2015 吴耀武 考研英语全攻略-


i will not give you a fish but tell you how to fish
考研英语全攻略
主讲:吴耀武
共同探讨英语人生
dos
量身定做学习计划
紧紧把握考试脉搏
传授英语应试篥略
奠定良好心理基础

培养进取人生态度
WWw.aociN.
目录
考研英语如何复习?
考研英语应试技巧
445
第一部分考研英语词汇全攻略.
第一章基础词汇引申能力的培养
第二章考研英语核心词汇(版权所有:吴耀武)
15
第三章英语构词法(版权所有:吴耀武)
46
2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题…….错误!未定义书签。
吴耀武老师解析2012年考研英语真题….
错误!未定义书签。
doc(n

吴耀武:著名英语教学与测试专家;西安外国语大学国际学院院长;英语副教授;
硕士研究生导师。多次参加国家、省、市命题和阅卷工作。先后在西安外国语大
学(ⅪIsU)、香港岭南大学(HKLU)、上海外国语大学(SHSU)、美国洪堡州
立大学(HSU)、美国北亚历桑那大学(NAU)学习、工作和访问过,先后出访
美国、英国、法国、西班牙、比利时、韩国、泰国、香港等国家地区20余所国
外合作院校。现已出版英语考研《考试专家》系列丛书(西工大出版社)、《21世
纪考研英语》系列丛书(人民日报出版社)、大学英语四六级《考试专家》、《全
攻略》系列丛书(西工大出版社)、英语专业四八级《TEM-48考试指南》系列丛
书(世界图书出版社)和高考英语《考试专家》系列丛书(西安外语音像出版
社)等30余部,逾1000万字。于2000年起在全国高校和各地中学作关于考研
英语、雅思( IELTS)、高考英语等巡回讲座,在各地均引起巨大轰动,讲座场场
爆满。并受到新浪、搜狐、中国考试网、都市快报、西安零距离、华商报、西安
晩报、三秦都市报等多家媒体的关注和专访。他在英语培训领域提出了自己独特
的教学理念
努力改进学习方法、量身定做学习计划;
紧紧把握考试脉搏,传授英语应试策略
奠定良好心理基础,培养进取人生态度
这一理念在课堂上得以贯彻并为广大学员所认可。现在吴老师每年在北京
上海、西安、武汉、南京、成都、重庆、沈阳、石家庄、天津、乌鲁木齐等20
多所中心城市主讲考研英语、大学英语四六级和高考英语,经他直接培训的学员
已逾200万人,听众更是不计其数。学员对他的评价是:
感情真挚,敬业专注;
才思敏捷,经典幽默
传授知识如春风化雨,润物无声
in. co
谈应试技巧如数家珍,挥洒自如;
他的语言总是富有人生哲理,他的课堂永远充满着欢笑从容;他传播的
不仅仅是英语知识,更是一种人生感悟!
新浪微博“吴耀武老师”及Www515ENGLⅠSH.NET英语教学网
欢迎大家交流学习!
考研英语如何复习?
Today I believe This wonderful lecture will pletely change my life!
Today I believe That all my efforts will produce generous returns
Today i believe-CGRE English will be conquered this time!
第一阶段(2013年9月至2013年2月)——预备阶段(新概念3-4册学习)
第二阶段(2014年3月至2014年6月)——基础阶段(词汇和阅读能力培养
第三阶段(2014年7月至2014年10月)—强化阶段(研究和训练真题)
第四阶段(2014年11月至2014年12月)——冲刺阶段(作文强化和套题训练
dos
考研英语应试技巧

词汇:三个层面,五个考点,黑白厌,分实虚,多复习,巧记忆
阅读:把握主题,纵观全局,回归原文,信息定位,合情推理,水到成渠
新题型:四种题型,四种思路;步步为营找关联,反客为主抢先机
翻译:把握词义,调整语序;纸面风平浪静,心中万箭齐发
写作
应用文——强化格式,明确目的,要点全面,合情推理
漫画作文—全新思路,经典任务
记住“一二三四五”,你比考官都清楚
第一部分考研英语词汇全攻略
第一章基础词汇引申能力的培养
1.将下列句子译成汉语,注意划线部分。基础词汇引申能力的培养取决于
在日常的阅读训练中要不断通过动手翻译进行积累,说到底是一种语感的培养。
1. Philips father was a surgeon in good practice and his hospital appointments
suggested an estab lished position.
2. At the other extreme, American policy had also failed either to develop a strong
conservative political base or maintain the ability to prevent the Nationalists from
pursuing a suicidal civil war
3. They were unarmed and unprotected, kno wing perfectly well the danger ahead
Still, they went, plugging gamely along
4. The most economical age to capture an elephant for training is between fifteen
and twenty years, for it is then almost ready to undertake heavy work and can begin to
earn its keep straight away.
5. He did not oppose labor organization nor balk at the strike as a weapon of labor;
rather, he took his heroes and heroines from the labor movement and wove his plots
within their struggles
6. Does job enlargement pay? The proponents say yes, and back up their
conc lusion with enthusiastic anecdotal reports
7. Wherever the fault may lie the fact remains that it is the theatre at Oxford and
not at Cambridge which is on the verge of extinction.
8. When one weighs the opposing forces, the elements of space and time, and the
sea-land trans fer problem, one sees that Churchills foot-dragging made sense
9. And then we rea lized that until now our attitude had been let the patient e
to us. Now we knew that we must go to the patient
10. First the electroencephalo graph shows that while there i a change in the
pattern of activity during sleep, there is no evidence that the total amount of activity
11. What the Chinese people are alto gether unprepared for, howe ver, is the death
of Mao without the forting presence of Chou En-Lai as chief mourner. If Mao
been Chinas sp iritual guide these many years, Chou has been its security blanket
second may well turn out to be the more sorely missed
12. The United Nations has forged a framework guaranteeing the flourishing of
man and respect for his values
13. The other side of the mind is now exposed-the dark side that es
uppermost in solitude, not the light side that shows in pany
14. All a man had to do was to keep his head, and he was all right. Any man who
was a man could travel alone
15. The draft resolution urges the United Nations to send its peacekeeping troops
to the region in accordance with the resolution adopted at a special meeting last May.
参考答案
1.菲利浦的父亲是个外科医生,由于找他看病的人很多,冬医院请他会诊
也多,因此他在医务界已占得一席之地
2.在另一个极端,美国的政策既未能发展一个强大的保守的政治基地,又
没有保持足以制止国民党发动一场自杀性内战的力量
3.他们没有武器,赤手空拳,也没有飞机舰队保护。他们深知前面的危险,
然而仍然毫不畏惧地奋力向前驶去。
4.捕获十五岁至二十岁之间的象来进行训练,最为经济实惠,因为象到了
这样的年龄就差不多能干重活了,而且能马上开始赚回养活它所需要的费用。
5.他不反对劳工组织,也不阻拦罢工作为工人的斗争武器,而是从工人运
动中摄取男女主人公,把他的故事情节交织在这些人的斗争之中。
6.工作多样化的做法值得吗?赞成者的回答是肯定的,而且用过去一些鼓
舞人心的事例来证明他们的结论。
7.姑且不论责任在哪一方,事实是,是牛津的讲坛而不是剑桥的讲坛正处
于崩溃的边缘
8.如果我们衡量一下双方的兵力,时间与空间的要素,以及海陆转运问题
等时,我们就会明白,邱吉尔迟迟未能采取行动是合情合理的。
9.后来我们认识到,我们以前的态度一直是让病人上门来找我们。现在我
们知道必须走出去找病人。
第一,脑电图表明虽然睡眠期间活动方式有所改变,但没有迹象表明活
动总量有任何减少
11.然而,中国人民在心理上最没有准备的是周先毛而死,因为如果在毛逝
世后有周做主祭人可以起安抚人心的作用。如果说毛多年来是中国的精神引路
人,那么周是中国的安全保障,而且后者很可能会证明是位更不可缺少的人物。
12.联合国已经制定了一个保证人类繁荣,尊重人类各项道德准则的体制。
13.展开在我们面前的是另一个世界,是一个孤独时最易萌生的忧郁阴沉的
面,而不是聚会结伴时显示出来的轻松愉快的一面。
14.一个人所要做的就是要保持冷静,这样就不会有什么问题了。无认是谁
只要是一个男子汉,都可以单独旅行。
15.决议草案敦促联合国遵照今年五月特别会议通过的决议,派遣维和部队
到该区去
2.汉英词义对比分析,总结规律
英语是拼写文字,汉语是表意文字;英语有曲折变化,汉语没有曲折变化,
英语词义比较灵活多变,汉语意思相对稳定严谨。英语中介词数量多,使用广泛
意义变化大;而汉语借此则比较少,使用面较窄,意义比较稳定
第一节词义对比
1. accept a university chair/condemned to the chair/so ft record/soft drugs/soft
intelligence(词义对比)
2. It is ten years since he was a fisherman.(时态语序)
3. The relief troops came at the eleventh hour.(词义延伸
4. Caution is the parent of safety.(词义延伸)
第二节词性转化
转译成动词
(一)名词转译成动词
1. Until 1972, all efforts by the two nations to curb the nuc lear -arms race had
founded on one point: U.S. insistence on the right to make on-site inspections of the
Soviet strate gic arsenal and russia s refusal.
到一九七二年为止,美苏之间关于限制军备竞赛的一切努力都在这一点上失
败了:美国坚持有权视察苏方战略武器现场,而苏联则拒绝这样做
2. The 1967 un document calls for the settlement ofthe midd le east conflict on
the basis of Israeli withdrawal from occupied territories and Arab acknowledgement of
Israelis right to exit.
九六七年联合国文件要求在以色列撤出所占的土地以及阿拉伯成人以色
列的生存权利的基础上解决中东冲突
3. Rockets have found application for the exploration ofthe universe
火箭已经用来探索宇宙
Ⅱ含有动作意味的名词(在记叙、描写文体中出现较多)往往可以转译为
动词。
1. The sight and sound of our jet p lanes filled me with spec ial longing
看到我们的喷气式飞机,听见隆隆的机声,令我特别神往。
2. As the week drew to a close, the enemy rout was plete
周快结束时,敌人彻底溃退了
3.语言这个东西不是随便可以学好的,非下苦功不可
The mastery of language is not easy and requires pa ins taking effort
4. The volume of trade has increased tremendously to the ad vanta ge of both
countries
贸易的巨增给两国带来了益处。(动+副→形+名)
5. Traditionally, they had always been good relations between them
它们之间一直有着传统的友好关系。(副→形)
6. Our age is witnessing a profound political change
我们的时代是深刻的政治变化的见证。(动→名)
7. We are enemies ofall wars, but above all of dynastic wars
我们一直反对一切战争,特别是反对王朝战争。(系表结构+of→动)
Ⅲ英语中有些加后缀-er的名词,如 teac her教师, thinker思想家等等,有
时在句中并不指其身份和职业,而是含有较强的动作意味。在汉语中没有恰当的
对应名词时,往往可以译成动词。
1.i am afraid i can't teach you swimming. i think my little brother is a better
teacher than i
我未必会教你游泳。我想我的小弟弟比我教得好。
2. Takking with his son, the old man was the forgiver of the young mans past
wrong doings
在和儿子谈话时,老人宽恕了年轻人所干的坏事。
Ⅳ作为习语主体的名词往往可以转译为动词,如 To have a rest和 To have a
good look at里的rest和ook
3. The next news bulletin, shorter than usual made no mention of the
demonstration
下一个新闻节目比通常短,没有提到旅行。
二)前置词转译为动词
英语中前置词是用得相当多的,其中有些没有动作意味而仅表示时间、地点
的前置词,汉译时往往可以省略;但有许多含有动作意味的前置词,如 across, past,
toward等等,汉译时往往可以译成动词。
1. Party o fficials worked long hours on meager food, in co ld caves, by dim lamps
(A L. Strong)
党的干部吃简陋的饮食,住寒冷的窑洞,靠微弱的灯光,长时间地工作。
oming Away she skimmed over the lawn, up the path, up the steps, across
the veranda, and into the porch.
来啦!'灺她转身蹦着跳着地跑了,越过草地,跑上小径,跨上台阶,穿过凉
台,进了门廊
三)形容词转译成动词
英语中表示知觉、情欲、欲望等心理状态的形容词,在联系动词后作表语用
时,往往可转译成汉语动词。常见的这类形容词有: confident, certain, carefu,
cautious, angry, sure, ignorant, afraid, doubtful, aware, concerned, glad, delighted
sorry, ashamed, thankful, anxious, grateful, able f
1. Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life
医生说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命
2. Naturally the Nazi soldiers were more concerned with saving their own lives
than with taking ours
当然,纳粹士兵们对于救他们自己的命,比起要我们的命,关心得多了
(四)副词转译成动词
1. As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on
他跑出去时,忘记了穿鞋子
2. Mr Nixon had said repeatedly that the American war in Indochina would soon
尼克松先生屡次声言,美国在印度支那的战争即将结束。
转译成名词
(一)英语中很多由名词派生的动词,以及由名词转用的动词,在汉语中往
往不易找到相应的动词,这时可将其转译成汉语名词。
名词派生的动词
1. Formality has always characterized their re lationsh
他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。
2. As the war progressed, he would symbolize their frustrations, the embodiment
ofall evils
随着战争的进行,他成了他们受挫的象征,成了一切坏事的化身。
ⅡI名词转用的动词
1. Most U.S. spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth's atmosphere after
p leting their missions
美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁
二)形容词转译成名词
Ⅰ英语中有些形容词加上定冠词表示某一类的人,汉译时常译成名词。
1. They did their best to help the sick and the wounded
他们尽了最大的努力帮助病号和伤员
2. Robin Hood and his merry men hated the rich and loved and protected the
罗宾汉和他的伙伴们痛恨阔人,热爱并保护穷人。
Ⅱ此外,根据情况还有些形容词可以译成名词。
1. Steven was eloquent and elegant but soft
史蒂文森有口才、有风度,但很软弱。
2. They were considered insincere
他们被人认为是伪君子。
转译成形容词
形容词派生的名词往往可以转译成形容词。
The security and warmth of the destroyers sick bay were wonderful
驱逐舰的病室很安全也很温暖,好极了
ⅡI有些名词加不定冠词作表语时,往往可以转译成形容词。
Independent thinking is an absolute necess ity in stud.
独立思考对学习是绝对必需的
其它词类转译
形容词与副词的互相转译
We took brief, restless naps, struggled to understand the intermittent broadcasting
of Radio Prague,
我们短短地、不安地睡了几次,竭力想听懂布拉格电台断断续续的广播
Ⅱ名词与副词的互相转译
1.名词转译为副词
The new mayor earned some appreciation by the courtesy of ing to visit the
cIty poor.
新市长有礼貌地前来访问城市贫民,获得了他们的一些好感
2.副词转移成名词
They have not done so well ideologically, however, as organizationally
但是,他们的思想工作没有他们的组织工作做得好
He is physically weak but mentally sound
他身体虽弱,但思想健康。
3.根据阅读文章上下文推测生词意思
在英语学习中,我们自然会遇到许多生词。这时,许多人立即翻阅字典,查
找词义。其实,这种做法是不科学的。它不但费时费力,而且影响阅读速度。事
实上,阅读材料中的每个词与它前后的词语或句子甚至段落有着互相制约的关
系。我们可以利用语境(各种已知信息)推测、判断某些生词的词义。猜测词义
也需要一定的技巧,可以通过1)上下文间意义的联系;2)同义关系,反义关系
3)词的定义;4)对词的解释和举例;5)构词法知识猜测词义。
利用上下文词语意义的互相联系猜测词义
Example
in The fishermen make their canoes from tree trunks. They go from island to island
in these light narrow boats and collect turtles' eggs
Example
Fishes live in water and have fins which help them to swim. Most fishes have
slimly skins co vered with scales, but in fishes such as ee ls the scales are very small and
can hardly be seen.
Example
Tom is cons idered an autocratic admin istrator because he makes decisions
without seeking the opinions of others
Example
Another habit which can slow your reading is called"sub vocalization".In this
case your lips dont mo ve, but you still "hear > each word in your head as you read
silently
Example
In slang the term "jam constitutes a state of being in which a person finds himself
or herself in a difficult situation
2.利用文章中词与词的同义和反义关系猜测词义
Example
If you happened to be sitting in the woods outs ide the city you might have
witnessed a strange sight. You would have seen a very proud look ing man riding along
horseback saying something
Example
Although he often had the opportunity, Mr. Tritt was never able to steal money
from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not
want to jeopardize his future
Example
In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid, and the
summers hot and dry
Example
Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They also
regard drinking as harmful
Example
Green loves to talk, and his bro thers are simi larly loq uacious
Example
a good supervisor can reco gnize instantly the adept workers from the unskilled
ones
Example
Mary felt perturbed, that is to say, she was greatly disturbed by her sisters
action
Examp
ole
Rather than liking Mr. Wu's lecture, as the leaders expected them to, most of the
students abhorred it
Example
Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I know. His brother, in contrast
quite humble and modest
利用文章中对词的定义猜测词义
Example
Anthropo lo gy is the scientific study of man
Example
Such experiences are not unusual for the amateur conchologists, peop le who
collect shells
Example
Jack is now a florist, who keeps a shop for selling flo wers in our district
Example:
Over the past centuries, the earth has been struck by meteorites which are
fragments from other parts of the so lar s ystem.
利用文章中对词的举例及解释猜测词义
Example
Today young couples who are just starting their households of ten spend lots of
their money on appliances, for instance washing machines, refrigerators and
color tvs
Example
Finally the enemy surrendered. They threw down their weapons and walked out of
the home with their hands over the ir heads
Example
It seems that such malad ies as colds, fe vers, and sore throats will always be a part
of life
Example
The consequences of epochal events such as wars and great scientific discoveries
are not confined to a small geo graphical area as they were in the past
到同位语或用连词or引导的同意近义词可给出生次确切的意思。
Example
Lipids, or fats, can be measured in the laboratory
n.
Example
Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is necessary if you are to speak and
read intelligently
Example
Capacitance, or the ability to store electric charge, is one of the most mon
characteristics ofe lec tronic circuits
E
Dr. Smith is reco gnized as one of the founders of ethno lo gy, the study of the
different races of human beings
6.利用构词法知识(前缀和后缀)猜测词义
1)根据前缀猜测词义
Examp
They overestimate the interviewee's ability and asked him many difficult
questions
Example
He fell into a ditch and lay there, semiconscious, for a few minutes
Example
We were to ld that ours was the most spacio us room in the hotel. That was why we
had to pay so much for it
2)根据后缀猜测词义
Example
Insecticide is app lied where it is needed
Example
Then the vapor may change into droplets
Example
Im illiterate about such things
3)根据复合词的各部分猜测词义
Example
Growing economic problems were highlighted by a slowdown in oil output
Example
Bullfight is very popular in Spain.
作业
Which small western European country is known for its delec tab le choco lates and
wealthy bankers? Switzerland is the obvious answer, but increasingly Belgium is
attracting attention for the richness of its banks as well as the sweetness of its praline
The Belgian private-banking industry is booming where growth, though from a low
level, is far faster than in more famous banking centres such as Switzer land and
Luxembourg. According to a recent annual survey of private banking by McKinsey, a
firm of international consultants, between 2003 and 2005 the Belgian private-banking
market grew by 27% a year, pared with an a verage of 12% for the rest of Europe
There is one very obvious reason for the buo yancy of Belgium's private banks
More and more belgians fall into the elite category that bankers call high-net-worth
individuals and everyone else calls millionaires. Guy de marni says there is more
liquidity in the economy, as baby-boomer entrepreneurs are reaching retirement and
selling their family businesses. There is a small but lucrative exception to this rule
Several bankers attract french and dutch clients. who want to shelter under belgiums
favourable tax laws. Thus the mean old joke that the best thing about Belgium is the
ease oftra velling elsew here has been reversed, to the benefit of Belgian private bank
Belgian bankers also give thanks for the help ful changes in the fiscal c limate and
in banking rules. Frederic Vandenberghe says that the dematerialisation of
securitiesthe switch from paper to electronic forms-has given the banks
substantial boost. He also attributes rap id growth to a 2004 tax amnesty that opened
window for wea lthy Belgians to move their money back onshore at attractive rates
Since then, the Belgian go vernment has set up a permanent frame work to encourage
the repatriation of funds
Belgian banking is just one part of a bigger European story about the tilting
ba lance between onshore and offshore banking. Squire ling assets abroad is being
less attractive for Europe's millionaires. The McK insey report sta tes that the average
annual growth rate has been seven percentage points lower in Europe for offshore
money than for onshore money for the past three years
One banker is optimistic that most of Belgians offshore billions will eventually
return home. He thinks tax harmonisation means that European citizens will pay taxes
wherever they hold their money, which strips away the advantage of offshore tax
havens. It would be a considerable e xaggeration to say that Swiss bankers are clearing
out their vaults, especially when the Swiss private-banking industry remains 15 times
bigger than Belgiums. Nevertheless, the big Swiss banks are taking notice and have
expanded their operations in belgium in recent years

