [al, B], [c]
or D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes mitted by young people
focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories 21 on the
individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior 22 they were not sufficiently
penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through 23 with
others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children mit crimes in 24 to their
failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, 25 as a rejection of middle-class values
Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged famili
26 the fact that children from wealthy homes also mit crimes. The latter may mit crimes
27 lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are 28 to criticism
Changes in the social structure may indirectly 29 juvenile crime rates. For example, change
in the economy that 30 to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment 31
make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in 32 lead
more youths into criminal behavior
Families have also 33 changes these years. More families consist of one-parent households
two working parents; 34, children are likely to have less supervision at home 35 was
mon in the traditional family 36. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an
influence on juvenile crime rates. Other 37 causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure
in school. the increased
of drugs and alcohol, and the growing 39 of child abuse and
child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child mitting a criminal act
40 a direct causal relationship has not yet been established
[B]relying
[C] centering
[D] menting
22. [A] before
[B]unless
[D] because
23. [A]interaction [B] assimilation [C] cooperation [D] consultation
24. [A]return
B] reply
[C]reference
D」 response
25.[A]or
[B] but rather [C] but
or else
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26. [A] considering [B] ignoring [C] highlighting [D] discarding
7.[A]
[B]in
IC] for
[D] with
28.[A]
B]r
[C] sensitive
29. A affect
B] reduce
C] check
D reflect
30. [A] point
BI lead
31. [A]in general [B]on average [C] by contrast
[D]at length
32. [A]case
B] short
Essence
33.[A]
B]noticed
C] undertaken [D] experienced
34. [A] contrarily [B] consequently [C] similarly
D] simultaneously
35. [A]than
B that
[C] which
36. [A] system
B]structure
[D] heritage
37. A assessable B] identifiable C] negligible
D incredible
38. [A] expense B] restriction
[C] allocation
D] availability
39. [A] incidence [B]awareness
[ C] exposure
[D] popularity
40. [A] provided [B]since
[C] although
[D] supposing
Section Imi Reading prehension
Part
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or
D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (40 points)
Text 1
Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job
database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's"personal
search agent. It's an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and
salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the
keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first
notification of an opening. "I struck gold, says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer
and won a position as in-house counsel for a pany.
With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be
time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But
although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria,
for example, may work against you: Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility
says one expert
For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept what you think you want to do
then broaden it. None of these programs do that, " says another expert. There's no career counseling
implicit in all of this. Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep
abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the
database again. " I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that
might interest me, says the author of a job-searching guide
Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite's agent sends out
messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs
those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will
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have to visit the site again to find them-and they do. "On the day after we send our messages, we see
a sharp increase in our traffic, says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for Career Site
Even those who arent hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to
keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on pensation to arm
themselves when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at
CareerBuilder. "You always keep your eyes open, "he says. Working with a personal search agent
means having another set of eyes looking out for you
41. How did Redmon find his job?
[A] By searching openings in a job databa
B By posting a matching position in a database
[C] By using a special service of a database
[D] By E-mailing his resume to a database
42. Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?
[AJ Lack of counseling
B Limited numbe
[D] Fewer successful matches
43. The expression"tip service"( Line 4, Paragraph 3 )most probably means
[C]interaction
D reminder
44. Why does Career Site's agent offer each job hunter only three job options?
A] To fo
om
B] To attract more returning visits
C] To reserve space for more messages
DI To increase the rate of success
45. Which of the following is true according to the text?
LAPe
B] Some sites keep E-mailing job seekers to trace their demands
[C] Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed
[D] Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed
Text 2
Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or made
illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet unaware of such
a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower
half of the alphabet
It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac cars
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Then customers thumb through their phone directories less well known is the advantage that adam
Abbott has in life over Zoe Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of the
alphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning with letters between
a and K
Thus the American president and vice-president have surnames starting with B and C respectively
and 26 of George Bushs predecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of the
alphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of the seven heads of government
of the g7 rich countries are alphabetically advantaged( Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chretien and
Koizumi). The worlds three top central bankers( Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) are all close to
the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanese characters. As are the worlds five
richest men(Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)
Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the
alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant school
teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. So
short-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving questions
posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may think they hay
had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual
attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly.
The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, the ABCs proudly get their
awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans most people are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for
job interviews, election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawn
up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them
46. What does the author intend to illustrate with aaa a cars and zodiac cars?
[AJA kind of overlooked inequality
[B]A type of conspicuous bias.
m
C]A type of personal prejudice
DJA kind of brand discrimination
47. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?
[AJ In both east and West, names are essential to success
B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zoe zysman
C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to panies'names
[DI Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize
48. The 4th paragraph suggests that
A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students
B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape from class
C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students
[D] students should be seated according to their eyesight
49. What does the author mean by"most people are literally having a ZzZ" Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?
[A] They are getting impatient
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B] They are noisily dozing off
[C] They are feeling humiliated
D] They are busy with word puzzles
50. Which of the following is true according to the text?
[AJ People with surnames beginning with n to Z are often ill-treated
[B]VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism
C The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go
[D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias
Text 3
When it es to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet. But the
47-year-old manicurist isnt cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as shed like to, either. Most of
her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped
showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. "I'm a good economic indicator, "she says. "I
provide a service that people can do without when they're concerned about saving some dollars. " So
Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard's department store near her suburban
Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. I dont know if other clients are going to abandon me,
Even before Alan Greenspan's admission that America's red-hot economy is cooling, lots of
working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap
outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last
year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach
is ing at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year's pace
But don' t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only mildly concerned, not panicked, and many
say they remain optimistic about the economy's long-term prospects, even as they do some modest
belt-tightening
Consumers say they're not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes
still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, "theres a new
gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street
bonuses, "says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied
overbidding quiets. "Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three, " says John
Tealdi, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty fortable about their ability to
find and keep a job
Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower
interest rates. Employers wouldnt mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers
seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary
ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattans hot
new Alain Ducasse restaurant used to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan Co. may
still be worth toasting.
51. By"Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet" Lines 1-2, Paragraph 1), the author means
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[A] Spero can hardly maintain her business
[B] Spero is too much engaged in her work
C] Spero has grown out of her bad habit
ID Spero is not in a desperate situation
52. How do the public feel about the current economic situation?
[AJOptimistic
[B Confused
[D] Panick
53. When mentioning"the $4 million to $10 million range"(Lines 3-4, Paragraph 3 the author is
talking about
[A] gold market
[B] real estate
C] stock exchange
[D] venture investment
54. Why can many people see"silver linings"to the economic slowdown?
A]They would benefit in certain ways
[B The stock market shows signs of recover
[C] Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom
[D] The purchasing power would be enhanced

55. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?
[AJA new boom, on the horizon
B Tighten the belt, the single remedy
C] Caution all right, panic not
DI The more ventures, the more chances
ocin.
Text 4
Americans today dont place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes, entertainers
and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical
education --not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of pervasive
anti-intellectualism in our schools aren't difficult to find
Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual, says
education writer Diane Ravitch. "Schools could be a counterbalance. " Ravitch's latest book. Left Back:
A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in our schools, concluding
they are anything but a counterbalance to the american distaste for intellectual pursuits
But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves ther
ulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and
understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing along thi
path, says writer Earl Shorris, We will bee a second-rate country. We will have a less civil
society.”
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Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege, writes historian and professor Richard
Hofstadter in Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, a Pulitzer- Prize winning book on the roots of
anti-intellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says
Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitism
Practicality, mon sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than
anything you could learn from a book
Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous
book learning put unnatural restraints on children: "We are shut up in schools and college recitation
rooms for 10 or 15 years and e out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing. Mark
Twains Huckleberry Finn exemplified American anti-intellectualism. Its hero avoids being civilized
going to school and learning to read--so he can preserve his innate goodness
Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly
admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind. Intelligence seeks to
grasp, manipulat
e. re-order. and
t, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes
criticizes and imagines
School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our country's educational
system is in the grips of people who "joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and
their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise
56. What do American parents expect their children to acquire in school?
[A] The habit of thinking independently
[B] Profound knowledge of the world
CI Practical abilities for future career
D The confidence in intellectual pursuits
57. We can learn from the text that Americans have a history of

[A]undervaluing intellect
B] favoring intellectualism
[C] supporting school reform
[] suppressing native intelligence
58. The views of ravitch and emerson on schooling are
Al identical
[B] similar
[C] plementary
59. Emerson, according to the text, is probabl
A] a pioneer of education reform
B] an opponent of intellectualism
Cl a scholar in favor of intellect
[D an advocate of regular schoolin
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60. What does the author think of intellect?
[AJ It is second to intelligence
B It evolves from mon sense
C] It is to be pursued
[D] It underlies power
Part B
Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
The relation of language and mind has interested philosophers for many centuries. 61)The Greeks
assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took
root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be
Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their
own. Two anthropologist-linguists, Franz Boas and Edward Sapir, were pioneers in describing many
native languages of North and South america during the first half of the twentieth century. 62)We are
obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them
died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. Other linguists in the earlier part of this
century, however, who were less eager to deal with bizarre data from"exotic"language, were not
always so grateful. 63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well
studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused boas and sapir of
fabricating their data. Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo
could be used by the US military as a code during World War II to send secret messages
Sapir's pupil, Benjamin Lee Whorf, continued the study of American Indian languages. 64) Being
interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of
language deter
tructure of habitual thought in a society he reasoned that because it is easier
to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think
along one track and not along another. 65) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism
which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns
in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. Later, this idea
became to be known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, but this term is somewhat inappropriate
Although both Sapir and Whorf emphasized the diversity of languages, Sapir himself never explicitly
supported the notion of linguistic determinism
61
Section Iv Writing
66. Directions
Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should
1)describe the drawing,
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2)interpret its meaning, and
3)support your view with examples
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 (20 points)
doc(n

2003年考研英语(一)真题
Section I Listening Comprehension
Directions
This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a selection
of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that acpany them. There are three parts
in this section part A. part B. and part c
Remember, while you should first put down your answers in your test booklet. At the end of the
listening prehension section, you will have five minutes to transfer all your answers from your test
booklet to ANSWER ShEet 1
Now look at Part A in your test booklet
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Part A
Directions:
For Question 1-5, you will hear a talk about Boston Museum of Fine Art. While you listen, fill out
the table with the information you have heard. some of the information has been given to you in the
table. Write only I word or number in each numbered box. You will hear the recording twice. You now
have 25 seconds to read the table below. (5 points)
Boston museum of fine arts
1870
Opened to the public(year)
1876 Question 1
Moved to the current location(year)
1909
The west wing pleted(year)
1981
Question 2
Number of departments
The most remarkable department
textiles
Question 3
Exhibition Space(m2)
19.137
Question 4
Approximate number of visitors/year
800,000
Programs provided
concerts
Question 5
lectures
Part B
For Questions 6-10
ill hear an interview with an expert on marriage problems. While you
listen, plete the sentences or answer the questions. Use not more than 3 words for each answer
You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the sentences and questions
below. (5 points
What should be the primary source of help for a troubled couple?( (the couple)themselves)
Question 6
Writing down a list of problems in the marriage may help a troubled couple discuss them
(constructively). Question 7
Who should a couple consider seriously turning to if they cant talk with each other
(a qualified psychologist). Question 8
Priests are usually unsuccessful in counseling troubled couples despite their (good intentions)
Question 9
According to the old notion, what will make hearts grow fonder?(absence). Question 10
Part C
Directions
You will hear three pieces of recorded material. Before listening to each one, you will have time to
read the questions related to it. While listening, answer each question by choosing [A], [b], [C] or D
After listening, you will have time to check your answers you will hear each piece once only. (10
points
Questions 11-13 are based on the following talk about napping, you now have 15 seconds to read
questions 11-13
I1. Children under five have abundant energy partly because they
[A] sleep in three distinct parts
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biha
long block
Di take one or two naps daily
12. According to the speaker, the sleep pattern of a baby is determined by
[B] its habit
C] its mental state
[D] its physical condi
13. The talk suggests that, if you feel sleepy through the day, you should
[A] take some refreshment
B] go to bed early
C] have a long
[] give in to sleep
Questions 14-16 are based on the following interview with Sherman Alexie, an American Indian poet
You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 14-16
14. Why did Sherman Alexie only take day jobs?
[AJ He could bring unfinished work home
B He might have time to pursue his interest
[C] He might do some evening teaching