第二章考研英语核心词汇(版权所有:吴耀武)
严格按照吴耀武老师课堂指导,采用情景刺激完成首次记忆,然后按规定当
天晩上睡觉前和第二天早上把学习的单词复习一遍(谨记跳跃式复习!!!),然后
再分别过3天、7天、15天、30天、60天各复习一遍,坚持下来,到考前一周
看最后一遍时,你会觉得大部分单词都已经很熟悉了。另外,务必要把自己做过
的历年真题或模拟题中阅读里遇到的生词集中整理起来,这样坚持学习,双管齐
下,一定会取得良好学习效果!
第1天任务
instrume list linstru'mentalist, instre-]乐器演奏者;工具主义者
aggravate[ aegreveit使恶化;使严重
prominent [prominent突起的,凸出的a~ forehead
prompt [prompt敏捷的,迅速的Heis~ on the job
reach[pi:t门]讲道,布道~to
to a packed church
preside[ prizaid]主持,主管(at,over) The vice chairman of the board will~at
today's meeting
ntellectual[ inta lektjuel,t∫uon.知识分子adj.智力的,显示智力的
preoccupation[pri:, okju pei an]n.当务之急;抢先占据
theological[ei:elod3 ike] adj.神学的;神学性质的
civility [sivila切]n.文明,文化
virtuosity[ ve: tju'oseti]n.艺术鉴别力;艺术上的精湛技巧
sermon『 se: men] n.训诫,说教,布道
routine [u:ti:nn.常规,例行公事a.日常的,常规的
om
paradoxical[ pare doksikel a.反论的,荒谬的,自相矛盾的
harassment Thaeresment,ha' raesment]n骚扰,扰乱;烦恼,烦乱
presume [prizju:m,zum推测,假定,假设 From the way they ta lked,I~ d them
to be married
prevail[pri'vei,pri:]流行,盛行 This custom still- s among members of the older
generation
prey[pre]被捕食的动物,捕获物 The lion se ized its~ and ate it
prck[prk]一刺,一扎 The boy burst the balloon with a~ ofthe need le
proceed [preu': d](尤指停顿或打断后)继续进行 The train~ ed at the same
as be fore
rape[reij]n强奸;破坏,蹂躏ⅵ强奷;破坏,蹂躏
rash[a门]a轻率的,鲁莽的[反 Deliberate n皮疹
guideline l'gaidlain]n指导方针,指导原则,准则,标准
guts∧ n[pL. F胆量;内脏a.本能的vt取出内脏
habitat thaebitaet]n.(动物的)栖息地,(植物的)产地
refugee[, refju'd3i:,' refjud3i]n.(政治上的)避难者,难民
refund[ri∧nd]n.w.退款:赔偿
relish 're i门n喜好,乐趣;美味;胃口ν爱好,喜欢
remnant [remnent]n残余,剩余;残余物,残存部分
renaissance[r' neIsns]n[theR-]文艺复兴(时期);新生,复兴
ritual r'ritjue,∫u]a宗教仪式的,典礼的n仪式,典礼:惯例
salvation[sae'vei∫。on]n.(尤指基督)救世,超度;拯救,解困
sanction[ saen, k∫anw同意(某事),批准,认可n批准,国际制裁
sane [ sein a心智健全的,神志清醒的;明断的,理智的
sarcastic [sa: kartik]a讽刺的,嘲笑的,挖苦的
saturate['saetfereit,' sauteriⅵ使湿透,浸透;使充满,使饱和
repertoire ['repetwa!]n全部剧目,保留剧目,全部技能
repression[r'prej∫en]n.压抑,压制,镇压
retention [ri'tenjfa]n保留;保持;记忆(力)
retort [rite:nv.报复;反击;反驳
boost[bu:sn促进,激励;一抬;一推ⅵ推动,增强
bowel [baue]n肠;[pl.]内部,深处
retrieve[riti:!ⅵt重新得到,取回;挽回,补救;检索

retrospect [retreuspekt]vn.回顾,回想,追溯[反] foresee
reve lation[ re ve lei∫en]n揭示,透露,显示;被揭示的真相,新发现
rut[rA]n车辙,常轨,惯例ⅴ在...形成车辙
redundant[i' dAndan] a被解雇的;多余的,过剩的
chromosome [kreumeseum]性染色体

virtually[ve:tu]事实上;差不多
disdain[ dis'dein]蔑视;鄙视
第2天任务
anemla[onm]贫血症
boycott[ boiko]拒绝购买,抵制
troupe[trup]剧团;巡回演出
philharmonic[fha: mo nik,fle-]交响乐团的;爱好音乐的
pension[ pen/en]退休金;养老金;抚恤金
lobby [lobi游说;疏通
pelling [kem'pelin]有说服力的;扣人心悬的
intuitively[ ntu iti vl直觉的;直观的
virtuosity[vo; tju'ose]精湛技艺;艺术爱好者
priority[prai'oret]n.优先(权)V.把.….(计划或目标)列入优先地位
recession[r' se fan]n.撤回,工商业之衰退,不景气
deride [di'raid]w.嘲弄,嘲笑
ancestor[ densest]n.祖先,先驱,起源
foreseeable ['f:si: ab] adj.可预知的,能预测的,能看透的
boost [ bu:stv.推进
paternal[potn]adj父亲的,象父亲的
kinship[ kinship]n血缘关系
genealogist [,d3i: ni'aeled3istn.系谱学者,系谱专家
swabbing ['swobin]n.拖把,药签ⅵ拭抹,擦洗
saliva [se laive]n.口水,唾液
hawk[hκk]n鹰,鹰派成员ⅵ放鹰,像鹰一般地袭击ⅵ捕捉,咳岀,兜售
mitochondrial [, maiteu kondriel n.【生】线粒体
rigorous ligers]a严格的,严厉的,严酷的(气候条件)
riot Trait] n暴(骚)乱;(色彩等)极度丰富ⅵ聚众闹事
rjp[ip]v猛撕开;扯开;被撕开;裂开
scandal[ skandar] n.丑事,丑闻;流言蜚语;反感,愤慨
scramble[ skraemblⅵ.(快速地)爬,攀登;互相争夺,争先
siege si: d3]n包围,围攻,围困
sceptical ['skeptikel]a怀疑的
skim skimⅵt撇去(液体表面)之漂浮物ⅵ轻轻掠过

skip [skip]ⅵ略过,跳过n跳跃ⅵ故意忽略;略过
texture [tekst]n(织物)质地;(材料)构造:结构;肌理
transcend[ traen send,tra;n]ⅵt.超出,超越(理性等)的范围
abolish [e'bo∫彻底废除(法律、制度、习俗等) abolish old custo
prime[ praim]a首要的,主要的 a matter of importance
foul [fau]a令人不快的;恶臭的;邪恶的w弄脏n.(体育等)犯规
fridge [frid3]n.( refrigerator的略语)冰箱
radiant rediant]a.(面容、目光)洋溢着幸福的,明亮照耀的
rap [ raep]ⅵt急敲;突然厉声说出;训斥n急敲(声)
thermal re:m]a.热的,由热造成的~ burns
trai[tre痕迹,足迹a~ of destruction left by the violence
tramp[ tramp]步行,跋涉 He loves~ ing over the hills
fringe[ind3]n边缘;(窗帘)缘饰;额前垂发ⅵ饰..的边
fume[fumn.( usual)(浓烈或难闻的)烟,气,汽
blur [b:]n模糊不清的事物ⅵ使模糊,使看不清楚
browse [bratz]ⅵ随意翻阅,浏览;(牛、羊等)吃草
prior praia]在先的,在前的 Stop making public statements without their
approval here
privilege[ privily引特权,优惠,特免 In countries where there are still not many
schools. education is a
probe[ preub]探索,探查,调查~ the roots of war
absolute [aebsolju:t,aebs。!ju:纯粹的,完全的 have abso lute trust in sb
verge[ve:d3]边,边缘,边沿the~ ofa stream
rify r'verifai证明,证实 Subsequent events verified my suspicions
vertical ['ve: tike]垂直的,立式的
engin
veto[vi:teu]否决,否决权,否决权的行使 The rest of the mittee could not
ccept the
accustom [a'k^stem]使习惯于 accustom oneself to rising( to rise) early
acquaint [e'kweint使认识,使了解
第3天任务
homogenization[ho,md3na'zei∫an,-mi'z]同化;均匀化
toc[ toksik]a有毒的,因中毒引起的
breach[bri叮门n违反,不履行;破裂ⅵ冲破,攻破
briefcase[bri: keis]n手提箱,公事皮包
ambiguous [aem'bigjtυs]含糊不清的,模棱两可的 an ambiguous ans wer
ozone[ euze un]n.臭氧;清新的空气
pact[pak]n合同,条约,公约
tournament [tenement,"t:-,"t:]锦标赛;联赛

paperback[ peipebaek]n平装本,简装本
script [skript]n剧本(原稿);手稿,原稿;笔迹,手迹
scrutiny[skru:tin]n,周密的调查;仔细看;监视;选票复查
sculpture[sk∧pta]n雕刻(术),雕塑(术);雕刻作
tame [teim驯化的,驯服的,温顺的 animails
tan[taen]棕黄色,黄褐色 buy some shoes in tan

abrupt[e"brAp突然的,意外的 an abrupt departure
acute [e kju:尖锐的,敏锐的 an acute thinker
versatile ['ve setai多才多艺的a~man
ersus [ve:ss]诉讼,竞賽等中以..对手 The match tonight is China
Japan
blunt [blAnt] #tA] The sun was blazing down and the heat was oppressive
blus h[bA(因害羞、激动、窘困)脸红 blush with(或for)joy
demonstrate[ demanstreit论证,证明: demonstrate a philosophical principle
thri[eri]使非常兴奋,使非常激动It' s a sight that never fails to~me
thrive [eraiy兴旺发达,繁荣 His business is thriving
mania ['mein]狂躁;狂热
tempt[temp引诱,诱惑 Nothing could~ me to do such a thing
strain [strein拉紧,绷紧 If you~ the elastic any more, it will break
strap[ streep]带,皮带siks~s
stretch[ stret门伸直,伸长 He yawned and ed himself
stride [straid]阔步前进,大踏步走 He strode to the platform
string [strin]细绳,线,带 She took the parcel and started to undo the string
stip[stjp]剥去,除去 The wind stripped the tree ofall its leaves
toast [te ust]烤面包,吐司 two slices of~】
note worthy [naut,w6]值得注意的;显著的
quirk (kwa: k]巧合;怪癖
第4天任务
fallout [fo:au放射性尘埃;后果;余波
ne urology[njue'rold3]神经病学的;神经的
token[ teuken]表示,标志,象征 He did that as a~ of good faith
torture [to;te]拷打,拷问~ a confession from a prisoner
acmodate[ e komedeit使适应,使符合一 acmodate oneself to changed
circumstances
unfold [, An'fauld]展开,打开
a ne wspaper
update[p'deit,"^ poet]更新,使现代化~ a textbook
uphold[Ap'houd]举起,高举 He upheld his clenched hand
adhere[edh]黏附,附着 Paste is used to make one surface ad here to another
adjacent [e'd3 eisen临近的,毗邻的(to) a city and its adjacent suburbs
adjoin [ed3on]贴近,与…[邻 His house adjoins the lake
thrust[θr∧s刂推,刺,戳,插,挤 He was~ Into power
tit[fi使倾斜,使倾倒 Tilt your head back so that I can look down your throat
toss [tos, to: s]扔,抛,掷 The children tossed the ball to each other
tough[坚韧的,牢固的 Some plastic are as as metal
tow[te拖,拉,牵引 tow a damaged ship into port
absurd[eb’sed]荒谬的,荒唐的 The idea that number14 brings bad luck is
oar^pro:]骚乱,骚动 The public~ over unclear- radiation hazards continues to
utter [Ata]发出(声音等),说,吐露~ the truth
lavatory[ lae veter,-,to:r盥洗室;洗手间
cognitive [kognitivI认知的;后天习得的
slope [sleup]倾斜,有坡度 The ground~ s down sharply at this point
sy[slai狡猾的,偷偷的a~ ans wei
smash[sma门打碎,打破,摧毁 The ball- ed the window
snatch[snat夺得,一把抓住 The thief ed her handbag and ran off
Immune['mun免除的,豁免的: Nobody is immune from criticism
impact r'impaekt, im paek冲击,撞击: the impact of light on the eye
ImpaIr[imp]削弱,减少: The output of produce was impaired by the bad weather
impartial [im'pa:Ja公正的,无偏见的: A judge should be impartial
mplement [impliment," impliment]王具,器真,用具: new types of farm
imp lements
stitch[st一针,针脚 Make your~ es closer to gether
pliance [kem' plains]服从;顺从;可塑性
superfluous[sjup:fues]过多的,剩余的,多余的a~ re mark
supervise ['sju. pervaiz]监督,管理,指导~sb’ s every mo ve
vanish [veni门突然消失,逐渐消散 With a wave of his hand, the magician made
the rabbit
veil [veil]面纱,面罩 Jewis h women wore~ s in token of reverence and submission
ventilate[ ventile]使通风,使空气流通~ a room
venture [ e]冒险,冒险行动,投机行动 take a~ in oil
unco ver[An"kAve]揭开,揭露~ a dish of food
underestimate [ Ande'estimeit] 1E 1t the difficulties of the task
reassure [, ri:oJu]w使安心,使放心;使消除疑虑
highlight [hailait] n.精彩场面,最显著(重要)部分ⅵ.加亮,使显著
falter [fo!t颤抖;蹒跚;衰弱
forfeit [fa:ft被罚;罚金;没收 pro vocation挑衅;激怒
connotation[ koneu'tei∫en]含义;言外之意
第5天任务
susceptible [se' septa]易受影响的;易感染的;易动感情的
vulne rable ['vAInereb]易受伤的;脆弱的
recede [ri'si: d] v退去:缩进;收回,撤回[反 pproach
om
recipient [ri'sipiantn a person who receives sth收到者
reckless [reklis]a不注意的,大意的,卤莽的不顾后果的
rectangle' rek. tae]n[数]矩形,长方形
recur[rk].(尤指不好的事)一再发生;重现
portray [po;trei,puv描写,描述;画(人物、景象等)
prone[ preen]a.(to)易于..的,很可能,的;俯卧的
prophet[pro們n预言家;先知;提倡者
undergo[Ande!gu经历,遭受,忍受~ much suffering
underlie[ Ande lai]位于.….之下 Many facts my decision
undermine[, Ande' main]在.…挖~ a wall
accord [ako:d]使符合,相一致(with) His violent action do not accord with his
peaceful words
account[e"kaun记述,叙述 give a brief account of what has happened
address[o'dres]演说 a te vis ion address
ultimate[Ntme!最后的,最终的 The war ended for us in~ vIctory
unanimous[u: animas]全体一致的,一致同意的 They are~ in ask ing for a
rise In pay
undertake[ Ande'teik着手做,从事~ an attack
undesirable [Andi zaiarebl]不合意的,不受欢迎的 The drug has~ side effects
uneasy[,Ani:z]心神不宁的,不安宁的be~ uneasy about the future
virtue ['ve tju:]美德,德行 Among her many~ s are lo yalty, courage,and
truthfulness
substitute ['sAbstitju t, -tu:代替者,代替物 He is the doctors~ during holidays
times
subtle[sA切微妙的,巧妙的 His who le attitude has undergone a~ change
subtract[ seb'traekt]減,减去 Subtract4fom10 you get6
succession[ sek'se∫en]连续,一系列a~ ofdebates
suck [sAk] lx, A large mosquito was sucking blood from the back of her hand
vital[vato]有生命力的 The heart is a~ organ
void [void]空的a~ space
wedge [wed3]楔子,三角木 Please put a in the door so that it will stay open
diffuse[djus]四散开;漫射
xerox[ zieroks]静电复印(法),静电复印件,静电复印机 Make me a~ of this
report
yield [:d]生产,产生,带来 This orc hard~ s apples and pears
zeal[zi!热心,热忱,热情 a man of
Zigzag[zgz9]之字形的,弯曲的 a road
warrant ['worant, ' wo:授权,批准,正当理由,根据 He had no~ for his action
waterproof [wo: tepru;f,Ww]不透水的,防水的~ material
whisper[ twisp]低语,耳语,轻声说~tosb
VICIOUS[ⅶ∫s]邪恶的,恶毒的,凶残的 lead a~life
volunteer[voen'tl]志愿者,自愿参加者 Are there any~ s for a swim?
audit to:ditw审计;查帐;核对;旁听
第6天任务
archive[ a kai]存档;归档
vibrate [vai'breit使震动,使摆动 His heavy footsteps upstairs made the old
weld [weld]焊接,煅接 It takes speed to~ steel at this heat
whirl[hw]旋转,急转 The couples~ ed round the dance floor
audio[ o: dian./a音频(响)(的);声音(的),听觉(的)
auditorium[o: dito riem] n观众席,听众席;会堂,礼堂
stab [stab]刺,戳,猛的一击,突发的一阵a~ ofanxiet!y
stacked [stack整齐的一叠a~ fills
stain [stein]玷污,污染 His shirt was~ ed with blood
stale[ste食品等不新鲜的,走味的 These old peanuts taste
stal|tsto:牛舍
startle rsta:t惊吓,使吃惊 The horse~ s easily
affiliation[e,fiei∫an]从属群体,从属单位
addict [a'dikt; aedikt]v.使沉溺;使上瘾n沉溺于不良嗜好的人
advent[ aed vent]n.(重要事件等的)到来,来临
affluent Refluent]a.富裕的,富足的
stock[stk]原料,备料,库存,现货 Rags are used as a~ for making paper
stoop[stu:p]俯身,弯腰She~ ed to pick up her fan
statistics ste' testis]统计,统计资料 The recent on marria ge are interesting
steer[ste]掌舵,驾驶~ a car through the entrance
authentic [ o: antik]a真的,真正的;可靠的,可信的,有根据的
awe[:]n敬畏,惊惧ⅵ使敬畏,使惊惧
bait [beit] n饵,引诱物ⅵ用饵引诱;招惹,捉弄
balcony[ balken]n阳台;(电影院等的)楼厅,楼座
ballet Baelen, bae'lei]n芭蕾舞,芭蕾舞剧;芭蕾舞团

bizarre [biza:]ad异乎寻常的,稀奇古怪的
stubborn[" st ben]顽固的,倔强的Th
boy re fused to listen to his
rents'ad vice
stuff [staf原料,材料,物品,东西 He has got all the ready for building his new
house
submerge [sab'me:d3]浸没,淹没,湮没 The stream over flowed and~dthe
farmland
submit seb'mit屈服,服从,投降~ to foreign pressure
anguish [aengw门n.(尤指心灵上的)极度痛苦,烦恼
antique[aen:k]a.,古式的,过时的n有价值的古物,古董
appall [e po]v使胆寒,使惊骇(a. appalling)
Wrap[raep]包,裹~ oneself in a blanket
Weck[rek]失事,遇难 a train
wrench[rent门]扳手 He is a
ballot[" bae let]n.(不记名)投票;投票总数;投票权ⅵ投票
barbecue ['ba bikju:]n烤肉用的台架;烤肉野餐ⅵ在台架上烤肉
barren[ beren]a贫瘠的;不育的;(植物)不结果的;无用的
belly [beli]n肚子,腹部;(像肚子一样)鼓起的部分,膛
benign[ brain]a.(病)良性的,(气候)良好的,仁慈的和蔼的
第7天任务
bipedal[ bai, pedal,bai'pe-]两足动物的;直立姿势的
secular[ sekula]现世的;非宗教的
beverage[ beverid3]n.(水,酒等之外的)饮料
bin[bi]n.(贮藏食物等用的)箱子
wrinkle [rink皱,皱纹 He will wore the~ s ofanxiety on his forehead
album [aelbam]n.唱片;集邮册,相册
subordinate[sobo:dint,-neit,s。bo:dnei下级的 In the army, captains are
to major
stationary ['stei∫aner]固定的,静止的,非流动的~ troops
amiable leimjabl] a.和蔼可亲的,友善的,亲切的
amid[ mid] prep在…中间,在…之中,被.围绕
auction[ o: kan]n./ⅵt拍卖
blueprint[ blu print]n.蓝图,设计图,计划v制成蓝图,计划
ego[igou,' egan.自我,自负,利已主义;(心理学)自我意识
eligible Felid3aba有条件被选中的;(尤指婚姻等)合适(意)的
endow[in'dauⅵt资助,捐赠;(wih)给予,赋予
escalate ['eskeleit] v(使)逐步增长(或发展),(使)逐步升级
escort ['esko t,isk:ⅵt护送(卫);陪同n警卫,护送者;仪仗兵

evade[ I'veid]ⅵ逃避,回避;避开,躲避
arrogant [aeregant] a傲慢的,自大的
arrogant [aeregant]n动脉;干线,要道
aspire [e'spai]vi(to, a fter)渴望,追求,有志于
assassinate[e' saesineit] vt暗杀,行刺;中伤
om
waken []醒来,睡醒 He wakened when the alarm sounded
virtual lv;uo实际上的,事实上的the~ manager of the business
weary [wial疲倦的,疲劳的a~book
vigor'ge]体力,精力,活力 in the~ of manhood
violate r'vaialei违反,违背~ the traffic regulations
zone[zaun]地带,分布带 a danger
abdomen [aeb' doumen,' abdomen n腹,下腹(胸部到腿部的部分)
abound [e baund]ⅵ大量存在;(in,with)充满,富于
acclaim [e kleim] v向.欢呼,公认n欢呼,喝彩,称赞
supplement[s^ pliment,s^ plamen增补,补充a~ to wages
alle viate[ol":viei减轻;缓解;缓和
infancy[ intense婴儿期;早期;初始阶段
第8天任务
spur[spo:]前进的,有动力的
extract[ k'straekt,' ekstraek]拔出;摘录出
insightful lin, saitful富有洞察力的;有深刻见解的
provocative [preu]煽动性的;刺激的
suppress [se pres]压制,镇压~ human rights
supreme[ supn:m,se-]最高的,至上的a~ ruler
surpass [s'pa:s,paes]超过,优于,强于,胜过~ ad vanced work
surplus[spl^s,-pls]过剩,剩余 a teac her
vain [vein]徒劳的,无效的~ efforts
valid[ valid]有根据的a~ excuse
blackmail ['blaekmeil r.讹诈,敲诈,勒索;胁迫,恫吓
blouse[bauz]n女衬衣,短上衣,宽阔的罩衫
foster [foste]vt.照管;培养;促进
bruise[bru:zn青肿,挫伤;伤痕ⅵ打青;挫伤
buly[bn恃强欺弱者,小流氓ⅵ威胁,欺侮
bureaucracy[bjue'rkr°s]n官僚主义,官僚机构;(非民选的)委任官员
burglar[b:gl]n.(入室行窃的)盗贼
cape keip]n海角,岬;披肩,短披风
carbohydrate[ka: bau'haidreit] n碳水化合物;糖类;( plural)淀粉质或糖类
clergy[ked3n.[总称]牧师,神职人员
coalition[k。u"i∫ann结合体,同盟;结合,联合
costume[kstu:m, ko' stju. m]n.戏装;泳装;服装
cosy [kouzi]/cozy a暖和舒服的;舒适的[反 Unfortable
credentials [kri'denfalz]n.(个人能力及信用的)证明书,证件
ebb [eb]ⅵ衰退,减退n处于低潮,处于衰退状态
om
eccentric [k'sentrik]a古怪的,怪癖的,异乎寻常的n古怪的人
futile[fju: tail]a无效的,无用的,无希望的
gender[d3ende]n.(生理上的)性;(名词、代词等的)性
glamour r'glaen]n魔力,魅力ⅵ迷住
stre nuo us[ strenuus]a费力的,艰辛的;奋发的,努力的
strife[ straif] n争吵;冲突,斗争:竞争
gorgeous[go:d3s]a华丽的;灿烂的;美丽的;宜人的;棒的
graphic[grak]a生动的,形象的;绘画的,文字的,图表的
第9天任务
layoff 'leif]n临时解雇;关闭;停歇
lottery["ltem]n抽彩;碰运气的事,难于算计的事
majesty[mad3ist]n. stately, grand appearance; splendor雄伟,壮丽,庄严 majestic
maneuver/ ma oeuvre[me'nu:ve]ⅵ熟练地进入
medieval[ medii: vel,m:-]a.中世纪的
excerpt [ek'sapt," ekse;pn摘录,节录ⅵ摘,引用
feat [fi: t]n功绩,伟业,技艺
federation ['fedareiJ∫an联合会;结盟,联合
fore[fad.在前面a先前的;在前部的n前部
solitary[ so literi]a.(好)孤独的;偏僻的;单一的,唯一的
solo[sueu]n独奏a.ad.单独的(地);独唱的(地)
spiralˆ spiral] a螺旋形的n螺旋,螺线ν螺旋上升;盘旋
stagger[st∂eⅵi摇晃着移动;蹒跚n摇晃不稳的动作;蹒跚
stalk [st:K]n茎,梗ⅵ悄悄地跟踪ⅵ高视阔步地走
statute ['staetju t,tju;n成文法,法令,法规;章程,规则,条例
steak [steik]n牛排;大块肉(或鱼)片
stereotype I'sterieutaip,'sti]n陈规,老套,模式化ⅵ使定型,使模式化
formidable[fo: midabl] a. difficult to de feat or deal with难对付的;可怕的
meditate ['mediteit] v认真思考,沉思;计划,考虑
momentum[ meu' mentem]n.动量;动力;势头
monarch ['monek,-:k]n帝王,君主,最高统治者
motivate ['meutiveitⅵt促动:激励,鼓励,作为.·的动机
optimum [optima]a最适宜的n.(生长繁殖的)最佳条件

option[ op Jan]n选择(权);可选择的事物(或人),选课
overturn [,euve'te n," uvete:n]n.推翻
stun[st]ⅵ使…失去知觉;使目瞪口呆,使吃惊
subsidy[s^bsid]n补助金;津贴费
suffice se fais]v足够,(食物)满足
suite [swi: t] n套间:一套家具:套,组,系列
n.
summit ['s^min顶,最高点;颠峰,高峰;最高级会议
superstition[ sJu pe'sti∫ann迷信,迷信的观念习俗
oxid[ oksid]en.氧化物
grim [grim]a严酷的,令人害怕的;不愉快的,讨厌的
第10天任务
grin [grin]n vi.露齿笑,咧嘴笑
grope [greup]ⅵi暗中摸,摸索;探索,搜寻ⅵ摸索
heave[hi:vv.(用力)举,提,拉;扔;拖;呕吐n举起
herb[h:b,e:b]n药草,(调味用的)香草,草本植物
hierarchy[haio,ra:k]n等级制度;统治集团,领导层
pilgrim[ pilgrim]n最初的移民(P大写,指1620由欧洲移居美国的清教徒)
plea[pli]n.(法律)抗辩;请求,恳求,托词,口实
skull [skAl]n头盖骨,颅骨
slaughter[s]n屠杀,屠宰ⅵt屠杀,宰杀
slot [slot] n狭缝:空位ⅵ放入狭缝中;把.纳入
sneak [sni: k]ⅵ偷偷地走,溜ⅵt偷偷地做(或拿、吃)
sneeze[sn:z]ⅵi打喷嚏,发喷嚏声n喷嚏
agitatedly raed3, teitidl]搅动(液体等) The machine agitated the mixture.
alarm[elam惊恐,忧虑 The bandits scattered in alarm
alert [a'la:警惕的,留神的 In our reading we should always be alert for new
alien[ejen]外国的 adjust to an alien culture
allege[oled3]断言,宣称 The newspaper alleges the mayor's guilt
allocate [ae laukeit分配,分派,把….拨给 allocate funds for new projects
sniff [snⅵ嗅…味道;抽鼻涕;对嗤之以鼻,蔑视
soar[so:]ⅵi(指鸟等)高飞,翱翔;飞涨;高耸
sociable[sauJ∫eba好交际的,友好的,合群的
solidarity[soi' daeriti]n.团结;休戚相关
surge [sσ3]ⅵ(如浪潮般)汹涌;奔腾n.(感情等的)洋溢
susceptible [se'septabl]a过敏的,敏感的;易动感情的,易受感动的
tangle' tangi]n纠缠;缠结;混乱(使)缠绕;变乱
temperamentally! tempe'menn气质,性格,性情;资质
tropic [tropik]n回归线;[ the T-S]热带地区
tumor/tumour [tju: me]n.(肿)瘤,肿块
amateur[ ae mete,aeme'te:](艺术,科学等的)业余爱好者 an amateur golfer
amend [e'mend]修改,修订 amend the spelling in sb. s paper
administrate ed' mi mistreat掌管,料理.的事务
第11天任务
crush k∧门]压碎;彻底毁掉
adolescent [aedaw'lesnt(尤指16岁以下的)青少年 a film aimed at ado descents
seemingly[ si: min]ad. In appearance; apparently表面上的,看起来的
segregate[ segrigit,- geit] vt. separate or keep apart from others分离,隔离
serial [serial,sir-]n连本影片,连本电视节目a连续的
shabby [sabi]a简陋的,破旧的;卑鄙的,不正当的
aggravate[ aeg]加重,加剧,恶化 aggravate the declining economy
aggressive []gresⅳ侵犯的,侵略的 an aggressive weapon
allied relaid]结盟的,有关联的 allied nations
allowance [a" arens]津贴,补贴,零用钱 a housing allowance
alternate[ o: Ite: net,'oite-,"o: te neit交替,轮流 Night and day alternate
array [e're]排列,队形 The troops were formed in battle array
articulate[o: tikjulet,a;" tikjuleit]发音清晰的,善于表达的 He is articulate about
everything in the field ofeconomics
shatter [sate]n碎片;粉碎ⅴ粉碎;使疲惫;使震骇
shove [ANⅵ乱推;乱塞ⅵ用力推,挤n猛推
adverse [aedve:s,aed've:s]不友好的,敌对的 She felt ad verse to her husbands
friends
advocate[ aed vekeit," aed veke]拥护,提倡,主张 advocate self-defence
aesthetic[ s'eetik」美学的,艺术的,审美 an aesthetic theory
affiliate [a' filieit;o'fit,eit使隶属(或附属)于,使成为会员 a government
affiliated pany
affirm[efe:m]断言,申明 affirm the truth of a statement
artificial[,a:t"fjo人工的,人造的,人为的 artificial price controls
ascend le'send]登高,(渐渐)上升,升高 The airp lane ascended into the cloud
ascertain[aese'tein查明,弄清,确定 I ascerta ined that he was dead.
ashore[eJjo:]向岸,向陆地 He swam as hore
assault [a'so:t攻击,袭击 We made an assault on the enemy fort
assemble [assembl]集合,召集 assemble the members of Parliament for a special
meetin
g
assert [ese: t肯定地说(出),坚定地断言 He asserted his innocence.
assign [a'sain]分配,布置(作业) The teacher assigned(us) a new lesson
assimilate [e'simileit吸收,消化 He is quick to assimi late new ideas.
associate[esau∫ieit, e'sau]∫iat,-ei(使)联系,(使)结合 We naturally
associated the name of darwin with the doctrine of evolutio
beforehand[ bifo: hae nd]预先,事先 If you wanted soup for lunch you should have
to ld me be fore hand
bewilder [bi wilde]使迷惑,使糊涂 Im bewildered as to which one to buy
第12天任务
boom [bu:]低沉有回响的声音 The great bell tolled with a deep boom
bore[bo:]钻孔,挖(通道) bore through a wall
bounce[ bauns]弹起,反弹 The ball doesnt bounce well
sovereign『 sovern,"sNv]a独立的,有主权的n君主,国王,统治者
spacious [spei∫os]ad广阔的,宽敞的
spectrum [spektren]n谱,光谱,频谱;范围,幅度,系列
spicy [spaisi]a加很多香料的;(口味)浓郁的
spine [spain]n脊柱,脊椎:(动植物的)刺;书脊
bound[ baund]跳跃,弹回 She bounded to her feet and waved her right hand
triump handly
boycott 'boiko(联合起来)抑制,拒绝参加 boycott uncooperative manufactures
brace[ breis]托架,支架 He braced his muscles and lifted the weight
breed[bri:d](使)繁殖 Rabbits breed families rapidly
bribe[ braid]贿赂 accept(或take) a bribe from sb
anchor [enke] th The anchor catches (drags
anonymous [anonima]匿名的,无名的 an anonymous letter( phone cal)
anticipate [aen'tisipeit]预期,预料 The directors anticipated a fall in demand
(that demand would fall
brisk[bisk]轻快的,生气勃勃的 a brisk pace
brittle [brit易碎的,一碰就破的 brittle glass
accumulate [e kju; mjuleit积累,积攒,积聚 accumulate wisdom
accurate[ aekjuret准确的,精确的 an accurate estimate
accuse[ekju:z]指控,指责 They accused her publicly of stealing their books
activate [aektiveit使活动起来,使开始起作用,启动 They ha ve planted secret
agents in many countries who could be activated whenever needed
bump [bAmp] ut, fs(against, into) The truck bumped against the wall in the dark
burst[be:st爆炸,爆裂 The boiler burst
cease [si:s]停止,终止,结束 The music ceased suddenly
certify [se:ifai证明,证实 The accounts were certified(as)= correct
appraise [e'pei估量,估计 appraise the infant,'s weight
apprehend[ reprehend]对…担心 Do you apprehend that there will be any
difficulty?
appropriate [a' preuprieit,e' propria恰当的,相称的 Plain, simple clothes are
appropriate for school wear
appro× imate [e'proksim大概的,大约的,近似的 The approximate time is10
o' clock
第13天任务
displace [dis'pleis]移动.的位置: Many of the inhabitants were disp laced by th
rising flood waters
dispose[ dis paul]布置,整理 The stores disposed the jewellery in an attractive
displa
disregard [disri'ga:d]不理会,不顾: Disre gard the noise and keep working
distinct[ dis tink有区别的,不同的: Three distinct types of people
distort [disto扭歪,扭曲: a face distorted by(或with)pain
distract [dis'traekt]使转向: be distracted from one' s original purpose
apt [aept](习性)易于.….,有……倾向的 A careless person is apt to make
mistakes
arbitrary[a: bitreri]随心所欲的,个人武断的,任意的 an arbitrary choice
cherish [teri门珍爱,珍视 cherish one' s native land
chew[tu]嚼,咀嚼 He chewed a mouthful of meat
choke [teuk]窒息,噎住 be choked by smoke
bias[ baies]偏见,偏心 have a bias against sb.(或sth.)
blast[ baiou, blest一阵(风),一股(气流) a blast of wind
blaze[ b leia]火焰 The fire sprang into a blaz
aggravate[ aeg reveit]加重,加剧,恶化 aggra vate the declining economy
aggressive [agresiv侵犯的,侵略的 an aggressIve weapon
allied tae laid]结盟的,有关联的 allied nations
allowance [a'lauens]津贴,补贴,零用钱 a housing allo wance
alter To:te]改变,更改 alter an attitude
alternate [o: l'te:net,"o;te-,'o: Ite neit交替,轮流 Night and day alternate
array la'reij]排列,队形 The troops were formed in battle array
articulate[a:" tikjulet,a:" tikjuleit]发音清晰的,善于表达的 He is articulate about
everything in the field ofeconomics
boast[ beust]自吹自擂,自夸的话 He is full ofboasts
bolt [beu螺栓,(门,窗的)插销 a small bag of nuts and bolts
orrupt [ke'^p]堕落的腐败的,贪赃舞弊的 lead a corrupt life
courtesy[k:is]谦恭有礼。有礼的举止(或)言辞: e in without courtesy
shade[Jeid]荫,荫凉处 The group of trees provide some~ from the sun
sham [aen]假装,虚伪 Her illness was a to gain sympath
hear [ie]剪,修剪~aawn
shed [ed] iit one's blood for one's country
sheer[ie]完全的,十足的
nonsense
connect [ka'nekt连接,连接 The brid ge connects the is land with(或to)the
mainland.
conscIouS[k。ns]意识到的,自觉地 They were conscious that he disapproved
consent〖 ken'sent同意,赞同,准许 The peop le will never consent to another
war
conserve [ ken'sa:v," konse:ⅵ保护,保藏,保存 conserve natural resources
onsolidate [ken solideit巩固,加强 consolidate one' s position
conspicuous [ken' spikjues]显眼的,明显的,引人瞩目的 He felt as conspicuous
as if he had stood on a stage
第14天任务
contrary[" montr°m相反的,对抗的 take the contrary view
contribute [ ken' tribju:捐(款等),捐献 He contributed5 lo llars to the charity every
payday
contrive [ken'traiv设计想出 contrive a new method
corrode [ke'reud](渐渐)损害,(一点一点地)损伤: Bribery corrodes the confidence
that must exist between buyer and seller
dazzle[daez(强光等)使目眩,耀眼: He was dazzled by his sudden success
decent ['di:san体面的,像样的: She didn' t have a decent dress for the ball
appeal[lpi:]呼吁,恳求 I appealed to the children to make less noise
applaud [a'pld]鼓掌,喝彩,叫好 The audience app lauds the performers for
three minutes
chorus[ ko res]合唱队
chronic [kronik](疾病)慢性的,(人)久病的 chronic indigestion
clarity t klaereti]澄清,阐明 clarify an issue
cling [klin] *i The frightened child clung to her mother
clumsy[kAmz]笨拙的 a clumsy boy
mortgage [ma:gid3抵押(借款) He will ha ve to~ his land for a loan
motion[muen]动,运动the~ of the planets
mount [maun]登上,爬上~ the steps
cluster ['klaste](果实,花等的)串,束,簇;(人或物)的群,组 a cluster of
tourists
clutch [kI^t门]紧抓,紧握 clutch at an opportunit
coherent (kew'hieren一致的,协调的 lack coherent po litical goals
depose [ di kem peuz]分解,腐烂,腐败: depose a pound into its
le ments
dedicate ['dedikeit,' dedikit,-kei奉献,把.用在(to): The doctor dedicated
himself to finding a cure
deduce [di'dju S]演绎,推论: From her conversation, I deduced that she had a large
family
deform [di fo m](使)变形: Heat de forms plasti