[] He could invest more emotion in his family.
15. What was his original goal at college?
a to teach in high school
[B] to write his own books
[C] to be a medical doctor

[D] to be a mathematician
16. Why did he take the poetry-writing class?
[A] To follow his father
B For an easy grade.
[C] To change his specialt
D] For knowledge of poetry
Questions 17-20 are based on the following talk about public speaking. You now have 20 seconds to
read Questions 17-20
17. What is the most important thing in public speaking?
[B] Prepa
INformativeness
[D] Organization
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18. What does the speaker advise us to do to capture the audiences attention?
r abundant data
B Organize the idea logically
[C] Develop a great opening
[D] Select appropriate materials
19. If you don' t start working for the presentation until the day before, you will feel
[UNeasy
[B]uncertain
Cl fr
[D] depressed
20. Who is this speech most probably meant for?
[A]Those interested in the power of persuasion
B] Those trying to improve their public images
C] Those planning to take up some public work
[D] Those eager to bee effective speakers
You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to aNSWEr Sheet 1
Section II Use of english
Directions
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [a, [B], [C
[D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults
experience. And they also need to give serious 21 to how they can best 22 such changes
Growing
bodies need movement and 23, but not just in ways that emphasize petition. 24
they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges,
teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that es from achiev
knowing that their acplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle
already filled with so much petition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are
more winners than losers, 28, publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews
29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide
30 opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful 31 dynamics. Making
friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the
of some kind of
organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background
In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have 34 attention spans
A variety of activities should be organized 35 participants can remain active as long as they
want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants
37. This does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. 38, they can help students
acquire a sense of mitment by 39 for roles that are within their 40 and their attention
spans and by having clearly stated rules
21. A thought
[B idea
[C]opinion D] advice
22. [A]strengthen [B]acmodate
[C] stimulate [D]er
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23. [A]care
BI nutrition
[ C] exercise
24.[A]If
B]Although
[C] Whereas D] Because
25. [A] assistance B]
guidance
[C] confidence [D] tolerance
26. A claimed
B admired
Cl ignored
D surpassed
27. [A]improper
[B]risky
C] fair
DI wise
28. [A] in effect
[B] as a result
[C] for example [D] in a sense
29. [A]displaying B] describing
[C] creating D] exchanging
30. [A] durable
31. [A] group
C
[D] corporation
32. [A]consent
[B]insurance
C] admission [D] security
33. [A] particularly [B] barely
[C] definitely [D]rarely
34. A] similar
B] long
IC] different [ D] short
35. [A]if only
IB] now that
[C] so that
D] even if
36. [A]everything [B] anything
[C] nothing
[D] something
37. [A]off
[B] down
C]out
D] alone
38. [A]On the contrary[B]On the average
[C] On the whole [D] On the other hand
39. [A]making
ng
C] planning D] taking
40. [A] capabilities B] responsibilities
[C] proficiency [D]efficiency
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], B],[C]or
[D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
Text 1
Wild Bill donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the office
of Strategic Services in the World War II and later laid the roots for the Cia was fascinated with
information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the "great game""of espionage
pying as a pro
These days the Net, which has already re-made such everyday pastimes as
buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan's vocation as well
The latest revolution isnt simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemens e-mail. That kind of
electronic spying has been going on for decades. In the past three or four years, the World Wide Web
has given birth to a whole industry of point-and-click spying. The spooks call it"open-source
intelligence, and as the Net grows, it is being increasingly influential. In 1995 the CIa held a
contest to see who could pile the most data about Burundi. The winner, by a large margin, was a
tiny Virginia pany called Open Source Solutions, whose clear advantage was its mastery of the
electronic world
Among the firms making the biggest splash in this new world is Straitford, Inc, a private
intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin, Texas. Straitford makes money by selling the results of
spying(covering nations from Chile to Russia) to corporations like energy-services firm McDermott
International. Many of its predictions are available online at
Straitford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutuall
reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution, a spymaster's dream Last week his
irm was busy vacuuming up data bits from the far corners of the world and predicting a crisis in
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Ukraine. As soon as that report runs, we'll suddenly get 500 new Internet sign-ups from Ukraine,
says Friedman, a former political science professor. And we'll hear back from some of them
Open-source spying does have its risks, of course, since it can be difficult to tell good information
from bad. Thats where Straitford earns its keep
Friedman relies on a lean staff of 20 in Austin. Several of his staff members have
military-intelligence backgrounds. He sees the firms outsider status as the key to its success
Straitford's briefs dont sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing, whereby agencies avoid
dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong. Straitford, says Friedman, takes pride in its
independent voice
41. The emergence of the net has
[A] received support from fans like Donovan
B]remolded the intelligence services
C] restored many mon pastimes
[D] revived spying as a profession
42. Donovan's story is mentioned in the text to
A] introduce the topic of online spyin
[B] show how he fought for the U. S
[C] give an episode of the information war
[ D honor his unique services to the CIA
43. The phrase"making the biggest splash"(Line 1, Paragraph 3)most probably means
[A] causing the biggest trouble
B] exerting the greatest effort
C] achieving the greatest success
[D] enjoying the widest popularity
44. It can be learned from P
i
oh
[A] Straitford's prediction about Ukraine has proved true
B] Straitford guarantees the truthfulness of its information
[C] Straitford's business is characterized by unpredictability
[D] Straitford is able to provide fairly reliable information
45. Straitford is most proud of its
Al official status
[B]nonconformist image
[C] efficient staff
[] military background
Text 2
To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, all that is needed for the triumph of
misguided cause is that good people do nothing. One such cause now seeks to end biomedica
research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research. Scientists need
to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and
thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of the animal rights movement
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target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the
process of health care research. Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many
are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.
For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was
distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that es from or is tested in
animals-no meat, no fur, no medicines. Asked if she opposed immunizations, she wanted to know if
vaccines e from animal research. When assured that they do, she replied, " Then I would have to
say yes. Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she said, Don't worry, scientists will find
some way of using puters. Such well-meaning people just dont understand
Scientists must municate their message to the public in a passionate, understandable way
in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need to make clear the connection
between animal research and a grandmother's hip replacement, a father's bypass operation, a baby's
vaccinations, and even a pets shots. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed to
produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful
best and cruel at worst
Much can be done. Scientists could"adopt" "middle school classes and present their own research
ey should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go
unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions could be opened to
tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders
are patients, the health research munity should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known
personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal
46. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke s words?.
esearch, but all who receive medical treatment. If good people do nothing there is a real possibility
that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the precious embers of medical progress
[A] call on scientists to take some actions
[B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights
om
CI warn of the doom of biomedical research
[D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement
47. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is
[A] cruel but natural
[B]inhuman and unacceptable
itable but
[D] pointless and wasteful
48. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show the public's
a] discontent with animal research
B] ignorance about medical science
C]indifference to epidemics
[D] anxiety about animal rights
49. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animal rights advocates, scientists should
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[A] municate more with the public
[B] employ hi-tech means in research
IDI strive to develop new cures
50. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is
[A] a well-known humanist
[B] a medical practitioner
C] an enthusiast in animal rights
[D] a supporter of animal research
Text 3
In recent years, railroads have been bining with cach other, merging into supersystems
causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995, the top four railroads accounted
for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers
pleted, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail
carriers
Supporters of the new supersystems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost
reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce
petition from trucks. But many shippers plain that for heavy bulk modities traveling lon
distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have
them by the throat
The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one
rail pany. Railroads typically charge such"captive"shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do
when another railroad is peting for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged
have the right to appeal to the federal governments Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but
the process is expensive, time-consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases
Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it
reduces everyone's cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers
who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leavin
remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It's a theory to which many
economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which
panies will flourish and which will fail. "Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who
wins and who loses in the marketplace? asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently
represents shippers
Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases. the
railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes, still does not earn enough to cover the
cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow
billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the $10.2 billion bid by
Norfolk Southern and CsX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating ine in
1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay
for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and Csx
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increase their grip on the market
51. According to those who support mergers, railway monopoly is unlikely because
[A cost reduction is based on petition
b services call for cross-trade coordination
[D] shippers will have the railway by the throat
52. What is many captive shippers attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?
A] Indifferent.
B] Suppe
Cl Indignant
[D] Apprehensive
53. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that
A] shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad
[B] there will soon be only one railroad pany nationwide
[C] overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief
[] a government board ensures fair play in railway business
54. The word"arbiters"(Line 7, Paragraph 4) most probably refers to those
A who work as coordinators
[B] who function as judges

[C] who supervise transactions
[D] who determine the price
55. According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by
[A] the continuing acquisition
[B] the growing traffi
C] the cheering Wall Street
[D] the shrinking market
Text 4
It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional. Small
wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be
replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure. Such
advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine
50 years ago. But not even a great health-care system can cure death -and our failure to confront that
reality now threatens this greatness of ours
Death is normal; we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under ideal
conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a problem
to be solved. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can
possibly be done for us, even if it's useless. The most obvious example is late-stage cancer care
Physicians--frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient
too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified
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In 1950, the U.S. spent $12.7 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be $1, 540 billion
Anyone can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it. Some scholars
conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that
sustains life beyond a certain age-say 83 or so. Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has been
quoted as saying that the old and infirm"have a duty to die and get out of the way, "so that younger,
healthier people can realize their potential
I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond, and
remain dazzlingly productive. At 78, Via chairman Sumner Redstone jokingly claims to be 53
Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O Connor is in her 70s, and former surgeon general C. Everett
Koop chairs an Internet start-up in his 80s. These leaders are living proof that prevention works and
that we can manage the health problems that e naturally with age. As a mere 68-year-old, I wish to
age as productively as they have
Yet there are limits to what a society can spend in this pursuit. As a physician, I know the most
ostly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful. I also know that people in Japan and
Sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we
have. As a nation, we may be overfunding the quest for unlikely cures while underfunding research on
humbler therapies that could improve people's lives
56. What is implied in the first sentence?
[A] Americans are better prepared for death than other people

[B] Americans enjoy a higher life quality than ever before
[ C] Americans are over-confident of their medical technology
D Americans take a vain pride in their long life expectancy
57. The author uses the example of cancer patients to show that
[A] medical resources are often wasted