constant [konsen经常的,不断的 a cons tant noise
constitute[ konstitju:组成,构成 constitute a threat to sb
consume [ sju m消费,花费: consume much ofone' s time in reading
contaminate [ken 'tami,net弄脏,污染,玷污毒害: Fumes contaminate the air
capture[ eptfe]俘虏,捕获 capture butterflies
assume [e'sju: m,osum]假定,假设 Farmers will have a bumper harvest,
suming that) the weather si favarable
assurance[e'∫ Urens]保证,把握,信心 He gave me his assurance that he would
help
astonish[stn门使惊讶 I was astonished at his sudden appearance.
attach[ etat]系,贴,连接 attach a label to a suitcase
attain [stein]达到,获得 attain one' s goal
attentive [ a' tents注意的,专心的 an attentive audience
attribute [e'tribju t,' aetribju:把归因于,把……(过错的责任等)归于(to)He
attributed his success to hard work
auxiliary[og' ziljeri]辅助的 an auxiliary rocket
第15天任务
gallop[ gallop](马等的)飞跑,疾驰: The horse did a fine gallop during the race
gamble[ gaembl]赌博: gamble at cards
gasp[ga:sp, g aesp]喘气,喘息: speak between gasps
gear[sia]齿轮,传动装置,(排)档: interlock co gs and gears
avail [a've有利于,有助于 Will force alone avail us?
avert [e've:挡开,防止,避免 Many traffic accidents can be averted by courtesy
contempt ken' tempt]轻视,轻蔑: show a contempt for sb
contradict[ kontre'dikt反驳,同.相矛盾,同.抵触: The facts contradict his
theory
defy[ rifai,'di∷-]公然违抗,反抗: He was going ahead defying all difficulties
degenerate [did3 e nereis,did3 inert衰退,堕落,变坏(into): Her eyesight
degenerated with the years
deliberate[di" libert]慎重的,深思熟虑的: The go vernment is taking deliberate
action to lower prices.
denote [dine表示,是.的标志,意思是: A frown often denotes displa
asure
orrespond[ko: rispond]相符合相称(to,with): Fulfillment seldom corresponds to
anticipation
correspondent [, ko:r' spandan通信者通讯员,记者: a good(bad) correspondent
corresponding[, ko ri'spondin]符合的,一致的 corresponding fingerprints
pact (kem paekt," kompaekt紧密的,坚实的 a pact piece of luggage
patible [kem'paetebl]能和睦相处的,合的来的 You should choose
roommate more patib le to your tastes
detain[ di'tein]留住,担搁: be detained by business.
detect [di'tek](当场)发现(某人在干坏事) detect a student cheating
deteriorate[di' tieriereit(使)恶化,(使)变坏,(使)退化;背离,偏离: deviate
from the rule
pile [kem pa汇编,编制 pile an antholo gy ofpoems
ply [kem plai]]遵从,顺从,服从 ply with rules( safety regulations)
mpress [kem'pres, kompres] If He presses a lifetime as a soldier into a
few sentences
prise [kem praiz]包含,包括 The shipyard prises three docks
promise[ kompremaiz]妥协,折衷 promise over the hard- fought next
confront [ken '/^nr](使)面临,(使)遭遇 The war confronted him with hardships.
crucial[kru:Jo]决定性的,关键性的: a crucial decision
cue [kju]提示,暗号,信号: throw cues to sb
cultivate["k^ AItiveit耕作,栽培,养殖: cultivate vegetables
differentiate[dife'en∫iei使不同,使有差别,区分,区别: differentiate varieties
of plants
diffuse[di"ju:s]扩散(气体,液体等);: The co lors of the sunset were diffused across
the sky.
disperse [dis'pa:s]分散,驱散,散去: Police dispersed the rioters with tear gas
distribute [di': t, dis-]分配,分发: distribute the prizes among the winners
eliminate[" minent排除,消除 eliminate the exp lo itation of man by man
elite [eil:tii:出类拔萃的人(或物),精华 the elite of the society
eloquent Te lakwent]雄辩的,口才流利的有说服力的 an eloquent spokesman
embark [emba:k,im-]上船(或飞机汽车等): embark for Europe at New York harbor
embody[ m'bodi]使具体化,表现 embody principles in actions
embrace [im'breis] #yE: S he embraced her son tenderly
enlighten[in' later]启发使摆脱偏见(或迷信)Wσ uld you enlighten me on your
plans for the future?
enroll [in'rou]吸收(成员),招生; The sc hool enrolled about300 pupils last year
第16天任务
condense [ken'dens](使)压缩,(使)凝结,使简洁 condense a speech to half
confer [ ken'fo]商谈,商议 confer with sb.Over(on, about, concerning-)sth
confess [ken'fes]坦白,供认,承认,忏悔 confess one' s crime
formulate ['fo mjuleit规划(制度等),构想出(计划方法等) formulate a policy
diminish[dmin门减少,降低: His illness diminished his strength
diplomat ['diplamaet外交家,外交官,圆滑的人: a career diplomat
discard[ dis'ka:d, 'disk:d]丢弃,抛弃: discard an old pair ofshoes
discern [di'se: n,-'z°:n看出,觉察出: We could discern from his appearance that he
disclose [dis klau以]揭露,透露,使公开: disc lose information to sb.
discharge [dis'tfa: d3, 'dista: d3, dis'tf-])** The judge found him not guilty and
discharged
rg
hi
discount[ Tdiskaunt,disk-]把(价格,费用等)打折扣,削价出售: The store
discounts 3 per cent on all bills
paid when due
discriminate [dis'krimineit, dis ' kriminet]区别,辨别:It' s difficult to discriminate
between the twin brothers
disgrace[ dis'greis丢脸,耻辱: bring disgrace on oneself
entertain[, ente'tein给…娱乐,使有兴趣: The child is entertaining himself with his
building blocks
ente[ in'taitl]给.权利给…资格(to): Robert was entitled to see the documents
equivalent[" kwivelen]相等的相同的 The misery of such a position is equivalent
to its happiness
erase'reiz, treIs]擦掉抹掉消除ε rase the chalk marks
erect['rek]竖直的垂直的,竖起的: an erect tree
erupt['^pt(火山,喷泉等)喷发 The volcano is due to erupt any day
essence lesens]本质,实质,要素 Being thoughtful of others is the essence of
eternal[ite:na]永恒的,永存的,永久的 eternal truths
ea|uate[' vaeljueit]估价评价: evaluate property
evaporate[ vaepereit(使)蒸发,(使)挥发: Heats evaporate water
exaggerate[g'zd3erei]夸张,夸大,对,言过其实 keep to the facts and don't
exaggerate
exceed [ik'si:d]超出,胜过 Her performance exceeded all the others
externa|[kste:na]外面的,外部的 Xternal signs of a diseas
descend [disend]下来,下降: Darkness descended too soon.
extract[ ik'straekt,' ekstraekt]取出提取 xtract a confession
extravagant[k' strae vagant奢侈的,浪费的: be extra va gant in one' s way of living
fabricate [faebrikeit建造,制造: The finest craftsmen fabricated this clock
facilitate [fe'siliteit使变得(更)容易,使便利
fade[ed](颜色)褪去 The color in this material will not fade
faint [feint]不清楚的模糊的,微弱的 a faint idea
dominate[ domine分配,统治: a white dominated society
donate [deu'neit捐赠,赠送: They donate to the Red Cross every year.
doom [ du: m]命运,厄运,劫数: His doom was to be poverty.
doze [dauz]打瞌睡,打盹儿: The old lady dozed in her armchair
drain[dren慢慢排去: drain water from a pool
read [dred]怕,畏惧 dread to think of what may happen
drift [drift漂流,漂泊: The sounds of music drifted up to us.
dubious i'dju:bjs]引起怀疑的,不确定的: a dubious reply
due dju,du:]欠款的,应支付的: A great deal of money is due to you
dump[d^mp]倾倒,倾卸: He opened his bag and dumped its contents on the desk
duplicate ['dju: plike,"dju: likert完全一样的,复制的: a duplicate key
excess[kses,ek-,' eases,iks-]超越,超过 an excess of supply over demand
execute [eksikju:实行实施执行履行: execute a plan
exemplify[ig' zemp lifan]例示,举例证明,是…的例证(或榜样等): The teac her
exemp lified the use of the word
exert[g2ze:t用力,尽力 exert all one's strength
第17天任务
sacrifice [saekrifais]献祭,供奉 a law banning the~ of animals
salute [senju:t,sa:"ute]敬礼,祝贺~one' s superior officer
retain [ri'tein]保留,保持~ the right to reply
revenge[ ri'vend3]报仇,复仇
oncentrate[ konsentreit集中,专心 concentra te one' s attention
exhaust[g2z3:st]汲空,抽完 exhaust a well
expel[kspe驱逐,走 expel an invader from a countr
expend[ ik'spend]花费消费(on,in) They expended all their strength in(on)
trying to climb out
expire[ k'spaia,ek-]满期,届期,(期限)终止 His term of office expires this year
explicit ik'splisit详尽的,明确的: give exp lic
exploit l'eksploit,iks-]英勇的或冒险的行为或事迹 The daring of exp loit of the
parachutists were much admired
exte rior[ k'stierie]外部的,外面的,外表的 exterior decorations
durable[ djuerabl]耐用的: a durable fabric
dwe[dwe]( dwelt或 dwelled)(尤指作为常住居民)居住: dwell on an island
gesture[d3esta]手势,示意动作: raise one' s hands in a gesture of despair
confine [ken fain," contain限制,使局限 They succeeded in confining the fire to
a small area
conflict (ken flikt, konflikt]](尤指长期的)战争,战斗 The conflict between greece
and Troy lasted ten years
conform [ken fo:m]遵照,适应。 confirm to(或wih) the rules( the law)
flourish [lauri∫茂盛,繁荣兴旺 Painting flourished in Italy in the fifteenth cer
luctuate ['flnktjuei波动起伏 You cant march in a straight line to the . tury
ictory, yo
fluctuate it
fush[f门脸红 Her cheeks flus hed red
forbid [fe'bid]不许禁止: Wine is absolutely forbidden to all the children
forge [fo: d3]# 5: forge a horse-shoe out of an iron bar
glance[gla:ns, g lens]一瞥,扫视: take a glance at the newspaper headlines
glare[gleo]怒视,瞪眼: give the jury a glare
dense dens]稠密的,密集的 a dense forest
deposit[di'p动i存放: She deposited her bag in the cloakroom
depress [dipres]使沮丧,使消沉: That movie depressed me
deprive[di'praiⅳ]剥夺,使丧失: deprive sb. of his property
derive [drain取得,得到: He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father
ontroversy[ k o ntre,vos](尤之以文字形式进行的争论),辨证 a point of
controversy
convention [ ken' venan](正式)会议,(定期)大会 draft a new constitution at
convention
convert [ken'vo:转变,转化: convert coal to(into) pipeline gas
convey [ken'vej运送,输送,传送 a wire conveys an electric current
convict ken'ⅶk(经审讯)证明有罪,宣判有罪 He was convicted ofsmuggling
coordinate [keu' o: dinit,keuo: dineit]调节,协调 coordinate the functions of
go vernment agenc les
cordial [ ko: djal热情友好的,热诚的,真心的 a cordial hello( smile, invitation)
glimpse[ glimps]一瞥,一看: have a glimpse of(into)sth
glitter [g lite闪闪发亮(或发光),光彩夺目,闪耀: His language glitters with
marve lo us word s
glory lglo:光荣,荣誉: The soldiers hoped to win glory on the battle field
gow[slu]发热,发光,发红: the fire glowing in the darkness
gossIp[ gosIp]流言蜚语: give rise to gossip
grant [gra: nt, grant同意,准予: grant a request
grease[si:s]油脂,动物脂: the grease spot on the envelope
heal[hi:治愈,愈合: heal the sick
heap[hip](一)堆; a big heap of books
hedge[hed3](矮树)树篱: a quickset hedge
第18天任务

highlight[ hailar使显著,使突出
fracture[ franke]裂缝裂痕 a fracture in the pipe
frequent [fri: kwent. fri kwe nt]时常发生的,频繁的 His trips to france are less
freq uent now
rown[ frau皱眉 frown at
frustrate [f^ s treit挫败,阻挠,使灰心,使无效 frustrate a plan