B] doctors are helpless against fatal diseases
C] some treatments are too aggressive
D medical costs are being unaffordable
58. The author's attitude toward Richard Lamms remark is one of
[A] strong disapproval
B
[C] slight contempt
[D] enthusiastic support
59. In contrast to the U.s., Japan and Sweden are funding their medical care
A more flexibly
B] more extravagantly
C] more cautiously
[D] more reasonably
60. The text intends to express the idea that
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[A]medicine will further prolong people's lives
[B] life beyond a certain limit is not worth living
[C] death should be accepted as a fact of life
D excessive demands increase the cost of health care
Part B
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your
translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it
Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity. 61)Furthermore, humans have
the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their
own peculiar ideas and fancies. Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and
diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such
studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life
forms on this planet Earth
Anthropology" derives from the Greek words anthropos: human"and logos"the study of " B
its very name, anthropology enpasses the study of all humankind
Anthropology is one of the social sciences. 62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry
Thich seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and
dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena
Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology
Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to
anthropology
All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study oriented
discipline which makes extensive use of the parative method in analysis. 63) The emphasis on
data gathered first-hand, bined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures
past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science
Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor's
ormulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th century
science. 64) Tylor defined culture as"... that plex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law,
stom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. This insight,
so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understanding ht
life. Implicit within Tylor's definition is the concept that culture is learned, shared, and patterned
behavior
65) Thus, the anthropological concept of"culture, like the concept of"set"in mathematics, is an
abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding
Section iv writing
66. Directions
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
Study the following set of drawings carefully and write an essay in which you should
1)describe the set of drawings, interpret its meaning, and
2) point out its implications in our life
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2(20 points)
dOcn

中国人民大学法学硕士初试:专业课623-理论法学历年真题(13-10)
适用于030101-法学理论、030102-法律史、030103-宪法学与行政法学、030104刑法学、030105-民
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
商法学、030106-诉讼法学、030107-经济法学、030108-环境与资源保护法学、030109·国际法学、0301Z1
知识产权法、0301Z2-比较法各专业。
考试科目包括:法理学、中国法制史、宪法学;
注:2012年开始人大法学考研理论科目增加2门,变成法理学、宪法学和法制史
2013年人大理论法学试题(3科目)
法理学
、名词解释
1、法的价值系统
2、政策性原则
3、法关系主体
4、法律责任
二、简答题目
简述法产生的标志
、论述题目
试述社会主义法在构建和谐社会中的作用

中国法制史
、名词解释
、《法经》
2、凌迟
3、都察院
4、监察院
简答题目
简述《中华民国临时约法》的内容和特点
论述题目
试述西汉文、景帝的刑罚改革
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宪法学
、名词解释
宪法渊源
2、行政区域划分
3、人身特别保护权
4、自治条例
简答题目
简述我国人民代表的罢免制度
三、论述题目
简述宪法文本中“人权条款”的含义和意义
2012年人大理论法学试题(3科目)
法理学
2 M MaR/

1、绝对事件2、实质推理3、法学世界观4、法律清理
、简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述案例对我国司法适用的作用
三、论述题目(每题20分,共20分)
试述中国特色法律体系的结构和特征。
法制史
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、约法三章2、中华民国约法3、刑部4、大辟
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述唐律中的“五刑
、论述题目(每题20分,共20分)
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
试述《大清现行刑律》的结构、内容和特点。
宪法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、议会制2、宪法修正案3、民族自治地方4、劳动权
、简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述公民受教育权利和义务的基本关系
论述题目(每题20分,共20分)
试论平等权的合理差异
2011年人大理论法学真题
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1、个别性调整2、人权的普遍性
立法主体
4、判例
5、法律体系
6、目的解
简答题(每题15分,共60分)

1、简述法的原则在法的创制方面的功能
2、简述法律解释与法律修改的区别
3、简述法规清理的特点及意义

4、简述法律推理的特征
三、论述题(共三题,任选其二,其中第一题,报法理学专业的考生必选。每题30分,共60分。)
1、论我国立法的民主原则与科学原则的相互关系
2、论法治在我国市场经济发展中的作用
3、论我国法律监督的作用与完善
2010年人大理论法学真题
名词解释(每题5分共30分)
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
1、调整性法律关系2、保护性规则3、集体人权
4、社会主义法治理念5、扩充解释
6、法制
简答题每题15分共60分
1、简述法的价值冲突
2、简述民主立法的原则及表现形式
简述法的社会职能和政治职能的关系
4、简述法的作用的局限性
三、论述题(任选2题,法理专业必答第1题,2*30)
1、论述法律责任的归责原则
论述多元化纠纷解决机制的概念和意义
3、评述法家“威势可以平暴厚德不足以止乱”的思想


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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
中国人民大学法学硕士初试:806-应用法学(综合科目)历年真题(2013-1997)
适用于030101-法学理论、030102-法律史、030103-宪法学与行政法学、030104-刑法学、030105-民
商法学、030106-诉讼法学、030107-经济法学、030108-环境与资源保护法学、030109-国际法学、0301Z1-
知识产权法、0301Z2-比较法各专业
考试科目包括:刑法、民法、诉讼法、经济法、环境资源法、国际法(含国际公法、国际私法、国际经
济法)、知识产权法。七门任选五门,其中你所报考的那个专业为必选科目,比如:如果你考刑法专业则7
大门类科目中刑法科目为必选,另外4门则从刑法外剩下的其他6科中任选。考试时,试卷上7门科目试题
皆有,选5门作答,每学科30分,共150分。
注:以前法学院法学综合考试是六选五(中国法制史、法理学、宪法、刑法、民法、诉讼法,六选五),
10年考研新増加了经济法、环境资源法、国际法、知识产杈法等选择,如今学校又变为刑法、民法、诉讼法
经济法、环境资源法、国际法、知识产权法,七门任选五门,建议同学们选择自己相对基础更好的五门
2013年806应用法学考研试题(七选五)
刑法学
名词解释
1、犯罪构成
2、
aww.
4、国家工作人员
简答题目
简述挪用公款罪的构成特征
民法学
、名词解释
1、财团法人
2、抵押权
3、租赁合同
4、高度危险作业
二、简答题目
简述监护权的概念和特征
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
诉讼法学
、名词解释
1、公诉人
2、当事人适格
简答题目
1、简述刑事强制措施的概念和特点
2、简述民事诉讼的证明标准
经济法学
名词解释
1、市场准入
2、产品质量认证制度
3、营业税
4、再贴现
简答题目
简述不正当有奖销售的表现
环境与自然资
名词解
twwW.dOcin.
1、可持续发展
2、环境信息公开制度
3、绿色环境标志制度
4、环境监管权
二、简答题目
简述环境法的基本原则
知识产权法学
、名词解释
合作作品
2、商标权
3、现有技术抗辩
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
4、权利用尽
、简答题目
简述智力成果权和商业标记权的区别
国际法学
名词解释
incoterms
2、 personal law
3、旗国法
4、特许协议
二、简答题目
结合中国实践,简述政府继承的规则

2012年806应用法学考研试题(七选五)
om
刑法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、牵连犯2、间接故意3、国家工作人员4、立功
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述交通肇事罪的构成要件。
民法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
、意思表示2、一般人格权3、共同侵杈4、赠与合同
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述担保物权的概念和特征
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
诉讼法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、辩护人2、执行竞合
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
1、简述刑事立案材料的来源
2、简述民事简易程序的范围
经济法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、反倾销2、预算3、政府指导价4、内幕交易
、简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述审查经营者集中时考虑因素
环境法学
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
防止污染转嫁制度2、环境行政执法3、国际环境损失赔偿责仼的免除4、林权
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述可持续发展观对环境保护的影响。

、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
海牙规则2、ADR3、法律关系本座说4、关税联盟
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述不得援引豁免。
知识产权法学
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
民间文学艺术作品2、机械表演权3、证明商标4、方法专利
简答题目(每题10分,共10分)
简述专利法中的强制许可条件
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
2011年人大805法学综合考研试题(九选五)
注:本考试科目包括:中国法制史、宪法、刑法、民法、诉讼法、经济法、环境资源法、国际法(含国
际公法、国际私法、国际经济法)、知识产权法。
法学理论专业任选五部分,其他专业必选一部分本专业相关的法律科目,再任选四部分。作答时请看清后
面的提示。每部分30分,总分150分。
第一部分中国法制史(本部分报考法制史专业的考生必选
名词解释(4*5=20分)
、三不去
2、《清会典》
3、六法全书
4、《中国土地法大纲》
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述西汉法律的主要形式
第二部分宪法学(本部分报考宪政专业的考生必选)
名词解释(4*5=20分
godin.
、人格尊严2、宪法解释3、单行条例4、社会权
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述宗教信仰自由的基本内容
第三部分刑法学(本部分报考刑法专业的考生必选)
名词解释(4*5=20分)
、挪用公款罪
、量刑
3、遗弃罪
4、洗钱罪
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述刑法规定的教唆犯的处罚原则
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第四部分民法学(本部分报考民商专业的考生必选)
名词解释(4*5=20分)
法人拟制说
建筑物共有部分
3、土地承包经营权
4、侵权责任构成
二、简答题(1*10=10分)
简述要约的撤回与要约撤销的区别
第五部分诉讼法学(本部分报考诉讼法专业的考生必选)
名词解释(2*5=10分)
、刑事诉讼中的管辖
2、民事诉讼的受案范围
简答题(2*10=20分)
简述刑事二审程序中的全面审查原则
、简述民事诉讼举证责任倒置的情形

第六部分经济法(本部分报考经济法专业的考生必选)
名词解释(4*5=20分)
1、中外合作经营企业
2、内部审计
3、印花税
标准化法
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述滥用市场支配地位的表现形式
第七部分环境与资源保护法(本部分报考环境法专业的考生必选)
名词解释(4*5=20分)
温室气体
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
2、自然资源保护法
3、公众参与原则
国际环境法
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述环境民事责任的归责原则
第八部分国际法(本部分报考国际法专业的考生必选)
、名词解释(4*5=20分)
、国际经贸惯例
2、海牙国际私法会议
3、排他许可
4、外国法的错误适用
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述外空法的责任制度
第九部分知识产权法(本部分报考知识产权专业的考生必选
名词解释(4*5=20分)
、思想/表达二分法
2、集体商标
/w.
3、专利权的穷竭
4、职务作品
简答题(1*10=10分)
简述不正当竞争行为与侵犯知识产权行为的关系
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
2010年中国人民大学入学考试法学综合真题(九选五)
考试科目:法学综合考试科目代码:807
报考专业:法学理论、法律史、宪法学与行政法学、刑法学、民商法学、诉讼法学、经法学、环境与资
源保护法学、国际法学、知识产权法学。
注:2010年人大法学考研发生重大改革,综合科目由之前的6选5改为9选5,本部分为改革后综
合科目第一年的真题。在2012年该部分科目名称变为应用法学,且可选科目为7科,即为7选5
本考试科目包括:中国法制史、宪法、刑法、民法、诉讼法、经济法、环境资源法、国际法含国际公法、
国际私法、国际经济法、知识产权法。法学理论专业任选五部分,其他专业必选一部分本专业相关的法律科
再任选四部分。每部分30分,其中名词解释每题5分,简答题每题10分。本科目总分150分,多答不
得分
中国法制史
名词解释(4*5
五听2、化外人3、编敕4、《陕甘宁边区施政纲领》

二、简答题(1*10)
简述“亲亲得相首匿”原则的主要内容
宪法
名词解释(4*5)
w
1、宪法规范2、全国人大常委会3、国家结构形式4、人大代表人身特别保护权
简答题(1*10)
简述人权与基本权利的关系
刑法
名词解释(4*5)
1、罪责刑相适应原则2、行为犯3、防卫过当4、玩忽职守罪
二、简答题(1*10)
简述绑架罪和抢劫罪的区别
民法
名词解释(4*5)
1、隐名合伙2、身份权3、留置权4、合同解除
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、简答题(1*10)
简述侵权法上过失的概念及其主要判断方法
知识产权法
、名词解释(4*5)
1、网络传播权2、著作权法定许可3、发明的创造性4、商标异议
简答题(1*10)
简述知识产权和物权的区别
诉讼法
、名词解释(2*5)
、禁止双重追究原则2、专属管辖
、简答题(2*10
1、简述犯罪嫌疑人、被告人有权获得辩护的原则
2、简述民事诉讼中的免证事实
经济法
c(n
、名词解释(4*5)
1、中外合资经营企业2、经营者集中3、契税4、资本项日
、简答题(1*10)
简述侵犯商业秘密的表现

国际法
、名词解释(4*5)
1、法则区别说2、公共秩序保留3、CIF4、特许协议
二、简答题(1*10)
简述条约的解释
环境与资源保护法
一、名词解释(4*5)
1、生态中心主义2、海域使用权3、水土流失4、巴赛尔公约
、简答题(1*10)
简述环境管理许可证种类
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2009年中国人民大学法学综合考研试题(六选五)
法理
、名词解释
法的历史类型2.任意性规则3.法的适用4.立法体制
简答
法律原则在法的实施中的作用
法制史
、名词解释
1.明德慎罚2.大清律例3.咨议局4.淮五服以治罪
、简答
清末《十九信条》的内容。
宪法
名词解释
1.物质帮助权2.宪法关系3.村民委员会4.制宪权
、简答:我国选举权的普遍性原则。

刑法
名词解释:
从犯2.立功3.妨害公务罪(4.假冒注册商标罪
n.
、简答:犯罪中止的成立要件
民法
名词解释
隐私权2.权利质权3.法定继承4.无名合同
简答:民事责任竞合的概念和法律后果。
诉讼法
名词解释
酌定不起诉2.代表人诉讼
二、简答
刑事法律援助的范闱
2.民事诉讼辩论原则
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2008年人大法学综合课试题第一版
法理部分
、名词解释
法制立法程序保护性法律关系限制解释
简答
简述坚持党的领导和依法治国的关系
法制史部分
名词解释
大理寺官当礼法之争六法全书,
、简答
西汉文景时期的刑制改革
宪法部分
名词解释
自治条理结社自由
宪法惯例爱国统一战线
、简答

简述国家主席的职权
民法部分
名词解释
ocin.
违约金,付条件的法律行为一般人格
事侵权赔偿,
、简答
简述物权法定原则
刑法部分
名词解释
累犯,想象竞合犯交通肇事罪,挪用公款罪
简答
教唆犯的处理原则
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2008年人大法学综合课试题第二版
法理(30)
、名词解释
法的规范性解释调整性法律关系相对确定性规则
简答:法治与法制的区别
中国法制史(30
名词解释
铸刑鼎三法司朝审改法为律
简答:战国时期<法经>的内容及历史地位
宪法(30)
、名词解释
民族自治地方选区行政法规言论免责权
简答:我国的宪法监
刑法(30
巴C(n
、名词解释
假释结果加重犯遗弃罪侵占罪
、简答
犯罪预备、犯罪未遂、犯罪中止的区别
ocin.
民法(30”)
名词解释
要式行为侵权归责原则简易交付宅基地使用权
、简答:合同法定解除权成立的条件
诉讼法(30’)
、名词解释:
刑事诉讼终止申请执行时效
简答
1、不追究刑事责任的情形
2、民事诉讼诚信原则
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2007年人大法学综合考试
说明:本试题分法理学、中国法制史、宪法、刑法、民法、诉讼法六个部分,每部分30分。根
据专业要求,报考法学理论、法律史、宪法学与行政法学、刑法学、民商法学、诉讼法学专业的考生
不回答本专业的试题,选答其它五个部分(注意看每部分的提示),知识产权法专业的考生不回答民
法部分;其它专业的考生任选其中五个部分,总分150分。
法理学部分(共30分,报考法学理论专业的考生不答此部分)
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1.系统解释2.法系3.规范性法律文件
4.法的制定
简答题(10分)
简述法律意识与法的关系
中国法制史部分(共30分,报考法律史专业的考生不答此部分)
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1.九刑
廷尉
朝审
4.《唐六典
、简答题(10分)
简述《中华民国临时约法》的主要内容。
宪法部分(共30分,报考宪法学与行政法学专业的考生不答此部分)
名词解释(每题5分,共20分
特别行政区
人身自由
3.民族自治机关
4.宪法性法律
简答题(10分)
简述公民在法律面前一律平等原则的具体内涵
刑法部分(共30分,报考刑法学专业的考生不答此部分)
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1.主犯
2.剥夺政治权利3.侵犯著作权罪4.强迫职工劳动罪
简答题(10分)
简述我国刑法关于死刑核准权的规定
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民法部分(共30分,报考民商法学专业、知识产权法专业的考生不答此部分)
一、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
无权代理
债权人代位权3.共同危险行为
保护作品完整权
简述题(10分)
简述担保物权的特征
诉讼法部分(共30分,报考诉讼法学专业的考生不答此部分)
名词解释(每题5分,共10分)
1.保释
2.中间判决
、简述题(每题10分,共20分
1.简述不追究刑事责任的情形
2.简述民事执行终结的情形
法理学(含法理学与配方法律思想史)
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.法律意识2.法的形成
3.成文法
4.类推适用
平权型法律关系
6.社会连带关系
简答题(每题15分,共60分)

简述大陆法系和普通法系的不同特点
2.简述法律规范的基本特征
3.法律责任不同于政治责任和道义责任的主要特点有哪些
4.哈特是如何分析法律与道德的关系的?
ocIn.
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分)
论司法机关依法独立行使职权的原则。
试论德沃金的公民权利观及其意义。
中外法制史
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.谋叛
2.秋审处
3.发遣
种姓制度5.《教会法大全》6.衡平法
、简述题(每题15分,共60分)
简述《法经》的结构与主要内容。
2.简述《明大诰》的结构与主要内容
3.简述《中华民国临时约法》的制定背景
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4.简述罗马法复兴的原因和意义
论述题(每题30分,共60分
试论清末领事裁判权制度的特点。2.评述《魏玛宪法》的特点及其历史地位
宪法与行政法
、名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.规范宪法
穷尽法律救济原则
、社会保障权
4.全国人大常委会委员长会议
5.行政强制执行
6.行政合同
简答题(每题15分,共60分)
简述宪法与条约的关系
2.简述制宪权的界限
3.简述违法与违宪的联系与区
c(n
4.简述行政相对人参与的权利内容
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分
1.请运用宪法学原理对收容遣送制度进行分析
cin.
2.请分析政府信赖利益保护原则
中国刑法
、名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.刑法
2.普遍管辖
3.间接正犯
4.抽象危险犯
5.战时缓刑
6.组织乞讨罪
简答题(每题15分,共60分
1.简述单位犯罪的成立要件
2.简述不成立自首的情形
简述“致人死亡”的刑法性质
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4.简述抢劫罪的加重情形。
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分)
试论犯罪故意的认定。
2.论强奸罪的对象
中国民商法
、名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.法人拟制说
2.不动产
3.根本违约
4.股东代表诉讼
5.破产管理人
6.遗嘱能力
、简答题(每题15分,共60分)
简述一般人格权的基本功能。
2.简述保险合同的成立与生效。
3.简述流质契约的禁止
in
4.简述公司间交叉持股的危害及立法解决办法
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分)
1.论物权法定的
论侵权法上的
s.
刑事诉讼法和民事诉讼法
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.附带民事诉讼2.暂缓起诉3.再审不加刑原则
4.强制答辩
5.间接反证6.无独立请求权第三人
、简述题(每题15分,共60分
1.简述辩护人的任务和地位
2.简述刑事二审全面审查原则
3.简述妨害民事诉讼强制措施的适用。
4.简述民事诉讼法第219条申请执行期限的性质
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分)
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1.论死刑复核程序的改革和完善。
论非讼程序的程序原理与诉讼程序的差异
物证技术学
解释下列专业术语(每题4分,共40分)
1、物证双联性
2、痕迹造型体
3、不可见光摄影
、射击距离
5、整体分离痕迹
6、牙齿痕迹
7、足迹的形态特征
8、声纹鉴定
9、文书物证
10、化学物证
、如何处理现场发现的物证?(15分)
三、试述物证技术学与侦查学的关系。(15分)
四、试述被撕碎文书物证的整复方法。(15分)
五、如何根据现场上车辆痕迹判断车行方向?(15分
六、概述爆炸物证鉴定的主要方法。(15分)

七、试述影响印文特征变化的因素。(15分)
八、笔迹的一般特征和细节特征有哪些?笔迹鉴定时,如何评价笔迹特征的符合点及差异点?(20分)
普通物理和普通化学(本科目考试允许考生使用计算器)
普通物理部分
In.
、长度为L的绳子,一端系一质量为M的小球,另一端挂于光滑水平面上的H(H球在水平面上以Nr/s作匀速圆周运动时,水平面上受多少正压力?为了使小球不离开水平面,求
N的最大值Nm。(15分)
、当地球处于远日点时,到太阳的距离为1.52×10米,轨道速度为2.93×10米/秒。半年后,地球
位于近日点,到太阳的距离为1.47×10米。求:(1)地球在近日点时的轨道速度;(2)两种情况下,
地球的角速度。(15分
带电粒子经过加速电压加速后,其速度增大。已知电子的质量M9.11×10Kg,电荷量绝对值e
1.6×10C。(1)假设电子质量与速度无关,把静止电子加速到光速要多高的电压?(2)若考虑
电子质量随速度而变化,那么静止电子经过上述电压加速后,其速度是多少?它是光速c的百分之
几?(15分)
四、一铜棒的横截面积为20×80mn,长2.0m,两端的电势差为50mV。已知铜的电导率Y=5.7×10S/m
铜内自由电子的电荷体密度为1.36×10°C/m3.求:(1)它的电阻;(2)电流;(3)电流密度;(4)
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棒内的电场强度;(5)所消耗的功率;(6)棒内电子的漂移速度。(15分
五、如何用实验的方法区别自然光、线偏振光、圆偏振光、椭圆偏振光以及部分偏振光?(15分)
普通化学部分
六、用碳酸钠溶液处理碘化银沉淀,使之转化为碳酸银沉淀。这一反应的标准平衡常数是多少?如果在
1.0升碳酸钠溶液中要溶解θ.010摩尔碘化银,碳酸钠的最初浓度应为多少?这种转化能否实现?[已
知:Ka(AgI)=8.3×10;K(AgCO3)=8.1×10“](15分)
七、已知下列标准电极电势:(15分)
E=0.337V
Cu'te=Cut
E=0.159V
(1)计算25C时反应Cu(s)+Cu(aq)=2Cu(aq)的标准平衡常数
(2)已知K(CuC1)=1.2×10-,试计算25C时反应
Cu (s)+Cu (ag )+2Cl
2CuCl(s)的平衡常数
八、列出下面两组物质熔点由高到低的次序并给出理由:(10分)
(1) NaF, NaCl, NaBr, Nal
(2)Ba0, SrO, Ca0, MgO
九、为什么配制SnCl2溶液时必须加盐酸和锡粒?(10分)
十、某烃分子式为C,可与1mol氢加成,经臭氧化分解得到二醛OHC-CH(CH3)-CHl-CH2-CH(CH)-CHo
推出该烃结构。(10分)
十一、(1)比较下列化合物的分子式