furnish 'fa:ni门]供应,提供: furnish blankets for the refugees
fury[fuem]狂怒,暴怒: fly into a fury
fuss[s]大惊小怪,乱忙,小题大做: make much fuss over losing a penny
hinder[ hinde]妨碍,阻止: Bad weather hindered travel
hint [hint]暗示:drop(give, throw out) a hint
enforce[info:s]实施使生效: The principal enforced the rules of the school
finite ['fainait]有限的,有限制的 a finite number of facts
flare [flEεe](火焰)闪耀,(摇曳不定地)燃烧: candle flaring in the wind
fash[fae门闪光,闪烁: a flash of lighting
flat [fleet平坦的,扁平的 a flat land
inaccessible[ inaek'sesebl达不到的: The two rocks at the top of the steep hill is a
first sight inaccessible
incline [in'klain] 1f+: The sha ft inc lines almost thirty degree
incorporate[ in ko peret,in" ko: paret包含,吸收: His book incorporates his earlier
essa y
Incur[nk:]招致,引起,遭受: incur sb' s displeasure(envy)
modify/[ modifi]修改,更改~alaw
momentary ['meumentari片刻的,瞬息的a~ feeling of fear
designate[ designet,' dezignit,-nei指明,表明: designate boundaries
desolate[ dese let,' deselect荒芜的,不毛的: desolate land
despise [di' salz]蔑视,鄙视: He despises flattery
detach [di'taet门j拆卸: They detached their trailer and set up ca. ed the illr
diagnose ['daiagneuz, daiag' nauz]诊断,判断: The doc tor diagnosed the illness as
influenza
dictate[ dik'teit' dikteit口授,使听写: dictate a letter to a secretary
coincide [keuin'said]相符,相一致100 Centigrade coincides with212
Fahrenheit
collaborate [ke'laebareit(尤指在文艺、科学等方面)合作,协作 He and I
collaborated in writing plays
collapse ke'laeps]倒坍,崩溃,瓦解 The roof collapsed under the weight of the
snow
collide [ke'laid]碰撞,互撞 The car collided with the truck.
memorate ke'memereit纪念,庆祝 memorate a holiday
mend [ke'mend]表扬,称赞 mend a so ldier for braver
extinct [ik'stink(火等)熄灭了的 c an extinct cigarette fire)
extinguish[ stingy门熄灭,扑灭 extinguish a cigarette( candle)
multiply l'mAltiplaij乘,相乘7and8
om
narrate [nareit, nereis叙述,讲述 the story ofs'slie
negligent [neglid3an疏忽的,大意的be~ about traffic regulations
indignant [indig nant愤怒的,愤慨的: The actress was at the co luminist' s personal
questions
indispensable[ indis pensebl必不可少的,必需的(to.for): Oxygen
indispens ab le to life
nduce [in'dju:s, in'du:s]引诱,劝使: Nothing will induce me to do that
infer[inf](根据已知事实等)推断,推定(from): From his grades I inferred that
he was a good student
Ingenious[nd3i:njs](人,头脑等)灵巧的,足智多谋的: an ingenious designer
instant tins tent紧急的,急迫的,立即的,即刻的: be in instant need of help
insulate[ insjulei,"ins。]隔音,使隔绝(以免受到影响): We are not insulated fro
the real world the way we were
insult[insA侮辱,辱骂: She insulted him by calling him a co ward
flatter 'flate]奉承,使高兴 I feel greatly flattered by your invitation
第19天任务
fe[fi:逃走,逃掉 The enemy troops fled in utter confusion
flexible ' fleksib柔韧,易弯曲的: flexib le cord
fling [fiin(用力)扔掷,抛,丢: fling sb into prison
hoist [hoist举起,升起,吊起: The war hoisted prices
homogeneous[ ho med3 I nles,heu]同种类的,同性质的,有相同特征的:
homo geneous parts
horizon[he' raizen]地平(线): The sun has sunk below the horizon
hospitable[ ho'spitebl," hospital]好客的,殷勤的,热情友好的: be hospitab le to
the homeless
hostile[ postal-tl]敌人的,敌方的: a hostile army
withs tand [wio'staend,w-]经受,承受~ hardships
speculate[ spekjuleit推测,推断 I cannot~ on their motives for doing this
spill [ spil]溢出,溅出 The ship~ ed oil while in port
spin[spin纺制
cotton into yarn
splash[sple溅泼 a passing car~ ed my dress
split [split劈开,切开,裂开~ the firewood with an axe
sponsor Sponse发起者,主办者,保证人,赞助者the~ of the annual
Christmas parade
spot[spo斑点,污点 a blue tie with~s
spray [sprei]浪花,水花 The new shower heads reduce~ and waste less water
sprout [spraut抽条,发芽,长出 The seeds we planted finallyed
spur [spe靴刺,踢马刺 a pair ofs
renovate [renauvei修复,整修~ a two storey building
repel[r'pe]击退,抵制,拒绝,排斥~ the enemy
repent [ri pent后悔,懊悔~ of a thoughtless act
transmit [traenz'mit, trans-, tra: n-]播送,发射~ a match live
transparent [traens'paerant,→pEo-, trans-,tran-]透明的 Glass is
trifle [traif琐事,小事 One should not get angry about such a
trm[trim]整齐的,整洁的~ lawns
triple strip]三倍的,三重的,三部分的,三方的
triumph [traiemf,-Am胜利a~ over the enemy
trivial [trivia琐碎的,不重要的,无价值的~ matters
tuck[k]夹入,藏入He~ ed the letter in a book so he wouldnt lose it
tug[tg](用力)拖或拉 He tugged the door but it wouldn' t open
stroke[ streak]敲,打,鸣 drive in a nail with one~ ofthe hammer
tend [tend]趋向,倾向 Interest rates are~ ing upward
tender[tend]嫩的a~ piece of meat
reproach [ri'preu门]责备,指责,斥责mute~
scratch[ skeet门]抓,刮,擦 The cat~ ed me with its claws
shield[i:ld]盾,保护物,防御物 They piled more sand on top as a
snob[snob]势力的人,谄上欺下的人a~ of the first water
soak[souk]湿透,浸湿,浸泡 You shouldn' t have gone out in the rain- your clothes
sober[ stube]未醉的 A driver must stay
sophisticated[ se'fistikeitid]老于世故的 a young man quite~ for his age
sore[so:]痛的,痛苦的,痛心的 touch sb on a~ place
sow [seu]播种 This plot of land was sown with maize
第20天任务
sparkle[spa:k]发光,闪耀 Her eyes were sparkling with anger
tentative [tentetiv试验性的,试探性的,暂时的,推测的a~plan
terminate [te: mine停止,结束,使终止
c a contract
terrify [ rifai]使害怕,使惊吓 She was terrified out of her wits
testify []作证,证明 He agreed to~ on behalf of the accused man
humble[hAmb地位(或身份)低下的,卑贱的: a humble job
hysterical [his 'terik引]情绪异常激动的,歇斯底里的 an hystericaloutburst of fury
dentica[ ai'dentike同一的: the same(very) identical menu
identify [ai'dentifail识别,鉴别: He identified the coat as his bro ther s
ide[aid闲散的,闲置的:idke
ignite[ig'nai点燃,使燃烧: ignite a sto ve fire with scraps of paper
Impose[ mpeuz]征(税),加(负担,惩罚等)于(on,upon): impose additional
tax on business expansion
impulse [impEls推动,驱动: give an impulse to the de velopment of the friendly
re lations between the two countries
intact [in'taek完整无缺的,未经触动的,未受损伤的: an intact family
integrate [inti g reit," inti grit,-grei!使成一体,使合并(with,into): Integrate
traditio nal Chinese med icine with
interfere[ intent]妨碍,冲突(with):Mit! y we ather interfered with the contact
intermittent[ inte ' nt]间歇的,断断续续的,周期性的: suffer from intermittent
eaac hes
hazard[ hae zed]危险,危害物,危险之源: a life full of hazards
label leibl标签,标记,标号: put labels on your luggage
lag[e]走得慢,落后,滞留: Some ofthe runners began to lag
latent t'leiten潜在的,隐伏的,不易觉察的: a latent infection
leak[i:K]漏洞,裂缝: The pipe has got a leak
initiate['ni∫ieit,ini∫iot,-e开始,发起: initiate a conversation
innovate [inauveit革新,改革,创新(inon/upon): innovate on another' s creation
tumble[tmb跌到,滚下 The baby is just learning to walk and he' s always
tumbling over
tune[tun,tun]曲调,曲子 She wrote the words of the song and her brother wrote
the
turbulent[ ta: b julant骚乱的,动荡的,混乱的,狂暴的a~ crowd
twinkle [twin闪烁,闪耀,闪亮 The diamond on her finger~ d in the firelight
twist[tws捻,搓,绞,拧~ a rope out of threads
who mesome[ helser]有益于健康的~ surroundings
wicked[ wiki]坏的,邪恶的,淘气的,恶作剧的~ habits
tease[i:z]戏弄,取笑 The boy is teas ing the cat
tedious [ti:dios,"t:d3es]单调乏味的,冗长的,罗嗦的a~ debate
liable[ lieb会…的,有…倾向的 We are all liable to make mistakes
liberal["ibro慷慨的,大方的 a liberal do nation
imp[imp]软的,松沓的 a young man in a limp gray sweater
linger[ingo逗留,徘徊 The children lingered at the zoo until closing time
lubricate[ lubrikeit使润滑 lubricate the skin with cold cream
ump[^mp]块,小方块 a lump of coal
第21天任务
macroscopic [ maekrau'skopik]肉眼可见的
magnet ['maeg nit磁铁,磁铁石 The pin was extracted with a magnet
magnify [meg nifa放大,扩大 I want to magnify this picture
malfunction[maef^ oken发生功能障碍,发生障碍 If the puter malfunctions
it fails to work properly
manifest [manifest]显然的,明了的 manifest superiority
nominal[nmin名义的,有名无实的a~ leader
nomi nate[ nominet,' nomi net,nei提名a~ leader
note worthy [naut,we6]值得注意的,显著的
intervene[inte'ⅵin插入,介入: A week intervenes between Christmas and Nev
Years Day
intricate[ Tintriket]错综复杂的,复杂精细的: a detective story usually has an
intricate plot
invert[in'vot,"inve:使反向,使倒转,使颠倒: The magician inverted the bag to
show it was empt
irrespective[ir' spektiv不考虑的,不顾的(of): irrespective of consequences
irritate ririteit激怒,使恼怒,使烦躁: be irritated by sb' s insolence
knt[ni编织,编结:She' s knitting her husband a sweater
grieve [gri:使悲伤,使伤心: The little girl grieved over her kitten' s death
grind[ graind]( ground)磨,磨碎,碾碎: grind wheat into flour
gross[ gre us]总的,毛的: gross Ine
guarantee[ g arent:]保证,保证书,保单: Wealth is no guarantee of happiness
hail[he欢呼,喝彩: The crowd hailed the actress with joy
halt [ho:(行进中的)暂停前进,中止,终止: The car came to a sudden ha
hamper[ hampi]妨碍,阻碍: hamper sb from getting elec
handicap[ haendikaep]障碍,不利条件: Poor eyesight is a handicap to a student
manipulate [ma' nipjuleit(熟练地)操作M: Smith manipulated the ivory
chopsticks with great dexterity
merit Merit长处,优点,价值,功绩 merits and demerits
migrate[ mai'greit'maig-]移居(尤指移居国外),迁移 migrate to another country
minimum I'minimem最低限度,最少量,最低点
mobilize ['maubilaiz] i5 Our country's in great danger, we must the army
ornament[o: ne ment,' o ne men装饰品,点缀品 We bought~ s for the
Christmas tree
orthodox[o:odks]正统的,正宗的 an economic theory
overflow [ euve fleu, euvefleu] zimm Every spring the rivers
overhaul[uve"ho,' uve ho:大修,全面检查,彻底革新~ a faulty machine
overhear[euve"hia]偶然听到,偷听到 I wouldn' t like to be~d
odpd]奇数的,单的,奇怪的One, three five are~ numbers
wicked' wiki]坏的,邪恶的,淘气的,恶作剧的 habits
第22天任务
withhold [wio'heuld,we]使停止,阻挡 be obliged to~ ones pen
withstand [w6' stae nd,wie]经受,承受~ hardships
offence [fens]犯法行为,过错 They were arrested for drug~s
offset l ofset,,o:," ofset'o:-]补偿,抵消 They gains~ the losses
omit [au'mit省略,删去 Minor points may be omitted.
overlap[ euve ' leep,' euve lap]重叠,部分相同 The Renaissance overlapped the
later Middle Ages
overthrow[,euveθreu,'ouveθreu推翻,打倒 a plot to~ the government
overwhelm[。 euve hwe In征服,压倒,毁坏 He took45% of the ballots and~ed
his two main rivals
pace[peis,' peisi]步,步速,步伐 He took three~ s forward
pack [paek]包,包裹 The climber carried some food in a~ on his back
pant [paent气喘,气喘吁吁地说话He~ ed along beside the bicycle
patent[ patna专利,专利权,专利品 take out a~ for an invention
periodical[ pieri'odikel期刊,杂志a~room
perish [peri们卒,丧生~ from disease
perpetual [pa'petu,-tu-]永久的,永恒的,长期的a~ arms race
notorio us[nuto:ries]臭名昭著的a~ thief
notwithstanding[, nitwit' standin,wWo]虽然,尽管 They traveled on,~the
storm
nourish [nAri∫,"n:]养育 Milk is all we need to~ our small baby
numb[n^m]麻木的,失去感觉的 fingers with cold
object tobd3ikt,-d3ekt,abd3ek物体,事物 cultural~s
obscure[eb'skje,ob-]晦涩的,费解的an~text
nasty[na:sti,"naes]龌龊的,肮脏的a~room
necessitate[ni' sesi. teit,ne-]使成为必须,需要 The emergency~ d a change in
plans
obsolete robs。i:t,obs"i:废弃的,淘汰的 Wooden warships are
obstinate robstinit,-net顽固的,固执的,倔强的 The girl would go her own way,
in spite of all warnings
occasion [a"kei3on,u-]时刻,场合 They met on three
paque[ ou'peik不透明的 a brick wall is
portable[po:tebl,pu]便于携带的,手提式的,轻便的 This little·Tvis
extreme ly
pose[pau以]姿势,样子 The model was asked to adopt various~ s for the
photo grapher
第23天任务
rally trae集合,团结~ pub lic opinion in favor of price controls
om
paralyze [paerelaiz]使瘫痪,使麻痹 A stroke~ d half his face
impartial [m'pa:∫o不偏不倚的;公正的
remark[r'ma]评论,议论(on,upon) It would be rude to~ upon her
appearance
remedy [remid治疗,治疗法,药品afok
spectacle[ spektekl景象,奇观,壮观,场面 The burning house was a terrible
squeeze [skwi:刁榨,挤 juice from oranges
stern [sta: n]严厉的,苛刻的a~ punishment
stimulate[ stimjuleit]刺激,促使~ economic growth
ignore [ig'no:]不顾,不理,忽视: He who ignores history is doomed to repeat it
illuminate[ ju: mineit照明,照亮,解释,启发,启迪: The room was poorly
illuminated by one candle
patch[paet]补钉,补片 patches at elbows of a jacket
hip[hi]n臀部,髋;屋脊
pave[peiⅵ铺路,铺砌,铺筑~ a road with concrete
hum[h^m]哼曲子;发嗡嗡声;忙碌n.嗡嗡声,嘈杂声
profound[ preu'faund]很深的a~skep
prohibit [prow'hibit] IE Tourist class passengers are ed from using the first class
prolong[ pre lon,"n]延长,拉长,拖延 a means of~ ing life
proclaim[ prau'kleim宣告,宣布,声明war
prosper[ prosper]兴旺,繁荣,昌盛,成功 His farm~ red through good mana gement
provoke[preu'veuk]挑动,激起,导致 He tried to~ them into fighting
radiate [reidieit(光,热等)辐射,发射 The sun~ s light and heat
radical『 reedlike根本的,基本的a~eror
humiliate[hju: milieit]v.使羞辱,使丢脸[同] disgrace
apse[aeps]n失误;(时间的)流逝ⅵ逐渐下降;终止
laptop [laptop]n小型计算机
perplex[ pa peeks]使困惑,使茫然 The question~ ed him
persecute I'pa siku:虐待,残害,迫害~ animals
perspective ipe' spektivI透视画法,透视图 a lesson in drawing class on
pessimistic[ pesi'mistik悲观的Iam~ about my chances of getting the job
petition[ putiAn]请愿,请愿书 get up a
plerce[pis]刺入,刺穿,穿透 The thorn~ d his heel
pilot[ pallet飞行员,驾驶员
pin[pin]大头针,别针
pinch [pint0捏,拧,夹 I ed myself to make sure I wasn
It dreaming
plausible [pl: keble]论点等貌似有理的a~ excuse
plead [pli: d]恳求,请求 His parented that he should be given one more chance
pledge[pled3]保证,誓言,誓约 fulfill one
plot[pl小块土地 a vegetable
plug[pg]塞子,栓 He wears rubber~ s in his ears when he swims
第24天任务
strate[ ilestreit(用图或例子)说明,阐明: A plicated rule can be illustrated
by a simple example
Immerse[m:s]使浸没: He immersed himself in the pool
shrewd [ru: d]机灵的,敏锐的,精明的a~ guess
synchronize[ sinkrenaiz]使同步,使结合,使协调 Their steps~d
taboo[ebu;tae-]禁忌,忌讳 Movies producers attempted to break down all the
tackle[taek用具,装备 shaving
transient t'traenzient,-si-,-∫ant,"tan-]短暂的,转瞬即逝的~ happiness
simulate[ simjulei假装,冒充 use tricks to~ illness
sketch [sket]素描,速写 make a~ ofa face in pencil
sack[sek]不紧的,不严的a~ soft rope
slender [shendi]苗条的,修长的,细长的 She is~ and has long dark hair
edible redib可以吃的,可食用的 edible oil
elaborate[ [lambert,; bereit精心计划(或制作)的详尽的 can elaborate plot
plunge[pnd3]猛地投入或插入 He ran to the edge of the swimming pool and~d
pocket[pki衣袋,口袋,袋子 a change
po‖[pou民意测验 a recent~ shows a change in public opinion
layman [leimen] n俗人,外行,门外汉
random[ render胡乱的,任意的,随意的,a~tak
reap[rip]收割,收获~ the rice in the field
rear [rie]后部,后边,背部 a garden at the~ of the house
reckon [reken]计算,数~ the days till christmas
hurl [h:]ⅵt猛投,力掷;大声叫骂
hurricane[ hArken]n飓风;+二级风
hypocrisy [hi pokrisi]n伪善,虚伪
ideology[aidi'oed3i,jdi]n.意识形态,(政治或社会的)思想意识

infrastructure[ infre,st^kt]n基础结构,基础设施
inhale[in'hev吸入(气体等),吸(烟)
juvenile[d3u: venal,-n]n少年a青少年的,适合青少年的;幼稚的
kin [kin]n.家族,亲属a亲属关系的
reclaim [ri kleim]使改过,改造 former criminal
recollect[reke'ek回忆,想起 I am trying to a forgo tten address
remend[reko'mend]推荐,称赞He~ ed me for the post of headmaster
reconcile Trekensai使和解,使和好 After each fight they ate soon~d
recruit[ ri'kru:t]招募(新兵)招收(新成员) try to300 men in two days
rectify r rektifai]纠正,改正,矫正~ the mistakes in a bill
refine [ri'fain h f crude oil into various petroleum products
pump[p∧mp]泵 fill a bucket from the
pursue[pa’sju,-su:]追赶,追随,追求 He felt their eyes pursuing him
quench [kwent门]消除,平息,压制,扑灭~ hatred
queue [ kju]-队人,一行列车foma~
quit [kwit]停止,放弃 It hasn't~ raining yet
peculiar [pi kju:je]奇怪的,古怪的 He has always been a little
peel [pi:削皮,剥皮 peel potatoes
penetrate[ penitent穿透,渗入 The nail~ d the wood at least two inches
perceIve[pe'si]感知,感觉,觉察 He was only able to~ light and color;he
could not see properly
第25天任务
perfume[pu:m香水,香料,香气 She loves french~(s)
hop[hop]w人单足跳:跳上(车等)n蹦跳:短程飞行
hound[ haund]n猎狗;卑鄙的人ⅵt用猎狗追,追逐
ho ver[hove,"hA-]ⅵi.盘旋;徘徊
howl[han怒吼,嗥叫ⅵ.(风等)怒吼,咆哮
huddle[h^dⅵi挤作一团;蜷缩ⅵ聚集n挤在一起的人
quiver [kwive]颤抖,抖动~ with cold
quote [kweut,kou引用,引述,援引She~ d several verses to us
rack[ak]架子,支架,搁架 a clothes
refresh[ rife∫,ri:]使恢复活力,使振作精神Slep~ es the body
refute[ijut,ri:]驳斥,驳倒 The argument cannot be d at the moment
regenerate[rid3 entre,i:]使恢复,使复兴,再生 The human body can~hair,
nails etc
reign[rein]为王,统治 In England, the sovereign~ s but does not rule
reinforce [ri: infa:s]增援,加强 They hope to~ their domination in these countries
rejoice [ri'd3ois]使感到高兴,使充满喜悦 The who le nation over the victory
relate[i"le讲述,叙述She~ d the experience of a Chinese girl in the United
States
rescue [reskju]营救,救援,搭救~ hostages held by the terrorists
resent [ri'zent]怨恨 those unfair ments
reserve[rz保留,储备 We'l the ticket for you till tomorrow noon
resolve[izW决定,打定注意要 Have you~ d where to go next?
resort [r'za:求助,凭借,诉诸~ to sb for help
reverse[rive:s]相反的,颠倒的,倒退的a~ dictionary
revive[ rival苏醒,复苏 He is dead and never will
ridiculous [ri' dikjulas]可笑的,荒唐的,荒谬的
rigid trid3id]刚性的,坚硬的a~ piece of lasti
ipe[raij]成熟的,时机成熟的
luster of grapes
rot[ro]腐烂,腐坏,腐朽,腐败,腐化 Meat may if it is not refrigerated
roundabout braund,bau绕道的,绕圈子的,不直接的 The car has to take a
course to a void the flood
scorn[sko:n]轻蔑,鄙视He~ s lying
scrap[ skraep]碎片,零屑~ s ofbread
scrape[ skreip]刮,擦~one' s chin
elevate relive举起提高抬起 elevate the living standards ofthe people
fascinate [faesine强烈的吸引迷住使神魂颠倒: be fascinated with history
emigrate[ emigre移居外国(或外地区)ε migrate from Canada to Australia
emit['mit发出,散发(光,热,电度,声音液体,气味等),发射电子 The chimney
emitted a cloud of smoke
endeavor[ in'deve](为达到某一目的而)努力,尝试 How much he endea vored,goal
ta yed unattained
pulsory [kem pAlseri必须做的,义务的 a pulsory subject
conceal [ken'si:]隐藏,隐瞒,隐蔽 He concealed his disappointment from his
friends
conceive [ken'si:构想出,设想 conceive an idea
restore[ ri'sto:]恢复,修复,康复 The temp le has been~ d out ofall reco gnition
restrain[ ri'strein]抑制,遏止~one' s anger
resume [renju;:meli,r' zu.m;-zum]重新开始,继续 When I quit golf,I~d
g
rouse [rauz]惊起 The boat~ d wild ducks to flight
row[reu吵闹,争吵 What's all this~abou?
rub∧Ab]擦,摩擦 He rubbed his eyes
rust [r^st]锈,铁锈 Iron gathers~ easily
ruthless [ru:is]无情的,残忍的,冷酷的a~ enemy

ack [ saek]麻袋,纸袋,塑料袋a~ of cement
sacred[ seikrid]神圣的the~ name of god

第三章英语构词法(版权所有:吴耀武)
1.表示反义或否定的词缀
2.表示时间的常用词缀
词缀
位置
意义
例词
加在以“”
illegal不合法的
前i-
开头的词不
illiterate文盲
illegitimate非法的
加在字母
impractica ble行不通的
lm-
m,b,p|not,in, intoinvisible不可见的;
反缀i
之前
否定,加强或引 irrational不合理的
申意义
inaccurate不准确的;

irresistable不可抗拒的
maltreat虐待
malfunction机能失常;
bad, badly恶, malcontent不满的
ma-
不良
malnutrition营养不良;
maladminister对.管
理不善
mIs-
bad, badly错, mistake错误
no n-
nonmetal非金属
not否定
non- fe rous非铁的
no violent非暴力的
nonprofessional无职业的
分离
separation分离;
安全
segregation隔离,分开
un-
加在形、
unpredicta ble无法预言
副、名词not否定
的; unknown未知的

waterproof防水的
缀pmo加在名词(ad.)防…… boomproo防弹的


soundproof隔音的
burglar-proof防盗的
-ess
加在名词
not否定 careless不细心的

selfis hless无私的
before在… ante-room前厅
ante
之前
ante- Christian基督降生


antecedent先行的,先时

前任的
ex-president前总统
ex-premier前总理
间缀
fore most最前的
forecast预测;
fore father前人,祖先
fore-
before前.预先| fore head前额
foretell预言
前景
foresee预见

prehistory史前

prerequisite先决条件
before之前 prelude序言前奏曲

ion大选前
Pre fix前缀
r
预先的
programme节目单
prologue序言,序幕
prophet预言家
proto
原始,初
proto hydrogen初氢
type原型
proto plas m原生质
proto plast原物,原型
meta
在…后, Metaphor隐喻;
变化,变位 meta phrase逐字硬译
metaphysics形而上学
ost
after之后
postwar战后
postgraduate研究生;
post-liberation解放后
retro
back往后的 retrograde倒退的
retrospect回顾
3.表示数字的常用词缀
词缀位置意义例词
demi
de migod半神半人;
hemi-

he michele半圆形建筑
seml-
semiauto matic半自动的
semimec hanized半机械化的
mono
mo no motor单发动机
mo no wheel单轮
uniform均匀的;
数前
e单
ar单极的
unicellular单细胞的:
uniaxial单轴的
unilatera lis m单边主义
ambiguous有两个意义的,暧
字缀
ambl-