①正己烷和环己烷
1一己烯和环己烯
(2)通常怎样可以从分子式和不饱和度推算出化合物中环的数目?(共8分)
十二、写出分子式为CHBr的所有构造异构体,用普通命名法或系统命名法给以命名。并指出何为第一级
第二级及第三级溴代烷。(7分)
经济法学
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
1.一般经济责任制
2.经济管理主体
3.商业秘密
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4.反垄断法适用除外制度5.增值税
6.资本充足率
简述题(每题15分,共60分)
简述巴塞尔《新资本协议》确立的“三大支柱”的主要内容。
2.简述横向限制竞争行为的主要表现形式
3.简述产品质量法的归责原则。
4.简述新《企业破产法》规定的职工债权的清偿顺序及其立法原因。
论述题(每题30分,共60分
1.论财政法在构建社会主义和谐社会中的地位与作用
2.从经济法的角度论述国家对房地产市场的管理和调控
环境法学
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
国家环境保护职责
2.可持续发展能力
3.清洁生产
4.环境要素污染
5.水土保持
6.自然保护区
ocn
简答题(每题15分,共60分)
简述环境保护概念的发展
2.简述环境标准的分类
3.简述政府防治大气污染的基本职责

4.简述生态环境及其构成要素
论述题(每题30分,共60分
1.试述环境影响评价的效力及法律责任
2.试述环境侵权的特征
国际法学(含国际公法、国际私法、国际经济法)
、名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
诉讼费用担保制度2.国家责任
3.领海
4. WBG
5.间接反致
6.外国法内容查明
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简述题(每题15分,共60分
简述冲突规范软化处理的方式及意义
简述《联合国国际货物买卖合同公约》中规定的卖方知识产权担保义务
3.简述国际经济组织的特征、种类及其发展趋势
4.简述国际法的性质
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分)
论述国家及其财产豁免原则的历史演变及最新发展。
2.论述国际人权法的新发展
知识产权法
名词解释(每题5分,共30分)
追续权
优先权
3.表演权
4.著作人格权
5.防御商标
Ocn
6.新颖性
简述题(每题15分,共60分)
邻接权与著作权的关系
燃.
2.专利
3.商标
4.地理标志、原产地名称、产地名称的关系
三、论述题(每题30分,共60分
1.反不正当竞争法同知识产权法的关系
权利限制制度在知识产权法中的作用和地
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2006年人大法学综合课试题
法理学部分,共30分(报考法学理论专业的考生不答此部分)。
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1.法的价值
2.法律原则3.法的适用
4.学理解释
二、简答题(10分)
简述法与国家权力的相互关系
中国法制史部分,共30分(报考法律史专业的考生不答此部分)。
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1保辜
2六杀3.内乱
4.法部
简答题(共10分)
简述《钦定宪法大纲》的结构和主要内容
in
宪法学部分,共30分(报考宪法学与行政法学专业的考生不答此部分)
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
宪法渊源
行政区划3.宗教信仰自由
二、简答题(10分)
中央人民政府对特别行政区行使哪些主要职权?
刑法部分,共30分(报考刑法学专业的考生不答此部分)。
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1犯罪中止
2犯罪对象3.自首
4抢劫罪
、简答题(10分)
简述附加刑的概念及其种类。
民法部分,共30分(报考民商法学专业的考生不答此部分)。
名词解释(每题5分,共20分
1请求权
2物权法定原则3预期违约
4署名权
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一通手册
、简答题(10分)
筍述共同侵权行为及其责任。
诉讼法部分,共30分(报考诉讼法学专业的考生不答此部分)。
名词解释(每题5分,共10分)
1.直接言词原则2诉讼和解
简答题(每题10分,共20分)
1简述讯问犯罪嫌疑人的程序。
2简述民事诉讼中的被告人答辩。
2005年人大法学综合课试题
法理学部分
、名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、法的历史类型2、立法技术、3、法规清理4、法律事实

简答(10分
简述法律调整的过程
中国法制史部分
w
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
、五听2、录囚3、大清新刑律4、领事裁判权
、简答(10分)
简述“礼之所去,刑之所取,出礼则入刑”的含义。
宪法学部分
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
地方性法规2、宪法解释3、国家结构形式4、人大代表人身特别保护权
简答(10分)
我国民族自治地方与特别行政区的主要区别。
刑法学部分
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名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、正当防卫2、时效中断3、假释4、职务侵占罪
简答(10分)
简述共同犯罪的概念及其成立条件。
民法学部分
名词解释(每题5分,共20分)
1、双方代理2、人格3、合同解除4、职务发明
、简答(10分)
简述我国物权法基本原则
诉讼法学部分
名词解释(每题5分,共10分)
1、无独立请求权的第三人2、刑事简易程序
简答(每题10分共20分)
in
、简述民事举证责任倒置情形。
简述补充侦查概念及其种类

2004年人大法学综合课试题
法理学部分:(30分)
名词解释:(每题5分,共20分)
1.法律监督2法律解释3.立法程序4.保护性法律关系
二、简答:(10分)
简述社会主义法和民主政治的关系
中国法制史部分:(30分)
名词解释:(每题5分,共20分)
圜土2出入人罪3.通政使司4刑名幕友
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、简答:(10分)
简述从法经《具律》到隋唐律《名例律》的发展演变过程
宪法部分:(30分)
、名词解释:(每题5分,共20分)
1.宪法惯例2违宪司法审查3.言论免责权4国务院
、简答:(10分)
简述我国选举制度的基本原则。
刑法部分:(30分)
名词解释:(每题5分,共20分)
1预备犯2特别累犯3.牵连犯4.重大责任事故罪
、简答:(10分
简述犯罪不作为的概念和构成条件。
in
民法部分:(30分)
名词解释:(每题5分,共20分)
1.附条件的法律行为2质押3.代书遗嘱4邻接权
、简答:(10分)
oocIn.
简述合同法对缔约过失责任的规定。
诉讼法部分:(30分)
名词解释:(每题5分,共10分)
1涉外财产保全2补充侦查
、简答:(每题10分,共20分)
1简述民事诉讼中的缺席判决
2.简述刑事诉讼中的公开审判。
2003年人大法学综合课试题
法理学30分
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名词解释(3*3)
立法程序2.法典编纂3.法律推理
简答题
简述确定法的效力等级通常应遵循那些原则(10分)
2.简要回答违法的构成要件(11分)
中国法制史30分
名词解释3*3
爰书2.六脏3.京察
简答题
1.简述《法经》的主要篇目和内容(10分)
2.简述《大清新刑律》确立的刑罚体系(11分)
宪法25分
名词解释3*3
特别行政区制度2选区3.总理负责制
in
简答题
简述国家主席当选的条件和补缺制度(10分)
2.简述我国公民人身自由的主要内容(11分
刑法25
名词解释3*3
罪刑法定2.没收财产3.抢夺罪
、简答题
简述我国刑法对刑事责任年龄的规定(10分)
2.简述贪污罪的构成特征(11分)
诉讼法25分
、名词解释3*3
诉讼代表人2.代位申请执行3.刑事诉讼管辖
、简答题
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1.简述诉讼财产保全(10分)
2.简述刑事诉讼中的立案监督(11分)
2002年人大法学综合课试题
中国法制史25分
填空题1*4
1,西周“九刑”,一指墨、劓、非、宫、大辟及流、
鞭、赎等九种刑罚
2,“德礼为政教之本,刑罚为政教之用”出自
3,元初把境内居民分为高下四等,依次为:蒙古族人,色目人,汉人和
4,清代仿效《明会典》编定《清会典》,计有康熙、雍正、乾隆
、光绪五部会典。
单项选择2*5
1,“十恶”首次规定于
A,《晋律》
《开皇律
C,《唐律》D,《北齐律》
2,“八议”首次规定于
A,《晋律》B,《曹魏律》C,《北齐律
D,《唐律》
3,“名例律”首次规定于(
A,《晋律》B,《北魏律》C,《北齐律
cm
4,元代中央司法机关中,取代大理寺主持审判的机构是()。
A,大宗正府B,宣政院C,御史台D,刑部
5,清末官制改革将大理寺改为()
A,大理院B,刑部C,法部D,最高法院
判断题1*5
西周中央司法审判机关称为司寇(或大司寇)
2,汉武帝时凡官吏私自到诸侯国任官的,依《左官律》给予刑事处罚。--
3,在朝堂之上杖责大臣的“廷杖”制度盛行于清朝。--
4,朱元璋修定的《明大诰》共四编。
5,《大清现行刑律》分总则和分则两编,后附《暂行章程》五条。
四,名词解释3*2
1,《宋刑统》
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2,九卿“圆审”
宪法25分
名词解释3*
言论自由2,宪法结构3,议会制
简答题8*2
1,公民受教育权的基本特征
2,国务院总理负责制与民主集中制原则的关系
刑法25
名词解释3*3
1,犯罪故意2,连续犯3,玩忽职守罪
,简答题8*2
简述犯罪的不作为
2,简述重大责任事故罪的构成特征
in
民法25分
,解释下列概念3*3
w
1,提存2,遗赠3,同时履行抗辩权
简答题8*2
1,简述诉讼时效中断的法定事由和效力
2,简述财产所有权的民法保护
诉讼法25分
,名词解释3*4
1,管辖权的转移2,执行异议3,立案监督4,自诉案件
,简答题(6+7=13)
1,简述民事诉讼中当事人所享有的诉讼权利
2,简述讯问犯罪嫌疑人的程序
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2001年人大法学综合课试题
中国法制史部分
解释下列名词
1、禁榷2、凌迟3、厂卫
、填空
、西周时期把过失犯罪称为眚,故意犯罪称为非眚
2、《晋律》又称为泰始律或张杜律。
3、南京国民政府时期司法审判采用三级三审的体制。
单项选择
1、汉《九章律》在《法经》六篇基础上増加了
A.盗贼
杂律

吏律
2、廷杖制度盛行于时期。
唐朝B.宋朝C.秦朝D.明朝
中国共产党制定的《中国土地法大纲》颁布于时期。
A.士地革命时期B.抗战争时期C.解放战争时期D.新中国成立初期
四、简述《唐律》中“十恶”制度的主要内容
宪法部分
、名词解释
1、联邦制2、行政区划3、选民
简答题
1、简述我国宪法对公民个人财产权的保障
2、简述自治条例和单行条例的制定条件和制定程序
刑法部分
、名词解释
、过于自信的过失2、结合犯3、巨额财产来源不明罪
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、简答题
1、简述数罪并罚的几种不同情况
2、简述诈骗罪的构成特征
民法部分
、解释下列概念并举例说明
1、演绎作品2、转继承3、用益物权
简答题
1、简述附条件民事法律行为中所附条件应符合的法律要求
2、简述我国《合同法》对债权人撤销权的规定
诉讼法
,名词解释(2分*5题)
1,人民调解委员会2,先予执行3,委托调查4,提起公诉5,辩护
,简答题(5分*3提
,简述人民法院在民事案件调解达成协议后可以不制作调解书的儿种情况
2,简述人民法院可以适用简易程序的刑事案件种类
3,简述刑事诉讼法规定的一审刑事判决的种类。
WWWm人达考COm
中法史
判断题(1分*5题)
1,商代前期在继承上实行“兄终弟及”制度。
2,邓析综合各国法律,编成刑书刻在竹简上,称为“竹刑
汉武帝时官吏私自到诸侯国任官,依《左官律》给予刑罚。
4,在朝堂之上杖责大臣的“廷杖”制度盛行于清朝
5,《中华民国临时约法》又称“袁记约法”。
,单项选择(1分*2题)
1,“重罪十条”首次规定于
《北齐律》B,《魏律》C,《唐律》D,《晋律》
2,清末官制改革将大理寺改为
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A,大理院B,刑部C,法部D,最高法院
三,多项选择(2*2)
1,西周时司法制度中的“五听”包括:
A,辞听B,色听C,耳听D,心听
2,清代秋审结果包括:
A,情实B,缓决C,可衿
可疑
四,名词解释(3*3)
八议”2,《唐律》3,《明大诰》
五,简答题(5分)
简述《宋刑统》的结构特点
宪法
名词解释(3*3
1,言论免责权2,宪法惯例3,自治条例
填空题(1分*10)
人民行使国家权力的机关是
n
2,中华人民共和国有休息的权利。
3,全国人民代表大会由省,自治区,直辖市和选出的代表组成
4,全国人大有权改变或者撤销全国人大常委会的决定
In.
5,全国人大举行会议的时候,选举主持会议。
6,国家主席,副主席都缺位的时候,由全国人大补选,在补选以前,由暂时代理主席职位
7,中华人民共和国国务院,即,是最高国家权力机关的
,是
三,简答题(6分)
简述特别行政区基本法的地位
刑法
名词解释(3*3)
,犯罪构成2,牵连犯3,受贿罪
,简答题(8*2题)
,简述罪刑法定原则在刑法中的体现。
2,简述拒不执行判决,裁定罪的构成特征
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诉讼法
,名词解释(3*4题)
1,犯罪嫌疑人2,上诉不加刑3,集团诉讼4,先予执行
简答题(13分)
简述刑事诉讼中的不起诉制度。(7分)
2,简述民事诉讼中的共同诉讼。(6分)
1999年人大法学综合试题
宪法
,名词解释(3*3)
选举制度2,结社自由3,民族自治地方
填空(1*6)
l,中华人民共和国公民在年老,或者的情况下,有从国家和社会取得物质帮助的权利。
2,国务院有权撤销或者改变各部,委发布的不适当的命令,和。
3,在直接选举中,选民人以上联名,可以推荐代表候选人
4,国家保护私营经济的合法的权利和利益,对私营经济实行,监督和管理。
简答题(5分*2题)
1,特别行政区与中央的关系

2,宪法关系及其特点
刑法
判断题(1分*5)
1,故意犯罪,应当负刑事责任
2,共同犯罪是指二人以上共同犯罪
3,如果被教唆的人没有犯教唆的罪,对于教唆犯,应当从轻或者减轻处罚
4,没收财产以前犯罪分子所负的债务,需要以没收的财产偿还的,应当偿还
,告诉才处理案件的被害人因受强制,威吓无法告诉的,人民检察院和被害人的近亲属也可以告诉
填空题(1*10)
1,中华人民共和国成立以后刑法施行以前的行为,如果当时的法律不认为是犯罪的,适用
2,过失犯罪,
负刑事责任
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3,紧急避险超过必要限度造成不应有的损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是」
4,对于被胁迫参加犯罪的,应当减轻处罚或者免除处
5,对于犯罪情节轻微不需要判处刑罚的,可以
6,犯危害国家安全罪的,可以并处。
犯组织,领导和积极参加恐怖活动组织罪并实施杀人,爆炸,绑架等犯罪的,依照
的规定处罚。
8,假冒注册商标罪是指未经注册商标所有人许可,在
使用与其注册商标相同的商标,情节严重的
行为。
9,收买被拐卖的妇女,儿童又出卖的,依照定罪处罚。
10,因被勒索给予国家工作人员以财物,没有的,不是行贿
三,简答题(5分*2题)
剥夺政治权利的适用对象。
2,挪用资金罪的构成特征
中法史
,解释下列名词(3*3)
1,典卖2,十九信条3,“五?四指示
n豆
单项选择(2*2)
1,西周时期,实行的婚姻制度。
A,一夫多妻制B,一夫多妾制C,一夫一妻制D,嫡长子继承制
2,《易笞条例》是/时期制定的恢复答刑的单行法规

A,三国两晋南北朝B,明朝洪武C,清朝雍正D,北洋政府
三,多项选择(2分*3题)
1,春秋战国时期公布成文法运动的成果包括等。
A,铸刑书B,约法三章C,竹刑D,铸刑鼎E,《法经》
2,按唐律的规定,“十恶”重罪包括等严重犯罪。
A,谋反B,谋大逆C,通行饮食D,大不敬E,不义
3,在国民党“六法”体系中,有基本法典的法律部分有
A,宪法B,民法C,民事诉讼法D,刑法E,刑事诉讼法
四,简答题(6分)
简要说明唐律中关于“化外人”犯罪的规定
诉讼法:
名词解释(3分*4题)
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1,侦査终结2,延期审理3,公示催告程序4,暂缓执行
简答题(13分)
1,简述刑事诉讼中的立案监督。(7分)
2,简述第二审人民法院对民事上诉案件的处理方法。(6分)
1998年人大法学综合试题
宪法
,名词解释(3*3)
特别行政区2,民族区域自治制度3,言论自由
填空(1*6)
1,我国现行宪法规定,国务院设立的审计机关在领导下,依法独立行使权,不受其他行政机关
社会团体和个人的干涉
2,我国现行宪法规定,全国人大代表在全国人大各种会议上
和不受法律追究
3,我国现行宪法须由全国人大常委会或以上的全国人大代表提议,并经全国人大全体代表的以
上多数通过
简答题(5*
rew.
,如何理解选举权的平等性原则
2,我国为什么要实行单一制国家结构形式?
中法史
解释下列名词(3*3)
1,眚2,丁忧3,会审公廨
单项选择(2*2)
1,秦朝时适用等残酷的刑罚
A,凌迟B,具五刑C,刺配D,戮尸
2,在清代
可以处理满人诉讼
A,审刑院B,理藩院C,大宗正府D,内务府慎刑司
多项选择(2*3题)
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唐律规定的保护官僚贵族特权的制度包括
A,请B,赎C,官当D,自首减罪
2,明代的特务机构包括
礼监B,东厂C,内行厂D,步军统领衙门
3,解放战争时期土地改革的原则是
依靠贫雇农
团结中农C,正确对待地主富农D,保护工商业者
四,简答题(6分)
简述西周时期司法诉讼中的“五听”制度
刑法
填空题(10分)
1,正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成
损失的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
2,对于预备犯,可以比照
从轻,减轻或者免除处罚
3,凡在中华人民共和国船舶或者
内犯罪的,也适用《中华人民共和国刑法》
4,刑罚的
应当与犯罪分子所犯罪行和承担的刑事责任相适应
5,拘役的期限,为
以上6个月以下
6,犯罪的时候不满18周岁的人和审判的时候怀孕的妇女,不适用」

7,有期徒刑的缓刑考验期限为原判刑期以上5年以下,但是不能少
8,三人以上为共同实施犯罪而组成的较为牢固的犯罪组织,是
9,国家工作人员利用职务上的便利
他人财物的,或者非法收受他人财物,为他人谋取利益的,
是受贿罪,
10,盗窃罪,是指以非法占有为目的,秘密窃取数额较大的财物或者」
盗窃公私财物的行为
二,判断题(5分)
1,对于危害国家安全的犯罪分子应当附加剥夺政治权利。
2,犯罪以后自动投案,如实供述自己的罪行的,是自首。
3,对于累犯,不得假释
4,尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人犯罪的,不负刑事责任。
5,任何犯罪的既遂,都应以犯罪结果是否发生作为判断标准
简答题(5分*2题
,犯罪客体与犯罪对象的区别。2,一般累犯的构成条件。
诉讼法
1,中级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件。(3分)
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2,民诉中的回避问题应当由谁决定。(3分)
3,民诉中的当事人,法定代理人可以委托哪些人作为诉讼代理人。(3分)
4,民诉法要求起诉状应当写明哪些事项。(3分)
5,人民法院对哪些被告人可以指定辩护律师,对哪些被告人应当指定辩护律师。(4分)
6,被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人,被告人应当遵守哪些规定。(3分)
7,合议庭对刑事案件进行评议后应作出哪些判决。(3分)
8,人民法院对哪些刑事案件可以适用简易程序。(3分)
1997年人大法学综合试题
中国法制史(法制史专业考生不答此部分)
简要回答下题(共6分
简述清末修律过程中对刑法的修订
n
、解释下列名词(每小题3分,共9分)
城旦舂
rww
左官律
、单项选择(每小题2分,共4分)
1.《宋刑统》中正式规定
A.凌迟刑B.腰斩刑C.折杖法D.充军刑
2.明代的刑部是中央
机构。
A.主审
B.司法行政
C.复核
D.监察
四、多项选择(每小题2分,共6分)
1.汉《九章律》是在《法经》基础上增加
等篇而成,故称《九章律》
A.户律B.兴律C.金布律D.厩律
2.北洋政府时期制定的重要宪法文件有
A.临时约法B.袁记约法C.天坛宪草D.贿选宪法
3.新民主主义革命的三大经济纲领是
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A.保护民族工商业B.实行减减息C.没收地主土地归农民所有D.没收官僚资本
宪法(宪法专业考生不答此部分)
名词解释(每题3分,共9分)
刚性宪法自治条例总统制
填空题(每空1分,共5分)
任何组织或个人不得
或者以其他形式土地。土地权可依照法律的规定转让。
2.国务院实行负责制。
三、简答题(第1小题6分,第2小题5分,共11分)
1.怎样保障我国宪法的实施?
2.香港特别行政区基本法的性质和地位是什么?
民法(民法专业考生不答此部分)
判断正误,并在题后括号内注明“正确”或“错误”(每小题1分,共5分)
1.有限责任公司必须由五人以上组成。()
合同无效,为其设立的担保自然无效。()
3.专利权人只能是发明人
n
4.支票是资本证券。()
5.引起诉讼时效中止的原因都是当事人主观意志以外的客观情况。()
、名词解释(每题2分,共8分
除斥期间
继受取得
招标
提单
in.
三、简述题(每题6分,共12分)
简述著作权的内容。
2.简述抵押权与质权的区别
诉讼法(诉讼法专业考生不答此部分)
1.民事诉讼中专属管辖包括哪些案件?(3分)
2.民事诉讼中对哪些案件可行予执行?(3分)
3.民事诉讼中的起诉条件?(3分)
4.民事诉讼中不宜分开审理的案件。(3分)
5.人民检察院立案侦査的案件。(3分)
6.刑事诉讼中保证人的条件。(3分)
些人不能担任辫护人。(3分)
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8.违反哪些法定诉讼程序刑事案件要重新审判。(4分)
刑法(刑法专业考生不答此部分)
填空(每空1分,共4分)
准备工具,制造条件的,是犯罪预
2.对于犯罪情节轻微
的,可以免予刑事处分
3.死刑只适用于
的犯罪分子
4.明知是犯罪所得的赃物而销售的,是销赃罪
、判断正误(正确的请在()内打“√”,错误的请在()内打“×”,每题1分,共5分)。
1.已满14岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。()
2.对于主犯,应当从重处罚。(
3.判处罚金,应当根据犯罪情节决定罚金数额。()
4.国家工作人员犯诬陷罪的,从重处罚。(
5.包庇毒品犯罪分子的,以包庇罪论处。(
in
简述题(每小题8分,共16分)
1.试述缓刑与假释的异同
2.试述抢劫罪与抢夺罪的异同