昧的
amphi-
amphitheater圆形剧场;
周围
ambidextrous左右手都善用;
amphibian两栖的
bimetallic双金属的;
bimotor双发动机
biweekly双周(刊);
biyearly两年一次的
二,双
dioxide二氧化物
D
diode二级管
diphthong双元音
triangle三角形;
tripod三角架;
tri-
triennial每三年一次的;
triple三倍的
tricar三轮车

triode三极管
quadruple四倍的
quadri-
quadrangle四边形;
缀 quadri
quadricentennial四百周年纪

penta
pentagon五角大楼

pentagram五角星形
pentameter五步诗句
uInque

quinta- fever五日回归热
quinqu-
quintessence精华(古代所谓
quinta-
组成天体的“第五元素”)
sex-
sexangle六角;
sexl

sexennial六年一度的
sexcentenary六周年纪念
September九月(古罗马的七
月)

septennial七年一度的
hepta-
heptad七人集团
heptagon七角形
octa
octagon八角形
OC

Octo ber十月
octad八价元素;
章鱼
nona-

no nagon九角形
Lenna-
ennead九个一组
「 decimal十进位的
d

decagramme十克
deca
decade+年,十个合成一组
centimetre厘米(百分之
0(a

centi
百,百分之 omtilitre厘升(百分之一升)
centipede蜈蚣(百脚虫)
Kilowatt千瓦
kilo

kilo meter千米;
kilogram(me)公斤,千克
milli
千,千分之 millennial千年的
milligram毫克
Multi- coloured颜色多样的,
Multi-- na tional多民族的
m
许多
multiform多种形式的
multilateral多边的;
multipole多极
lygon多边形
多,复,聚 polyato mic多原子的
polyphase多相的
poly unclear多核的
4.动词化常用词缀
词缀位置意义
例词

make belittle使缩小,贬低
intensive
be friend友好相待,帮助

使.…加强
词缀
enlarge扩大;
en-
in,into, to enable使.…能
em
make
embed埋置,嵌进

使……,使人 empower使……
encage关人笼中;
embrace拥抱;
endear受喜爱
embo dy收录,体现
harden使硬
en
加在形容(v.)make使| lengthen使变长
词前或后变成…
weaken使变弱
broaden加宽

magnify放大
(v) cause to simplify简化
-ify
加在名 bee
purify提纯
词、形容使……成,cer证明
词后
使.化
lorify颂扬
electrify使电气化
-ish
(v.)从法文借 anolis h废除
来的
blandish讨好
cheris h爱护
perish毁灭
he
实现
加在形容(v.) cause to mechanize机械化
词后
be of have analyse, analyze分析
-yse
以……方式对 A nize美国化
待:……化 popularize推广
ate
(v)使成为 activate使活动
5.名词化常用词缀
词缀位置意义
例词
an
加在形
Asian亚洲人;
容词后
electrician电工

physician医生

applicant申请人

ant
加在动
correspondent通信者

词后
resis tant抵抗者;

servant仆人;
fondant被告
-ard
加在形
drunkard酒鬼
容词后
coward懦夫
humanitarian人道主义
-arian
加在名

词后
(n.) one who。 octogenarian八十至八
that which表人十九岁的人;
-crat
加在名
democrat民主人士
词后
bureaucrat官僚
resse收件人
-ee
加在动
bint
employee雇员
词后
examinee应试人

refugee难民
pioneer开拓者;

volunteer志愿者
加在名
auctioneer拍卖商

engineer工程师


rocketeer火箭专家
electioneer竞选的人
er(-or)|加在动
manufacturer制造人;
词后
best-seller畅销货;

加在地
survivor幸存音
名后
ada pter改编者

-ese
加在地
Chinese中国人.汉语
名上
Portuguese葡萄牙人,
(n.) one who。葡萄牙语
that which表人 Japanese日本人
-ess
加在动
hostess女主人;
词后
manageress女经理
actress女演员
-ian-an加在地
Mile.an非洲人
名后
美国人
Australian澳大利亚人
-clan
加在形
electrician电学专家;
容词后
logician逻辑学家
mathematician数学家
后「sh①
加在国家
Swedis h瑞典的,瑞典
名称之后
人; Irish爱尔兰的,爱
尔兰人
socialist社会主义者
加在名
dramatist剧作家
词后
dentist牙科医生

botanist植物学家

e aerator加速器
actor演员
or
加在动
collector收藏家
词后
cinl
accumulator存储器
acmo dator替工

ster
加在形
youngster年轻人
容词后
gangster歹徒
trickster骗子
proposal
提案
rofessional专业人员

加在动(n.)act; one signal信号
词后
who: that which
al同意
表动作,事物
refusal拒绝
arrival到达
passage通道

breakage破损
ge
加在动
shortage缺乏
词后
(n.) state; courage勇气
quality,act表状 shrinkage收缩:
-ance
加在形态,性质,行为, importance重要性;

ence
容词后情况
confidence自信心
independence独立;

appearance外貌
exis tence存在
加在形
consistency贯性
容词后
frequency
频率
ency
urgency紧迫性

accuracy准确性
policy政策
加在形
bureaucracy官僚主义;
容词后
fancy婴儿期
bankruptcy破产

diplomacy外交
加在形
freedon自由
do
容词后
wisdom智慧
chiefdom首领地位
kingdon王国
加在名
slavery奴隶制
词、动
b
rave
ry-勇敢
司、形容
refinery提炼厂
词后
cink
neighborhood邻里
-hood
livelihood生计
加在名
manhood男子气概
词后
fatherhood父亲的身
(n.)表示特性或份; false hood谬误
-Ion
情况
as hion
-tio n
加在动(n,)stte, decision决定:
词后 quality,act表状 addition增加
态,性质,行为
do minion统治权
description描写
unity团结一致
加在形
maturity成熟性;
容词后
conductivity传导性;
visibility能见度
欣赏
-ment
加在动
manage ment管理
词后
instrument工具
punishme nt惩罚
partners hip伙伴关系;
sportmans hip运动员道
-s hi
加在名

词后
leadership领导;
citizens hip
公民身份;
champions hip冠军头衔
bounty慷慨
加在形
loyalty忠实
容词后
certainty肯定;
plenty丰富
加在形


容词后
difficulty困难
tory胜利
conscious ness觉悟
ness
加在
darkness黑暗;
容词后
busyness忙碌
kindness善良
twofold二倍的
fold
加在数(n.)表示倍数 manifold许多倍的
司后
tho usand fold千倍的
加在名(n.)构成图 diagram图表
-gram
词后“画”字等含义 program大纲,节目单;
telegram电报
加在动(n)用于写或记 calculagraph计时器
graph词后录的仪器
micrograph微写器
h地震仪
chorography位置测定器
加在形(n.) disease, pneumo nla肺炎;
容词后stae, quality疾| media媒介;
病,集合,抽象名mii兵
acoustics声学
-Ics
加在名
aerobatics技巧飞行术;
词后
e conomics经济学
(n.)表示一门学 electrostatics静电学

astronomy天文学;
-nomy
加在形
economy经济;
容词后
taxonomy分类学
auto no my自治权
加在名(n.) state, do criticism批评
司或动才 trine, system表 formalism形式主义
词之后行为,状态,制度, impressionism印象主
社会信仰,学说义; capitalis m资本主

(n.) small, booklet小册子
加在名 unimportant小 leaflet嫩叶,传单
词后
cutlet肉片;
streamlet小溪
)| biology生物学
discourse. study ideology思想(体系);
-logy
加在名论,研究
technology技术
词后
arc haeology.考古学;
etymology词源学;
geology地质学
加在名(n.)表示假的, cigarette香烟
-ette
词后
人造的代用品
flannelette棉法兰绒
leatherette人造革
kitc henette小厨房
加在动(n.) indicating piping管道系统
词后
material表示材料| wiring配线
第.
1重
性| birth出生
加在形质
depth深度
-th
容词、动
growth生长;
词、数词
breadth宽度;

truth真理;
加在名(n.)表示集体、 fis hery渔业
词、形容地点
carpentry木匠业
erv
词、动词
brave
ry勇敢
之后
bakery面包坊
表示行为及其结 departure离开
expos ure曝光;
加在动
expenditure支出
司后
oSure透露
加在称(n.)小,呢称 doggy小狗儿;
呼、形容
daddy爸爸
词后
deary宝贝儿
fatty胖子
-meter
仪器
speedo meter测违仪
6.形容词化常用词缀:
词缀
位置
意义
例词
(adj) capa ble o, noticeable值得注意的
able|加在动 suita ble for能| porta ble可携带的
ible
词后
(为)…的,适 avoidable可避免的;
于∴的
possible可能的
functional起作用的
(adj.) re lated to; natural自然的
加在名lke具有…性质 editorial编辑的
词后
的,如.的
educational教育上的

national民族的
郊区的

-an
加在地
Canadian加拿大的;

ean
名上
adj. like
Er
uropean
欧洲的
related关于
African非洲的
的,有……性生质的 fortunate幸运的

ate
加在动
considerate考虑周到的
-ute
词后
passionate热情的

contribute贡献

pleased愉快的
(ad) adjective armed武装的
d
加在名 form of nouns and aged上了年纪的
词后ebs有……的 cultured有教养的
talented有才能的
(ad.) having thewoolen毛的
加在名 quality of有……性生| golden金色的
词后质的,似……的 rotten腐败的

wooden木制的
(ad.) having thefruitful有成果的
词后
加在名 quality of充满…… doubtful有怀疑的
化缀
词后的,具有…性质 cheerful高兴的

peaceful和平的
-ful
wonderful好极了的
加在容(ad.)表示某容 handful少量; spoonful
器后
器的容量
茶匙的量; glassful
玻璃杯的量
heroic英雄般的;
加在名(.)ike, metallic金属的;
词后
related to类似的, logical合逻辑的
具有…的
micros copic显微镜的
加在动
acid酸的;arid干燥的;
d
词后
() state性质| ford绚烂的; horrid可
怕的; acrid刻薄的
agonizing令人痛苦的
ng
加在名(构成现在 appetizing开胃的:
司后
分词作定浯
fascinating迷人的
exciting使人兴奋的
加在普(a)表具有…… childish孩子气的;ish
通名词性质或含有轻蔑的傻里傻气的;: selfis h自
之后
意思
私自利的
-Is
加在表(a4)表略带颜色 greenish浅绿色的
颜色的的
yello wish淡黄色的
形容词

(c) related to, definite一定的; opposite
加在动 having the quality相对的; favorite特别喜
词后of具有性质欢的

fearless无畏的
ss无边的;
ess
加在名(ad) without没 useless,)的
词后有……的
ho meles无家可归的
加在名(a) having the warlike好战的
like
词后 quality of有……, dreamlike梦一般的
性质的,象 huma nlike象人类的
-Ous
加在名(d.) having the advantageous有利的
-eous
词后
quality
famo us著名的
of富有.的
various各种各样的
-IOIS
courageous英勇的
(ad.) having thetroublesome讨厌的
加在形 quality of象
寂寞的
some
容词、名的,引起…的, loathsome讨厌的;
词、动词|易于
的, fulsome讨厌的

有…倾向的
加在名(.) full of, hairy多毛发的
词后
covered with
irony铁似的
having the quality
of充满,包含
7.表示属性的常用词缀
词缀位置意义
例词
macro bian长寿的
macro-
large大的
人)
rnacroworld宏观世界
mac roclimate大气候

minis kirt超短裙
mIn-
sma,lite小 minibus小公共汽车
miniature小画像,小型

microwave微波;

microscope显微镜
mcr→
l微
micro bus微型公共汽
车;
microfilm缩微胶卷;
micro- switch微型开关
eugenics优生学:
属前
eulogize赞美;
eu-
good, well优,善 eulogy赞美
euphony悦耳

eupeptic消化良好的
altre at虐待
malfunction机能失常
mal-
bad, badly恶,不 malcontent不满的

malnutrition营养不良
maladminister对∴
管理不善
neorealism新现实主
义; neolithic新石器时
w新
代的
neotropI
cal新热带区
新古典
主义; neoimpressionism m
新印象主义
pseudo cience伪科学;
pseudo-
fase假
pseudonym笔名,假名
pseudo morph假象;
民主
thermo
heat

Thermo meter温度计
thermo dya mics热力学
(天体)食
异常的
ecstasy狂想
人、行为)
古怪的;行为古怪的人
orthogonal直角的;
ortho
正确,直
orthodox正统;
orthograph正投影图
正音
hetero-
other不同的
heteropolar异极的
eteroaton异质原子
ho mogeneous均匀的
ho mo polar同极的
omo-
same
同等
homosexua同性恋的
ho mograph同形异义

ho mogeneous同类的,
同族的
svm
symmetric对称的;
SVn-
syllable音节
with, together共
系统
SVS-

synchronous同步的
synonym同义词:
synthetic合成的
teleprinter电传打字
tele
远的,终端
telescope望远镜;
teleswitch摇控开关
auto mate使自动化;
auto no my自治,自治
auto
sef自动

autoignite自燃
autosta ble自动稳定;
auto mobile汽车
8表示方向、位置的常用词缀
词缀位置意义
例词

over
over bridge天桥;

above,在…之上 overhead头顶的
u
向上,在上
uphold高举
upright垂直的
下,在下,其次| subway地道
次,亚,低于
水下的
sub-
不足
substandard低于标准规
格的; succeed继承;
suff后缀;

underdone半生不熟的

undersea在海底;
underline在…划线
Beneat,在…之 underwear内衣

under-
下;低于,次于, underpants内裤;

下内(衣服
underestimate估计过低;
underground地下的

undergro wn发育不全
interpersonal人与人之
between
间的
among; one withinternal内部[政的,国
inter-
or on another|内的; interc hange交换;
在…中, international国际的;
在…间;互相 interconnect使互相联系
intracardiac心脏内部
ntra-
Inside在内;内的; intra molecular分子

内部的
intracellular细胞内部
的; intrapersonal个人内

ntro
到.之中
introduce

intros pect反省
mid-
riddle中,中间| midair半空中
midstream中流
external外部的;emit发
out,away外射;发表(意见);发行
outside, outward extranuclear核外的;
在……外,向外 extrasolar太阳系以外
C
extraordinary非常的
extra. territorial治外法

extra. Euro pean欧洲以
外的
trans mit传送
across
tradition惯例
trans-
转换,横过,越 trans oceanic横渡大洋
tra
的; trans normal超出常
规的: trans plant移植
easten东方的

-en
加在名词表示方向
southe rr南方的;

wester西方的
northern北方的
缀ward
upward(s)向上
wards加在名(ahv.) towardoutward(s)向外
-ways
词、介词表方向
endways末端而上的;

back wards往后退地;
lengthways纵长的
(abv.&ldgi.)| clock-wise顺时针
wise
加在名词 in the manner crosswise成十字形

far stepwise还步的,分段的
as
d lengthwise纵长的
表方向,位置或
形状
9.表示程度的常用词缀
缀位置意义
例词
超高频
ic超声的
hy perphysical超物质的
super
over, above在 superheat过热
supra-
上,超
surface表面

sur
beyond超过 surpass i超越
supra molecular超分子的
ultra
ulra- short极短的

ultraviolet紫外线的
hy potension低血压

ypO-
hy
tEe减弱..的
der下、低、敏感度
次、少,在…之h
下腹的
y po dermic皮下的;
a-red红外线

infra-
fra
低于人类的
类人猿
Intra-S
tructure基础建设
e比.长寿
out超过,过度,oudo胜过
外,出,除去
d过大的
outwear穿坏
omnibus公共汽车;
omni-
omnipotent万能的
omniscient无所不知的
Pan- American泛美的;
所有的,公共 panacea万灵药,万金油;
的,总全,泛全, panorama万花筒
所有
panchromatic全色的
pantoprag matic样样都
panto-
要插手的
a ntos copic视野开阔
perambulate走来走去;
通过,彻底,完 perfect完美

perforate穿孔于

(adv.) in the hurriedly匆忙地

manner of
purposely有目的地
加在形容地(状态程度, seemingl表面地;
词后
性质,方式) immediately立即
10.其他常用词缀词根
词缀位置意义
例词
其前hdr
water水
hydrogen氢
hy droelectric水电的

parachute降落伞
防,降落伞
parasol阳伞
parts00p伞兵
cyber-
计算机,与电脑有 cybers pace网络空间


前缀
archbis hop大主教;
arc h-
首领
architect建筑师

arc hitecture建筑学
benefit利益
benevolence慷慨;
善好
beneficent慈善的;
benefactor恩人
通过,借以,分离 diagraph绘图仪
diagnosis诊断
pen
几乎,相近
ngular半岛
peneplain近似平原
挚爱
philanthropist慈善家
philo
philospher哲学家;
philanthropy慈善,善
心; philo math爱学问的
re heat再加热
back,agi回, regrind重磨

refuel重新加油
relive再生,复活
reconsider重新考虑
coexist共存;


te合作
co- auther合著者
cooperation协作
收集
collaborate协作
me mo rate纪念
-
with共同
conference会议
con-
correlate相关
cor
pile编辑;
corruption腐败
注:考研阅读专项词汇与近义近形词汇从考硏英语复习的第三阶段(强化阶
段)再开始学习,基础阶段不作要求,材料暂略
2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试
英语(一)真题
Sectioni use of english
Directions
Read the follo wing text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and
mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and
mark A, B, C or d on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points
The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have bee an important
sue recently. The court cannot 1 its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law 2
justices behave like politicians. Yet, in se veral instances, justices acted in ways that
3 the courts reputation for being independent and impartial
Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of
activity makes it less likely that the courts decisions will be 4 as impartial
judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not 5 by an ethics code. At the
ery least, the court should make itself 6 to the code of conduct that 7 to the rest of
the federal judiciary
This and other similar cases 8 the question of whether there is still a 9 between
the court and politics
The framers of the Constitution envisioned law 10 having authority apart from
politics. They gave justices permanent pos itions ll they would be free to 12 those
in power and have no need to 13 political support. Our legal system was designed to
set law apart from po litics precisely because they are so closely 14
Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamenta
ial 15 like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy
decisions, the law it 16 is inescapably politicaI-which is why decis ions split along
ideo lo gical lines are so easily 17 as unjust
The justices must 18 doubts about the court's legitimacy by making themselves
19 to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as
separate from po litics and, 20, convincing as law
[A]emphasize [B]maintain [C]modify
D] recognize
2. [ Awhen Ble
C before
D unless
3. [Restored
B]weakened
C]established D]eliminated
LA]cl
ed [C]suspected [D] accepted
5. [ADvanced [B]caught
C]bound
D]founded
6. [A]resistant
Subject
C
DIp
7. [A]resorts
B]stick
C]loads Applies
8. [AJevade b]raise
[C]deny D]settle
9. [ AJline
B barrier
C]similarity [D]conflict
10.[A]by
Bas
[C]though
D]towards
11.[A]so
Since
[ C]provided [D]though
12. [A]serve B]satisfy
CJupset [D]replace
3. A]confirm
B]expl
C]cultivate [D]off
14. A]guarded B]followed [C]studied
Tied
15. [A]concepts [B]theories
[C]divisions
D]conceptions
16. [A]excludes [BJquestions [C]shapes
D]controls
17. [A]dismissed B
[C]rank
Distorted
18. [A]suppress [B]exploit
[ Paddress
D]ignore
19. [AJaccessible [B]amiable
C]agreeable
Accountable
20. [Aby all mesns [Blatall costs
C]in a word [d]as a result
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Ans wer the questions below each text by choosing
A,B, C or D. Mark your ans wers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)
Text 1
Come on-Everybody's doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half
forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually
leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the clu
Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what
she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group
dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word
Rosenberg, the recipient ofa Pulitzer Prize, offers a host ofexamp le of the social
cure in action: In South Caro lina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage
against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South africa,an
HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young peop le to promote safe
sex among their peers
The idea seems promising, and rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of
the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer
pressure for healthy habits, and they demons trate a seriously flawed understanding of
psycholo gy. " Dare to be different, please don' t smoke! " pleads one billboard campaign
aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than
fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health ad vocates ought to tak
page from advertisers, so skilled at app lying peer pressure
But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive
Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exp loration of
the social and biolo gical factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring
flaw of the social cure as it's presented here is that it doesn't work very well for very
long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the
LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixe
There's no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our beha vior
An emerging body of research sho ws that positive health habits-as well as negative
ones-spread through networks of friends via soc ial munication. This is a subtle
form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day
o, Far less certain, ho wever, is how success fully experts and bureaucrats can select
ur peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It's like the teacher who
breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-beha ved
classmates. The tactic never really works. And thats the problem with a social cure
engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our
own friends
21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as
[A] a supplement to the social cure
B a stimulus to group dynamics
[ C] an obstacle to school pro gress
D] a cause of undesirable behaviors
22. Rosenberg ho lds that public advocates should
[A] recruit professional ad vertisers
B] learn from advertisers'experience
[C]stay away from mercial advertisers

D] reco gnize the limitations of advertisements
In the author's view, Rosenbergs book fails
[A] adequately probe social and bio lo gical factors
B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure
[C] illustrate the functions of state funding
D]produce a long-lasting social effect
n.
24. Paragraph 5sho ws that our imitation of behaviors
[A] is harmful to our networks of friends
B] will mislead beha vioral studies
[C] occurs without our realizing it
D] can produce ne gative health habits
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is
[A harmful
b desirable
CI pro found
D] questionable
Text 2
a deal is a deal-except, apparently, when Entergy is involved. The pany
major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last
week when it announced it was reneging on a longs tanding mitment to abide by
the strict nuc lear regulations.
Instead, the pany has done precisely what it had long promised it would not
challenge the constitutionality of Vermonts rules in the federal court, as part of a
desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It'sa
stunning mo ve
The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought
Vermonts only nuc lear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of
receiving state appro val for the sale, the pany agreed to seek permission from state
regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that
any extension of the plant's license be subject to Vermont legislature's approval
Then, too, the pany went along
Either Entergy never really intended to live by those mitments, or it simply
didnt foresee what would happen next. A string of accidents, including the partia
collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the disco very of an underground pipe system
leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankees safety and Entergy's
management- especially after the pany made misleading statements about the pipe
Enraged by Entergy's behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against
allo wing an extens ion
Now the pany is suddenly c laiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because
of the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has re gulatory power over
nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the supreme court has
ruled that states do have some regulatory authority o ver nuc lear power, le gal scho lars
say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers
extend. Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could
result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would
be beside the point
The pany seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so
damaged that it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should
be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 11
other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth
Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the pany has app lied for federal permission to keep
it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
revie ws the panys application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy
are worth
26. The phrase "reneging on"(Line 3. para. 1) is closest in meaning to
[A] condemning
B] reaffirming
[C] dishonoring
D] securing
27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to
[A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators
B] seek favor from the federal legislature
[C] acquire an extension of its business license
[D] get permission to purchase a power plant
28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its
LA] managerial practices
B technical inno vativeness
[C] financial goals
D] business vision
29. In the author's view, the vermont case will test
[A Entergy's capacity to fulfill all its promises
[B] the mature of states patchwork regulations
[C] the federal authority over nuclear issues
DI the limits of states' power over nuclear issues.
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[A Entergy's business elsewhere might be affected

b the authority ofthe nrc will be defied
[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application.
[D] Vermonts reputation might be damaged
Text 3
In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to
be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to
carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, disco very frequently
follows an ambiguous and p licated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot
escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowled ge and interest
influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the
subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and
: lf-deception abound
Consequently, disco very claims should be thought of as protoscience. similar to
newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny
and acceptance to trans form a disco very claim into a mature disco very. This is the
credibility process, through which the individual researcher's me, here, now bees
the munity's anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective know led ge is the goal, not the
starting point
Once a disco very claim bees public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit
But, unlike with mining claims, the munity takes control of what happens next
Within the plex social structure of the scientific munity, researchers make
disco veries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication
process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the
public including other scientists receives the new disco very and possibly
acpanying techno lo gy. As a disco very claim works it through the munity, the
interaction and confrontation between shared and peting beliefs about the science
and the techno gy involved trans forms an individual's discovery claim into the
munitys credible discovery
Two parado xes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends
to focus on some aspect of prevailing Know ledge that is viewed as inplete or
incorrect. Little reward acpanies dup lication and confirmation of what is already
known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly
published disco very claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and
convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation
by future researchers. Second, no welty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobe
Laureate and physio lo gist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described disco very as"seeing
what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. But thinking what
nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their
views. Sometimes years are required for truly no vel disco very claims to be accepted
and appreciated
In the end, credibility"happens to a discovery claim -a process that corresponds
to what philosop her Annette Baier has described as the mons of the mind."We
reason to gether, challenge, revise, and plete each other's reasoning and each
others conceptions ofreaso
31. According to the first paragraph, the process of disco very is characterized by its
[A] uncertainty and p lexity
[B]misconception and deceptiveness
[C] lo gica lity and objectivity
D] systematicness and regularity
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires
[A]strict inspection.
B]shared efforts
[C] individual wisdom
D]persistent innovation.
33. Paragraph 3 shows that a disco very claim bees credible after it
[A] has attracted the attention of the general public
B]has been examined by the scientific munity
[C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers
D] has been frequently quoted by peer scientists
34. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi would most likely agree that
a] scientific claims will survive challenges
B]disco veries today inspire future research.
[C]efforts to make disco veries are justified
D]scientific work calls for a critical mind
35. Which ofthe following would be the best title of the test?
[A Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development
B Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Disco very
[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science
D]Challenge to Credibility at the gate to Science
Text 4
If the trade unionist jimmy hoffa were alive today he would probably represent
civil servant. When Hoffa's Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten
American go vernment workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the number
of unionists in America's public sector passed that of their fellow members in the
private sector. In Britain, more than half ofpublic-sector workers but only about 15%
of private-sector ones are unio nized
There are three reasons for the public-sector unions'thriving. First, they can shut
things down without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are
mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America's public-sector workers have
university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties
go back a long way. Britain's Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been
associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to
votes from pub lic-sector unions
At the state level the ir influence can be even more fearsome mark Baldassare of
the Public policy institute of California points out that much of the state's bud get is
patrolled by unions. The teachers'unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOa on
prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care
In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the
private one. But the real gains e in benefits and work practices. Politicians have
repeatedly "back loaded"public-Sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but
adding to ho lidays and especially pensions that are a lready generous
Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education
where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even
though there is plenty ofevidence that the qua lity of the teachers is the most important
variable, teachers' unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting
good ones
As the cost to everyone else has bee clearer, po liticians have begun to clamp
down. In Wisconsin the unions ha ve rallied thousands of supporters against Scott
Walker, the hardline Republican go vernor. But many within the pub lic sector suffer
under the current system,too
John dona hue at harvard,'s Kenned y school po ints out that the norms of culture
Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers
The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are
university sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers' fat pay
packets have attracted much criticism, but a pub lic-sector system that does not reward
high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America
36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that
[A Teamsters still have a large body of members
B Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant
[C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership
D]the go vernment has improved its relationship with unionists
37. Which ofthe following is true of Paragraph 2?
[A Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions
B] Education is required for public-sector union membership.

C] Labor Party has long been fighting a gainst public-sector unions
D]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.
38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the ine in the state sector is
[A] illegally secured
C] excessively increased
D]fairly adjusted
39. The examp le of the unions in wiscons in shows that unions
[AJoften run against the current political system.
B]can change peop le' s political attitudes
[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms
DAre dominant in the government
40. John Donahue' s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of
[A]disapproval
APpreciation.
[C]tolerance
D]indifference
Part B
Directions
In the fo llo wing text, some sentences have been remo ved For Questions 41-45
choose the most suitab le one from the list A-g to fit into each of the numbered blanks
There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your ans wers
on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points
Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aerop lane window and
realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop thinner than a
brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or
two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream e true
The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors
entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function
as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and
radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)
The networked puter is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves
the mode of production, means ofdistribution, site of reception, and place ofpraise
and critique. The puter is the 21 st century's culture machine
But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the puter, we must also tread with
caution(42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that
there are strong mercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption
mode. Second, the majority of peop le who use networked puters to up load are not
even a ware of the significance of what they are doing
lI animals download, but only a few up load. Beavers build dams and birds make
nests. Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world
downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn
around and use them to create superfluous material goods-paintings, sculpture and
architecture-and superfluo us experiences- music, literature, religion and philosophy
(43)
For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in
download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of
production remains, with a small number of peop le up loading material, a slightly larger
group menting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining
content to just consume . (44
Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that
television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.
(45
What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept
f stickiness"-creations and experiences to which others adhere
[A]Ofcourse, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and
ltimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great
skills, but failing to move be yond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining
constituent of humanity.
B Applications like tumblr. , which allow users to bine pictures, words
and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add
stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others
[C] Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they
had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people
every day
D This is because the networked puter has sparked a secret war between
downloading and uploading- between passive consumption and active creation
whose oute will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine
[EI The challenge the puter mounts to television thus bears little similarity to
one format being rep laced by another in the manner of record players being rep laced
by CD players
[F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past
half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium
television-and television is defined by downloading
G]The networked puter offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow
to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful
up loading
Read the fo wing text care fully and then trans late the underlined segments into
Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points
Since the days of aristotle, a search for universal princ iples has characterized the
scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for monalities defines science
Newtons laws of motion and darwinian evo lution each bind a host of different
phenomena into a single exp licatory frame work
(46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme,and
eks a theory of everything a single generative equation for all we see. It is being
that such a the
uld be
lificatio
the d
and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification ofsorts remains a major goal.
This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too
(47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share mon
origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more
constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might
all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the worlds languages, music, social
and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features. (48) To filter
out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how plex
cultural beha vior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms
That, at least, is the hope. But a parative study of linguistic traits pub lished
online today supp lies a reality check. Russell Gray at the Univers ity of Auckland and his
colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to
find universa lity in language
The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested
that humans are born with an innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a
universal grammar. a few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire
fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quick ly
(49) The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to
universality identifying traits ( particularly in word order shared by many language
which are cons idered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints
Gray and his collea gues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that
between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50) Chomsky's grammar should
show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway
tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies
between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out
by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and
not governed by universals
Section ll writing
Part A
1. Dire ctions:
Some internationals students are ing to your university. Write them an email in
the name of the Students' Union to
1) extend your wele and
2) provide some suggestions for their campus life here
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2 Do not sign your name
at the end of the letter.Use“ Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address (10 points
Part B
52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing
In your essay you should
1) describe the drawing briefly
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your ments
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2.(20 points
d
2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试
英语(一)真题答案详解

吴耀武主编
Section i use of englis h
1.【答案】B
【解析】从空后信息可以看岀,这句表达的是“法官表现得像政治家”的
情况下,法庭就不能保持其作为法律法规的合法卫士的形象,所以应该选C
maintain维持,保持”,其他显然语义不通。
2.【答案】A
【解析】从第三段可以看出,文章认为法院和政治之间应该是有界限的。所
以这里应该是当法官像政治家一样行事,模糊了二者之间的区别时,就失去了其
作为法律卫士的合法性。只有B,when表示这个意思。
3.【答案】B
【解析】第二段给的具体事例说明,法官岀现在政治活动中会使法官形象受
损,影响他们独立、公正的名声。只有B, weaken能表示这个意思
4.【答案】D
【解析】空前信息显示,法官出席政治活动会让法院的审判收到影响,人们
就会认为其审判不公正,所以选D, be accepted as.被认为是”
5.【答案】C
【解析】空所在的语境为:产生这样的问题,部分原因在于“法官没有道
德规范”。后一句话说,至少法院应该遵守行为规范,这显然是进一步说明上一句
话。所以上一句是说法官没有受到道德规范的约束,选C, bound。
6.【答案】B
【解析】根据解析5可以看岀,这里应该是说遵守行为规范, subject与to连
用,表示“服从某物,受.支配”。故本题选B。
7.【答案】D
【解析】分析句子结构可知,这里是由that引导的定语从句修饰说明前面的
行为规范,是说法院也应当遵守适用于其他联邦司法部的行为规范。 apply to‘适
用于”符合题意。 re sort to“求助于”; stick to‘坚持(原则等)”语意不通。
8.【答案】B
【解析】空所在的语境为,类似这样的案例提出了这样一个问题:法院和政
治之间是否还存在着界限。提出问题,产生问题用只能选 raise
9.【答案】A
【解析】根据第8题可知,空内应填ine,“界限”。 barrier“暲障碍”, similarity相
似性”, conflict冲突”都不合题意
10.【答案】B
解析】根据句意,宪法的起草者们预想的是将司法从政治中分出来,让其
享有独立的权力。 envision as“将.想象成..。所以选B
11.【答案】A
解析】本题考察逻辑搭配。本选项答案的确定需结合前句意思,制宪者旨
在使法律不受政治的任何影响,这样一来,法官就可以免受掌权者的影响了。此
空就是考察由此所带来的结果,故选[A]
2.【答案】C
〖解析〗此题承接上题,可知法律不受政治的影响,从而法官也不用担心掌
权者( those in power)。
13.【答案】C
解析】此题承接上题,结合句意,可知该半句主要表达“法官也无需政治
支持了。”选项C最符题意。
14.【答案】D
解析】此题考察词意辨析。原句表达“我们的法律体系是法律完全不受政治
的影响,是因为这两者是紧密…”。结合句意思,[D]最合题意
15.【答案】A
解析】此题考察词意辦析。文中说¨宪法具有政治性,是因其的选择都是植
根于诸如自由,财产之类的基本社会…中。”自由,财产是西方社会的一些基本社
会理念或概念,故选[A]。
16.【答案】C
解析】此题考察词意辨析。首先分析该句,可知空白处添加上一动词可构
成一定语从句,限定‘ the law”。其次,文中语境表达“当法律处理社会政策决策问
题时,…的法律不可避免的具有政治性。四个选项中,[C为最佳答案
17.【答案】A
解析】此题考察词意辨析。可由文中语境得知,该半句主要表达“这也就
解释了为何背离思想路线的决策被看作是不公正的,从而被轻易的..’。结合语
境,以及四个选项的意思,可知[A最佳。
18.【答案】C
解析】此题考察词意辨析。由文中语境可知该句主要表达“法官必须..有关
法庭(裁决的)公正合理的质疑。四个选项中,仅[C]符合题意
19.【答案】D
解析】本题考察短语搭配及相似短语辨析。四个选项均可与连用,其中
access le to易接近的;可归属的;可得到的可归因的
amiable to可亲,多指人和蔼可亲,易于接近
agreeab le to欣然同意的;适合的,适宜的
accountab le to对.负责
此题的理解需承接整个句,首先此空所在后半句乃一方式状语,承接前半句
说明法官怎样来解决有关法庭(裁决的)公正合理的质疑。将此四个选项分别
代入,可得出正确答案[D],法官只有对对行为准则负责,也即是遵循一定的行为
准则才可确保其裁决的公正与合理。
20.【答案】D
【解析】此题考察逻辑搭配。此句承接上句,旨在说明由此带来的结果,也
即是文中所说的“∵.使得裁决看起来完全不受政治的影响,如法律一般令人信服。”
结合四个选项意思,可知选D]
Section II Reading Compre hension