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、复试细则
中国人民大学考研,所有的考生在初试备考中,只有一个敌人,那就是分数线!或者说是你自己!因为
只要你努力备考,分数达到了复试线,就可以进入复试,不管是哪个专业
初试每年的成绩出的时间大约都是3月5号
3月5日公布硕士生入学考试初试成绩
3月14日公布《2011年中国人民大学法学院法学硕士研究生入学考试复试办法》
以及《法学院2011年法学硕士研究生入学考试复试名单》
3月25-28日硕士生复试、体检。
由于知道成绩到参加复试只有二十天的时间,而且知道复试名单到参加复试只有十天的时间,所以,对
于有希望进复试的同学,务必要在出成绩之前就做准备,毕竟复试的淘汰率每年也都挺高
人大的复试很传统,分为四大板块。参考2012年的复试办法,复试成绩总分是350分,由外语笔试(满
分50分)、专业课笔试(满分100分)、外语听力和口语(满分50分)、专业课与综合素质面试(满分150
分)四部分构成。复试合格必须为四个部分都过复试合格线才准予录取,如果有一部分不合格,哪怕初试和
复试的总分再高,也不予录取。四部分的合格线分别为:30、60、30、90。复试的各科相加,再加上初试成
绩就是最后的成绩。复试各科与初试一样都需要达到合格线才行,一般是609
复试比例:通常是1比1.2到1比1.5。复试比例的意思是统考拟录取的人数比进入复试的人数。也就是
如果拟录人数是100人,那么进入复试的人数就控制在120到150人之间
复试名单排名:只要过了复试线,而且各科没有受限制的情况,就可以进入复试!复试名单的排列方法
是先按照专业排名,然后专业排名里再按照成绩排名!专业的先后顺序是:法理,法制史,宪政,刑法,民
商法,诉讼法,经济法,环境资源法,国际法和知识产权。
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2012年中国人民大学法学院法学硕士研究生入学考试复试办法
为确保招收硏究生的质量,根据学校的有关规定,结合我院的实际,制定此次法学硕士研究
生入学考试复试办法
第一条目的与原则按照公平、公正、公开、有效的原则,开展法学硕士研究生入学考
试复试工作,以确保招收研究生的质量。
第二条组织管理本院按学校的有关规定成立复试工作领导小组(以下简称复试领导小
组),负责组织木院法学硕士硏究生入学考试复试工作。复试领导小组指定本院教师组成各专业
复试组,负责本专业硕士研究生入学考试的专业课与综合素质的面试等工作。学院研究生教学
管理秘书负责复试领导小组指定的复试具体事务。
第三条复试对象复试对象是报考本院相关专业、参加当年全国法学硕士研究生统一考
试、成绩达到学校划定的专业分数标准,经学院复试小组审査复核,报硏究生院审批后确定的
考生。我院此次法学硕士研究生入学考试实行差额复试,差额比例按学校的有关规定确定。
第四条复试基本内容和形式
1)外语和专业课笔试。重点考察考生的分析问题与解决问题的能力,检测学生是否具备继
续学习深造的学科基础。采取闭卷考试形式。考试时间为3.5小时,其中专业课笔试时间为2.5
小时,满分为100分;外语笔试时间为1小时,满分为50分
(2)外话听力和口语水平测试。满分为50分。考生以抽签方式确定口试题目,每名考生
试时间为10分钟左右。
(3)专业课与综合素质面试。由专业课与综合素质面试两部分组成,采用考生当场抽签
场回答题签所列问题和复试小组教师现玚提问、考生当场答问的形式。每名考生面试时间为30
分钟左右。满分为150分
(4)综合素质面试主要考察考生分析解决问题和口头表达的能力,了解其对专业课以外的其
他知识技能的掌握情况,以及科研能力与已取得的科研成果(如已公开发表的论文等);同时,
还要考察考生政治思想、道德修养、兴趣爱好、心理素质等方面的情况。
第五条复试时间与流程
1、报到时间:3月23日上午8:30--16:30
报到地点:明德法学楼二层大厅
所有考生报到时须携带本人有效身份证件、准考证、复试通知书。往届生须带学历证书原
件及复印件、学位证书原件及复印件。应届生须带学生证原件及复印件、本科成绩单原件及复
印件。
2、英语笔试和专业课笔试
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考试时间:3月24日上午8:30-12:05
8:30-11:00专业课笔试
11:05-12:05英语笔试(不含听力)
考试地点:报到时在明德法学楼二层大厅查看考试地点及考场规则。
考生须携带本人有效身份证明、复试通知、准考证进入考场。
3、英语听力和口语测试:
面试时间:3月24日13:30开始
面试地点:报到时在明德法学楼二层大厅查看通知
4、专业课和综合素质面试
面试时间:3月24日13:30开始
面试地点:当天在明德法学楼501备考室查看
第六条复试成绩的评定
1、专业课笔试结束后,由院复试领导小组组织阅卷评定。
2、英语听力和口语测试、专业课和综合素质面试的成绩,在考生回答完问题后,由复试
小组的每一位教师当场分别独立评定。
第七条复试合格标准及成绩计算
1.外语笔试30分以上,专业课笔试60分以上,外语听力和口语水平测试30分以上,专
业课与综合素质面试90分以上,即为复试合格。
2.经院复试领导小组及其工作人员对面试成绩进行复审确认复试合格后,将考生专业课
复试笔试成绩、专业课与综合素质面试成绩、外语听力和口语成绩相加,得出复试成绩.
3.各项复试成绩均合格的,将各项成绩与初试成绩加权求和后形成入学考试总成绩。其
中,初试成绩占60%,复试成绩占40%。
第八条法学硕士研究生的录取
1、严格按各专业考生入学考试总成绩的排名顺序录取法学硕士研究生
tom
2、复试期间发现考生不符合报考条件、或存在替考、舞弊等不符合录取要求问题的,坚
决不予录取
第九条其他事项
1、对未予录取的考生,我院将在复试结束后3天内及时向考生本人发出未予录取通知。
2、考生可于规定时间内在研究生院网上査询复试总成绩。
3、复试期间的食宿费、往返路费由考生承担。
4、报到时另行通知体检安排
国人民大学法学院
2012年3月12日
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中国人民大学诉讼法学考研专业课复试参考书推荐
重要提醒:以下的参考书为复试的参考书,不是初试的参考书!由于复试拔高性的特点,所以会有适当
拓展的推荐或者专著的推荐,但是推荐的这些书目不是必然要看完的,甚至也是可以不看的!至于看多少,
如何看,根据自己的时间和基础决定!核心教材必须看透彻!拓展教材可以酌情看
诉讼法专业复试参考书目
核心教材
民事诉讼法(第五版)作者:江伟人民大学出版社
刑事诉讼法(第二版)作者:陈卫东人民大学出版社
拓展教材
江伟:民事诉讼法专论,人大

陈卫东:刑事诉讼法学研究,人大
王新清等:刑事诉讼程序研究,人大
何家弘、张卫平:简明证据法学,中国人民大学出版
cin.
何家弘:证据法学研究,中国人民大学出版社
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2014年人民大学诉讼法学硕士备考一本通手册
中国人民大学法学院研究生基本奖学金管理实施细则
注:由于研究生教育制度的改革,已经没有公费自费的区别,所以,奖学金评定每年一次,
研一的奖学金是由考研成绩和表现决定,研二的奖学金是由研一的成绩和表现决定。因此建议
大家,一旦成功考入人大,一定要以学习为重,并且充分把握好二年的深造时间,多读书、多
思考、多向老师和同学学习,希望在两年后毕业的时候,能够有这人大人的自豪和骄傲!
第一章总则
第一条
根据《中国人民大学研究生培养机制改革试行方案》,参照《中国人民大学研究生基本奖学金
管理实施细则》,特制定本管理实施细则。
第二条
研究生基本奖学金给予在学习、科研中表现较优秀的研究生,基于不同的获奖等级资助研究生在
学期间的学费及部分生活费。
第三条
研究生基本奖学金评定工作自2008级研究生开始,发放对象为基本学制内在校脱产学习的研究
生,不包括各类在职攻读学位的研究生和攻读专业学位的研究生。
第二章
审机构
第四条
法学院设立研究生基本奖学金评审工作小组,由学院主要负责人任组长、学院主管研究生工作的
负责人和导师代表参加,小组一般由5-7人组成。在充分听取导师意见的基础上,负责本学院有
关研究生基本奖学金的初评、汇总、报审等日常工作。学院有专门工作人员负责本院研究生基本
奖学金的具体管理工作
第三章等级设定与金额标准
第五条
研究生基本奖学金的等级设定与金额标准如下表所示
研究生基本奖学金等级设定与金额标准
博士研究生
硕土研究生
奖学金等级
两年制
三年制
元/年元年元/年
特等奖学金
18000
16000
一等奖学金1600
12000
10000
二等奖学金
12000
8000
注:博士研究生、硕士研究生的特等奖学金用于资助拔尖人才,名额由学校统一掌握,不分配到
学院(系),比例不超过5%
第四章基本原则
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第六条
硏究生新生的基本奖学金获得资格及具体等级在入学前复试录取阶段确定
第七条
硕博连读硏究生在注册为博士硏究生之前按照硕士研究生身份参与研究生基木奖学金评定,注册
为博士研究生之后按照博士研究生身份参与研究生基本奖学金评定。
第八条
在校硏究生基本奖学金获得资格实行动态管理,每学年评定一次。每学年第二学期末开始评定,
国际小学期内完成全部评定工作(具体安排参见第五章第十九条)。评定时需综合考虑研究生上
学年的学习成绩与科硏成果。因实行动态管理,一等奖学金、二等奖学金和自筹经费研究生(不
含专业学位研究生)均享受公费医疗。
第九条
在校生的各等级研究生基本奖学金分布比例,参照各年级研究生入学时由学校下达的相应分布比

第十条
研究生获得研究生基本奖学金的年限,不得超过基本学制内的在校学习时间。
第十一条
在校研究生各等级奖学金评定的基本标准
一)获特等奖学金的研究生,其学习成绩应全部达到A级(90分及以上),一学年内用
外文在sCI、SSCⅠ检索期刊或中国人民大学核心期刊(科硏处2004年确定)A类期刊上至少发
表1篇论文;或完成高水平的调研报告:或获得重大科研、创新奖等。
二)获一等奖学金的研究生,原则上其学习成绩应全部达到B级(80分及以上)以上,
其中A级的比例不低于70%;博士研究生一学年内需在专业期刊上至少发表1篇论文或至少取得
项水平相当的科研成果(包括尚未发表的论文、研究报告等),论文和成果水平由导师负责认
定。(期刊目录及级别分类见《中国人民大学核心期刊目录索引》。刊物发表的截止时间为评
选年度7月底。)
三)获二等奖学金的研究生,其学习成绩均为D级(60分及以上)以上,其中,学习成
绩获得B级以上的比例原则上不低于90%
(四)英语提前通过研究生的成绩在原来成绩基础上提高3个等级。(成绩评定等级见《研
究生手册》
(五)法学院评审小组参照上述基本标准,根据硏究生各学期的学习成绩、科硏成果和导师
教研室对其综合评价结果进行评定,所产生的评定结果在法学院网站公示
第十二条
在校研究生如取得了突出的科研成果或获得了重大奖励,法学院奖学金评审工作小组可随时向研
究生奖助金管理办公室提出特等奖学金申请,由学校审核批准
第十三条
研究生在学年内如有违规违纪、考试成绩不及格、学术研究中弄虚作假等行为,应终止其基本奖
学金的发放,并取消该生下一学年基本奖学金参评资格。
第十四条
由于出国等原因办理保留学籍或休学等学籍异动手续的硏究生,待其恢复学籍后再行发放基本奖
学金
第十五条
研究生基本奖学金获奖金额高于应缴学费的部分,是学校为研究生提供的部分生活费。根据《中
国人民大学研究生培养机制改革方案》的要求,获得硏究生基本奖学金的博士研究生在校期间应
至少完成一项“三助”岗位(助教、助管或助研)工作。承担“三助”岗位工作的研究生须分别
接受仼课教师、相关管理部门和导师的考核。考核不合格的,学校将终止其津贴发放,该研宄生
亦不得参评下一学年的研究生基本奖学金,不得再申请“三助”岗位工作。
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第十六条研究生导师在研究生基木奖学金的评审中拥有充分推荐权。
第五章工作程序
第十七条
研究生新生的基本奖学金评定和发放工作
(一)每年研究生新生入学前复试录取阶段,法学院按照既定名额初步确定获得不同级别基
本奖学金的研究生名单,由学校硏究生招生委员会最后审核批准。获奖名单通过研究生招生办公
室进行公布,同时送财务处备案
)获得基本奖学金的研究生新生的基本奖学金的发放:财务处根据研究生新生获奖等级
对新生应缴纳学费进行冲抵。获奖金额高于应缴学费的部分,由财务处在研究生新生入学报到后
按月发放给研究生(一年按10个月计算,7月、8月不发放)。
第十八条
在校研究生的基本奖学金评定和发放工作:
(-)成绩与科研成果信息登录:研究生课程仼课教师在每学期考试结束2周内完成考试成
绩评定及网上登录;科研成果信息由在校生随时登录硏究生院相关网站填报。
)基本奖学金评定工作自7月份第1周开始。研究生填写并提交《中国人民大学法学院
硏究生基本奖学金申请表》、成绩单、以及科研成果原件、复印件,经教务秘书审核后,由各专
业教研室进行初评,初评结果在7月第2周内交奖助工作小组。奖助工作小组参照基本标准,根
据研究生一学年的学习成绩、科研成果、导师意见、教研室意见进行综合评价,确定获奖名单和
等级。评选结果在法学院网上公示一周,第三周内报送研究生奖学金管理办公室。
(三)研究生可在法学院公示期结束前,针对获奖名单向法学院提出异议。研究生基本奖学
金评审工作小组接到研究生异议后,应在3个工作日内做出处理决定。研究生对法学院处理意见
不满意的,可以书面形式向研究生奖助金管理办公室反映,由研究生奖助金管理办公室负责协调
处理
四)法学院公示期结束后,研究生奖助金管理办公室及学院不再接受研究生提出的异议
(五)研究生院在每学年第二学期考试周结束4周内对各学院(系)在校研究生基本奖学金
初评结果进行汇总、审核,并将经审核批准的名单送财务处备案。
(六)基本奖学金发放
财务处依照基本奖学金评定结果,根据在校生获奖等级金额,对其应缴纳的学费进行冲抵
未获基本奖学金的研究生应按照学校要求在指定时间内到财务处缴纳学费;获奖金额高于应缴学
费的部分,由财务处按月发放给研究生。
第六章附则
第十九条
本细则自发布之日起施行,由法学院研究生基本奖学金评审工作小组负责解释。原《中国人民大
学法学院研究生基本奖学金评定细则(试行)》(2007-2008学年)同时废止。
法学院研究生基本奖学金评审工作小组
0-0年七月
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中国人民大学诉讼法学硕士复试真题
由于考研初试是一种选拔性考试,目标就是竭力考个高分,先以高分通过初试,至于复试可先不用过问,
初试过了再思考复试问题,对于自己所报考的专业科目只需在初试备考中相比其他科目稍微加大点复习力度
即可
复试真题:刑事和民事诉讼法笔试(2012-2004)07、05缺
2012年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
1、名词解释(4*5分=20分)
(1)上诉不加刑(2)取保候审(③3)民诉辅助人(4)执行竞合
2、简答题(4*10分=40分)
(1)比较刑事诉讼立案材料来源中的报案和举报。
(2)简述律师在侦查阶段的主要任务
(3)民事诉讼中兔证的事实
docIn.
(4)简述民事诉讼中的法院调解原则。
3、论述题(2*20分=40分)
(1)评析“任何人不得被强迫证明自己有罪”
(2)论述民事诉讼中的处分原则
2011年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
名词解释(4x5’=20)
1、专属管辖2、诉讼标的3、自诉人4、禁止重复追溯
简答题(2x15’=30)
1、简述不起诉的救济和规制途径
2、简述民事诉讼中的免证事由
三、论述题(2x25·=50
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1、论程序法定原则
2、论民事诉讼中的答辩
2010年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
名词解释(4x5’=20)
1、酌定不起诉2、上诉不加刑3、实验性诉讼4、执行异议
简答题(2x15’=30)
1、简述刑诉立案程序中报案和举报的区别
2、简述民诉中证据的合法性
三、论述题(2x25’=50)
1、立案和侦察的关系
民诉中的辩论原则
2009年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试
名词解释
、逮捕;2、必要共同诉讼
、简答题
1、简述人民法院、检察院独立行使职权原则
ocin.
2、简述先予执行。
2008年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
名词解释
1、刑事法律援助2、证据失权3、当事人更换4、诉讼标的
简答题
简述刑事诉讼中控审分离的内容和意义。
2006年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
名词解释
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1、民事诉权2、民事适格3、当事人
简答题
简述死刑复核程序的价值
2004年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(笔试)
名词解释
取保候审
申诉
二、简答题
简述除权判决的形成条件及后果。
复试真题:刑事和民事诉讼法面试(2012-2011)
2012年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(面试)
面试题目:诉讼法面试题目有两道,刑诉和民诉各一道。
1、第二号题目
①评析“任何人不能做自己案件的法官”

②论述民事诉讼当事人适格。
2、①如何理解“看一国是否真正自由,试金石之一就是看他对为那些有罪之人甚至是不齿之徒辩护的人的
态度”这句话?
②民诉证明责任
专业面试形式
抽取试题回答,然后老师展开追问,四位老师大约一人提问一道问题。
2011年人大刑事和民事诉讼法真题(面试)
诉讼法面试真题
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简述民诉中证据的合法性
复试真题:英语(2012)
2012年人大英语复试真题(面试)
()英语笔试详情
英语笔试题为四篇阅读理解加一篇七选五的新题型,总分50分,时间为一个小时。英语笔试比考研英语
略简单一点,时间很紧不可轻视,平时练习时需注意时间的分配并提高答题速度
(英语面试详情
英语面试也有自我介绍,然后即是抽题并回答,题目一般是非法学专业问题。根据具体情况,回答完问题
后老师还会追问几个简单的问题,所问问题也不会涉及法学专业问题。总体来说,英语面试还是比较简单。
面试真题有
1、关于如何交流
2、你最喜欢的节日。
3、作为一个倾听者,需要具备什么样的素质。
经典例子:第七士七号题
作为一个听者滴要具条什么样的索质
ocin.
然后展开追问
之一:有没有做演讲的经历?
之二:怎样使你的演讲让人印象深刻?
之三:你感觉你的肢体表达能力怎么样?
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2010年前人大法学考研复试英语口语面试题集锦
在2010年人大法学考研改革前(不包括2010年),人大法学考研复试外语口语面试直接由法学院的各
专业教研室老师对报考该专业的考生负责,因此复试内容具有很强的专业性(2006年前更是只考査专业问
题,2006年后开始逐渐向非专业性问题倾斜)。2010年后人大法学考研复试的外语口语测试改为由学校外
国语学院老师负责,因此具有法学专业性话题的考查内容很少,而主要是考查非专业性的生活、学习话题
注重测试考生真实的外语口语水平。下附的主要为2010年前人大法学考研复试英语口语面试真题,虽为
2010年前的,但是对现今人大法学考研英语口语面试的指导仍具有重大针对性和指导性
试题集锦:
1, do you like English? Why?
2, do you believe that china should be ruled by the law Why?
3, IF YOU are admitted, what do you plan to do?
4、传统中国人都希望自己的家庭里至少要有个男孩,你如何看待这一问题?
5、你们当地有什么关于婚礼的习俗
6、如何通过公共政策来限制私家车,增加公共汽车?
7、如何应对压力?
8、你做过的最失败的选择是什么?
9、性歧视的原因
10、当今中国的最大问题是什么?
11、如何与别人更好地交流?
12、你的专业与社会的关系密切吗?
12、你觉得做一个合格的听众需要什么特质?
14、你觉得如果在人大学习,你性格中的哪些因素会是你的障碍
15、夫妻之间的职责是什么?
16、谈谈我国的司法体系
17、你认为英语在你的生活中重要吗?
18, In your opinion, what is the most serious problem associated modern life?
19. How do you study English language?
20, Tell som ething about your fam ily
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21, What do you want to achieve in your life in future?
22, What is the best way to learn law in china?
23, Why do you study law?
24 could you tell som ething about the separation of judicial system?
do you think that states has the right to take citizens'lives
26、What' s the best
to learn law in China
27, Talk som ething about WTO?
28, Do you think the legal system need some reform Why?
29、案例教学与板书教学比较?
30、对现行民法体系的看法
31、法律和社会的关系?
32、如果你被录取,你有什么计划?
33、大陆法系与英美法系比较?
34、对司法独立有什么看法?
35、介绍我国的程序制度?
36、介绍我国的律师制度?
37、谈谈学习方法
38、你为什么选择人大为什么来人大上学],为何选择人大法学院
39、你为什么选择法律( why do you want to study law)?
40、两大法系的区别。
41、中国司法制度评价( how do you konw about legal system)
42、法治。
43、法治改革的必要性
44、介绍我国司法制
w
45、法律教育方法的看法(谈谈中国法学教育现状和改进)
46、谈谈我的家庭
47、评价我国的教育制度
48、对联合国的看法?
对我国法律体系的看法
50、你是否认为法官应该遵守法律?
51、毕业以后你想成为律师还是法官
52、谈谈你对民主的认识
53、简要介绍一下什么是福利社会。
54、简要介绍一下你的家庭。
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编后语
考研,需要辛勤的付出,考名校,需要一种气魄,一种力量,最需要的是勇气和信心,坚
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去散散心,不要觉得这是在浪费时间,反而是为了更有效率的学习。“阳光总在风雨后”,在
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