Part A
Text 1
21.【答案】D
【解析】文章首段包含了两方面的内容,作者先简单介绍 Peer pressure,再
引出 Tina rosenberg在她的新书 Join the club中对于 peer pressure的看法,这篇文
章是以一篇书评的形式出现。而题目“根据第一段,同伴压力的出现常常是..”问
的仅仅是同伴压力,并无涉及到 Tina Rosenberg或者她的新书,因此答案则应主
要涉及文章对于 peer pressure的介绍,而非Tina对于 peer pressure的看法。首段
第三句说“(同伴压力)通常引起不好的事情,如酗酒,嗑药,乱交”,故答案选
D,说明同伴压力出现导致的结果,这里的答案使用了同义替换的方式
22.【答案】B
解析】根据题干关键词¨pυblic- health ad vocates'可以定位到第三段最后一句
iF"RoSenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page
from ad vertisers, so skilled at app lying peer pressure”,即应该向广告商学习,这里主
要是对于短语 take a page from的理解,答案选B
23.【答案】A
【解析】根据题干“在作者看来, Rosenberg的书没能…”’所选答案是要找出
作者看来这本书的缺点是什么。文章第四段第一句话说“但是,在..方面
Rosenberg不太有说服力”,紧接着说“ Join the club中太多无关的细节,而对于使
同伴压力能产生如此大作用的社会和生物因素并未做足够的探究”,这句话充分说
明了在作者心目中这本书的不足在哪儿,故答案选A
24.【答案】C
【解析】这是一道细节题。文章第五段首句告诉我们 peer groups确实会对行
为产生很大的影响,第二句具体说明影响的内容,即好的习惯和不好的习惯都会
通过社会交际在朋友圈中传递,最后一句则对这种影响进行了总结,这是同伴压
力的细微表现,我们无意识地模仿日常所见到的行为”。而分析题干和选项,我们
发现该题是对“ imitation of beha vior'进行归纳,回到原文,找到我们无意识地模
仿日常所见到的行为,答案即刻清晰,这里是对 unconsciously一词进行了释义
因此C选项正确
25.【答案】D
【解析】这道题考查作者对于 peer pressure所能带来的影响的态度,作者通
过最后一段第一句话首先向我们表明他对‘专家和其他官方人员是否能成功选择
同伴来引导他们的行为朝好的方向发展”的不肯定,接下来以教师指导学生的例子
为说明,得出结论 The tactic never really works.”(这个策略从来没有真正起作用)。
通过作者的这样一番描述,可以看出,作者对于 peer pressure是否能有效果是质
疑的,故答案选D。
Text 2
26.【答案】C
docIn co
【解析】
rene ging的原形是 renege,本议是“食言”否认”之意,为反向意义词。而四
个选项中A中的 condemning意为谴责处刑”B中的 reaffirming意为“重申再
肯定,再断言”,C中的 dishonoring的意为拒付,不兑付”,在意思和方向上都
符合,D中 securing意为“保证,使保险的含义。本文主要在说 Entergy这个公
司不兑现自己的诺言,所以应选C项。
27.【答案】D
【解析】
本题答案定位在文中第三段每二句话, as a condition of receiving state
approval for the sale the pany agreed to seek permission from state regulators to
operate past2012." as a condition of可以理解为“为了”,D项中的 purchase”-词
就是对文中“sale”"的替换
28.【答案】A
【解析】
题干:“根据第四段 Entergy公司似乎在它的…上存在着问题”,题目中已清
晰把答案范围确定在第四段,通过阅读第四段我们可以看到 Entergy公司出现了
系列的事故 a string of accidents”,而后面的这句 raised serious questions about
both Vermont Y anke' safety and Entergy's management”就是本题的答案所在了。
其中“ managerial“ mana gement”仍是同一单词的变形。
29.【答案】D
【解析】
首先从题干知道考查的是作者的观点。“佛蒙特州事件”和 will test在文章中
的定位是在第5段第5句话, Vermont case will offer a precedent- setting test of how
far those powers extend'意思是佛蒙特州事件将会检验是这些权利延伸多远的先
例”。这句话是 legal scho lars的观点。重点是理解 certainly和but后面的意思。虽
然作者承认担忧如果每个周各行其是的后果是合理的,但是Bu后面是个虚拟语
气,与事实相反。所以作者的真正态度是支持 legal scholars的观点,即佛蒙特州
事件是对州法规的权限的考验。 How far those power extended与D选项的 the limits
of states' power与选项D‘各州在核问题上的权限”是相匹配的,因此正确答案为
D。其他选项与“佛蒙特州事件”带来的检验,文中并未直接提及
30.【答案】A
解析】
最后一段主要讲的是 Entergy公司的名誉已严重受创。该公司向联邦申请
许可 Pilgrim核电站获得另外20年的开放权。但是作者认为,核管理委员会在审
核该公司的申请的时候,务必要考虑下该公司的信誉问题。”A选项“ Entergy公司
在其它地方的生意将会受到影响”由最后一段的第一句话 Entergy公司的名誉已
严重受创就可以推断岀来;B‘核管理委员会的权威将会被藐视最后一段没给出
任何要藐视核管理委员会的暗含信息,因此B选项错误;C" Entergy公司将会撤
回关于 Pilgrim核电站的申请”,最后一段同样没给出类似的暗含信息;D“ Vermont
的名声将会受到破坏”同样,从最后一段,根本无法推断出。因此,最佳答案是
A。
Text 3
31.【答案】A
【解析】
这篇文章选自 The scientist,文章题目是 The Evolution of credibility。文章第一
段第二句话提到“ But in the everyday practice of science, disco very frequently follows
an ambigua us and p licated route.",即在每天的科学实践中,发现所遵循的规律
是模棱两可和复杂的。A项 uncertainty and plexity是对文中 ambiguous and
plicated的同义替换,所以为正确答案。
B项是利用文中最后一句话的干扰ˇ Opportunities for misinterpretation,eror
and self-deception abound”’,这句话是说¨有误解和自我欺骗的可能”,从而导致了
科学发现的模棱两可和复杂性;C项和υ项是受文章第一句话的干扰,但是第一
句同时提出只有“在理想中( in the idea lized version of.),科学发现才能够很客观
32.【答案】B
【解析】
第二段第二句中提到“ But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to.”其中
ⅱ指的是将科学发现获得公众可信度的过程。接下来的第四句话具体讲到了这个
i f:" through which the individual researcher's me, here, now bees the
munity's anyone, anywhere, anytime.”,即要经历从个人到集体的过程,需要
每个人共同的努力,故答案为B
33.【答案】B
【解析】
本段第三句话中提到 Within the plex social structure of the scientific
munity, researc hers make disco veries”,即“研究者需要在科学团体复杂的社会
结构中实现科学发现,在这句话的后面有一个分号,分号后面的三个短句分别解
释了在科学团体中不同身份的人所做的不同工作,如新闻编辑者和评论家需要控
制科学发现公开的过程,而另外一些科学家需要同过新的发现来证明已有的发现
等。除此之外,最后一句话“ trans form an individual's discovery claim into the
munity's credible discovery即将个人的发现转换为集体可信的科学发现,故答
案为B,即科学发现获得公众的可信度需要集体的努力和验证
答案A是利用本段首句设置的干扰,属于主观臆断;答案C为干扰项目,以
偏概全;答案D文中没有提及
34.【答案】D
【解析】
第四段主要讲到了科学发现获得大众可信度的过程中面临的两个矛盾
Albert Szent-Gyorygi的观点主要针对第二个矛盾,即创新本身经常会引起怀疑
同时他认为科学发现需要“ seeing what e verybody has seen and thinking what nobod
has thought”,即看到每个人都已经看到的,并想到别人没有想到的。这句话暗
了科学发现的过程需要有评判性思维,即我们应该去探求事物。故答案为D
答案A与本段中讲到的第一个矛盾有关;答案B的过渡推断来自本段最后一
句话,这句话的意思是,真正有创新的发现需要时间的验证来得到公众的认可
答案C文中没有提到,属于主观臆断
35.【答案】C
【解析】
此题考察对全文主旨大意的准确归纳。从整个文章脉络来看,文章第一段指
出任何发现最终的目标是使之客观化,然而此过程或多或少会受到不同的生活环
境的影响;第二段指出这个过程需要公众共同的努力;第三段具体论述了不同的
人在这个过程中需要完成的工作;第四段则提出了使科学发现获得可信度的过程
中所遇到的两个矛盾;最后一段用 Annette baier的一句话总结了这个过程。由此
可知,C项统领全文,为正确答案。答案A项与原文不符;答案B是第二段中
提到的一部分;而答案D只是对第四段的概括。
Text 4
36.【答案】C
【解析】
根据题干定位于第一段When… were in the ir prime in1960, only one in ten
American government workers belonged to a union;now36%do.意思是1960年时,
美国政府部门只有1/0的人是工会成员,但是现在比例是36%。所以C选项正
确:工会增加了政府部门成员。A选项: Teamster仍然拥有很多成员。文中只提
到了比例,并没有讲具体人数;B:吉米过去是一个公仆。而文中第一句是一个
虚拟语气的句子,“如果他还活着的话,他今天可能代表一名公仆”,曲解文意
D:政府改善了与社团的关系。文中并未提及。
37.【答案】D
【解析】
该题很容易根据题干定位于第二段。第二段中有很明显的 first, second, third
这些词,属于典型的列举处,最容易出细节题。只需要将各选项与这三点仔细比
对即可。A公共部门组织在采取行动时很谨慎文中并示提及,是对 "they now
dominate le ft- of-centre politics这句话设置的干扰项,“左派”为激进派,不可能谨
慎;而B错在教育不是需要的,而是公务员社团成员受教育程度普遍偏高,并非
必需;C工党长期与公务员社团争斗,该段倒数第二句指出工会与社团一直有联
系,最后一句讲到工会领导 Miliband荣登宝座正是因为公务员社团的大力支持,
因此与原文相悖;D选项为Fist, they can shut things do wn without suffering much
in the way of consequences这句话的同义改写。意思是他们可以息事宁人并不用
遭受不好的后果
docIn.
38.【答案】B
【解析】
该题很容易定位于文章的第四段。题干是“国家部门人员的工资状况是”。做
这道题要把第四段整体理解。注意But后面的内容,尤其是 keeping the pay
increases modest but adding to ho lidays and especially pensions that are a read y
genero us。大意是公共部门员工的工资涨幅很小,但是节假日福利津贴很多。B
选项的 indirectly augment意思是“间接地增加”。和原文意思“公有部门人员的收入
是来源于福利等间接收入,而非正常的工资收入符合。A通过非法得来文中只
提到了国家部门人员的工资比私人企业的要高,整段都未提及来源,故该选项属
于过度推理;C过度地增长文中并未提及增长的幅度,提到只是通过暗厢操作”
的方式,容易使考生产生误解;D很公正地调整与“ backloaded不符
39.【答案】C
【解析】
题干的意思是‘举威斯康辛社团为例,表明社团
”。该题根据题干中的
专有名词 Wiscons in定位于倒数第二段。由题干可知这是一个例证题,所以需要
看文章的第五段。第五段首句 Reform has been vigorously opposed。从第六段
Wisconsin的例子可以看出,工会集合众人反对共和党领导人 Scott Walker,正是
为了反对改革。所以可以知道工会可能是公共部门改革的一个障碍,C为正确选
项。A经常与当前政治体系对抗文中并未反映ofen这个程度。B能够改变人们
的政治态度文中并示提及,D在政府中占统治地位文中第二句讲到社团得到了
成千上万人的支持来对付强硬的共和党州长,并不能推出该选项之意
【答案】
【解析】
文中人物的观点态度题。该题定位于最后一段,第一句话指出John认为西方
公共服务中的文化准则适用于想维持原状的人们而对于有比较高成就的人们就
不利了,很明显持否定态度,最后再次指出不能造福于高成就人们的公共服务系
统对于美国可能是一个更大的麻烦,也再次证实了作者的观点是不支持的即A选
项。 disapprova反对”, appreciation欣赏”’, to lerance“宽容”’ indifference“冷漠”
Part B
41.【答案】C
【解析】略读第一自然段得知这篇文章的主题是科技给人们的生活带来的便
利,重点论述了媒介。此题空在末尾,那么通读空前的内容,可以找到特征词或
者中心词 creat a fabulous mac hine”浏览七个选项,C项中的 develop such a device
刚好与此对应
42.【答案】D
解析】此题空在了段落的中间,需要在空前和空后找关联词,空前出现了
reason”这个特征词,而空后出现了war”这个特征词,浏览七个选项,D项的
because”和“war”刚好与此对应,所以答案选D
43.【答案】A
【解析】此题空在段末,因此要在空前以及下一自然段的段首找关联词,浏
览空前可以找到“ superfluous material goods”,而浏览下一自然段的句首可找到
download这个词;那么浏览七个选项,答案A出现了 these superfluous things”,
接下来也提及到了“ download”,因此可以锁定答案A.
44.【答案】F
【解析】此题空在句末,所以需要浏览下空前以前下一个自然段的句首,通
读空前的内容可以找到关联词“ a pyramid of production remains,”,而下一个自然段
的段首提到了“ television”,那么浏览七个选项,跟此关联的有两项E和F,再继续
分析,E项只有“ television”这个词与空后对应,而F项不仅出现了“ television”这
个词,而且出现了 this pyramid of production'这个特征词,所以,答案为F
45.【答案】G
【解析】此题空在段末,那么需要浏览下空前的句子,寻找关联词,在B和
G之间进行选择,通读可知,空前的“fow”与G项的“ the flow”是相对应的,B
项的" applications”在文中没有提及,所以此题锁定答案G
Part c
46.【解析】本句结构比较简单,它是一个简单句,句子主干结构是one
approach takes. and seeks.。破折号后面的部分是对前面提到的理论的进一步解

1)take.. to extreme..把..发挥到极致,把.推至极限
事物的以 y ofeverything万有理论。或者也可以一个短语翻译出来“适用于任何
2) theo
3) generative equation生成等式、生成方程
【参考译文】物理学中的一个理论把这种归一的冲动发挥到了极致,它探寻
种万有理论--一个关于我们能看到的一切的生成方程式。
解析
47.【解析】对本句话的理解关键在于对for引导的句子的正确理解。因为有
两个逗号,有的同学在考场比较紧急的时间和紧张的状态下容易把两个逗号间的
部分理解为插入语,那么这句话就很难理解了
1)for引导的句子表原因与前句是并列关系,for原因并列句中又包含一个
if引导的条件状语从句
2)" 'it seems reasonable to suppose that”对这句话的翻译可以翻译成一个长句,
也可以分开翻译成“那么假设文化差异也能够追溯到更有限的源头,这种假设看上
去便是合理的了。”
3)对于“ cultural divers it”的理解,我们容易受到之前在备考中经常遇到的
cultural diversity"的影响,直接翻译成文化多样性”,但在本文,前文很多次提
到了共性,所以这里我们翻译为文化差异更合适
【参考译文】在这里,达尔文主义似乎提供了有力的理由,因为如果全人类
有共同的起源,那么假设文化差异也能够追溯到更有限的源头好像就是合理的

48.【解析】这句话结构主要在于对三个what”从句的理解。本题是三个what
引导的从句第一个是what引导的宾语从句,做 filter out的宾语。第二个what
是介词from的宾语,from是固定搭配中的介词 filter out a from B。第三个what
是 understand的宾语,和how并列
1)句子主干可以看做: To filter out a from b enables us to unders tand c and d
A.指的是 what is contingent and unique”
B.指的是“ what is shared” how plex cultural behaviour arose”
C.指的是 how plex cultural beha viour arose
D.指的是“ what guides it in evolutionary or co gnitive terms”
2) Filter out词组本意是滤掉,。这个单词可能有同学会不熟悉,但是如果对
本句结构理解清楚,看到from这个介词,加之对前文大意的理解,我们可以猜出
这个词的意思,或者理解为“区分等也不影响全句的理解。以避免我们有的同学
看到第一个单词不认识立马生出的胆怯情绪,影响下文判断
参考译文】把差异性和独特性从共性中过滤岀来也许能让我们理解复杂的
文化行为是如何产生的,是什么从进化或认知领域指导着它
49.【解析】本句结构比较明朗,关键是句子前部分单独很难理解,需要结
合前文。这也恰恰说明了考研英语中的翻译首先是阅读理解的一部分,不是单独
的翻译而已。
1)这里的 the second与上文的“ The most famous of these efforts was initiated b
Noam Chomsky.”,所里这里应该翻译成“第二种理论所以这句话需要根据上下文
和逻辑解释清楚。而不能单纯的翻译成第二
2)对于括号内部的处理,我们可以直接放在括号中即可
【参考译文】约书亚格林伯格为寻找语言的共性而付出努力提出了第二种理
论。他采用了一个更实用的共性理论,做法是辨认出众多语言的共有特征(尤其
是按照词序排列),这些特征被认为代表了由认知局限导致的偏差。
50.【解析】这句话的结构比较简单,复杂的是其中大量的术语和不熟悉的
词汇。对于这些词汇我们根据直译即可
本句结构: Chomskys grammar should show., whereas Greenbergian.
1)That引导的定语从句修饰 patterns
2)这里的" grammarˆ是指是上文的生成语法,所以这里可以把生成语法翻译
出来。
3)co- dependencies这个词需要根据上下词义加之词根词缀来猜测出词义,
因为下文指出是两者关系,所以可以翻译为“共存性
【参考译文】乔姆斯基生成语法应该表明语言变化的模式,这些模式独立于
族谱或贯穿其中的路径,然而格林伯格的共性理论预测词序关系的特殊类别之间
(而不是其他)有着强烈的共存性。
Section Ill Writing
51.小作文
【参考范文】
Dear international students
I am the chairman ofthe Students'Union. Ive just received the emails from you
ind got the news that you will e to our university. Firstly, I'd like to show our
warm wele. On behalf of our university and all the students here, I really look
forward to your ing
In order to make all of you feel at home, here are some conductive suggestions
firstly, you'd better take some warm clothes with you because it is winter in China
now and it is very cold in Beijing. Secondly, I advise you to prepare some relevant
kno wled ge about Chinese culture for better understanding in class
I really hope you' ll find these proposals usefuL. And I'm looking forward
o your
ing
Yours sincerely.
LiMing
52.大作文
【参考范文】
As can be clearly seen from the vivid picture, in front of a toppled bottle of which
most water in it has flowed out, a man says there is none left how unlucky I ar
looking rather upset, while another man quickly picked this bottle up, saying"Im such
a lucky dog, there is still some left,. How vivid the cartoon it is! The two men show
quite different perspectives to ward the same situation
The imp lication conveyed in this cartoon is that different perspectives we take to
exam problems we confront lead to different attitudes or answers to these problems. In
the first place, we'll find the problem is very difficult to handle from the pessimistic
perspective. However, if we change our way of observing problems, we may find that
we can make some remedial work even to turn something bad into good. In this way
we can find solutions for any difficulties. Every coin has two sides. So why not change
an angel to observe the problem we encounter?
Whenever we face with the situation like the cartoon, what we should do is to
observe it positively, especially when we are experiencing and encountering setbacks
only if we have the optimistic attitude, can we be bound to live a life of happiness