语言

首页 > 语言

草稿:南亚语系

2019-06-06 17:13:09     所属分类:语系



此模板不会在条目中显示,此模板用于提示其来源是使用dmy请改为ymd形式。


Austroasiatic
Mon–Khmer
地理分布: 南亚 and 东南亚
谱系学分类: One of the world's primary 语言系属分类
原始语言: Proto-Austroasiatic英语Proto-Austroasiatic language
分支:
蒙达语族
Khasi英语Khasic languages–佤德昂语支
Khmuic英语Khmuic languages
Mangic英语Mangic languages (Pakanic)
越语支
Katuic英语Katuic languages
Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages
高棉语
Pearic英语Pearic languages
Monic英语Monic languages
Aslian英语Aslian languages
Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages
Shompen英语Shompen language ?
ISO 639-5: aav
Glottolog aust1305[1]
Austroasiatic-en.svg
Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages /ˌɔːstr.ʒiˈætɪk/,[note 1] also known as Mon–Khmer /ˌmnkəˈmɛər/,[2] are a large 语言系属分类 of 中南半岛, also scattered throughout 印度, 孟加拉国, 尼泊尔 and the southern border of , with around 117 million speakers.[3] The name Austroasiatic comes from a combination of the 拉丁语 words for "South" and "Asia", hence "South Asia". Of these languages, only 越南语, 高棉语, and 孟语 have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern 国家语言s (in 越南 and 柬埔寨, respectively). In 缅甸, the 佤语 is the de facto official language of 佤邦. 桑塔利语 is recognized as a regional language of India. The rest of the languages are spoken by minority groups and have no official status.

民族语 identifies 168 Austroasiatic languages. These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen英语Shompen language, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and 蒙达语族. However, one recent classification posits three groups (Munda, Nuclear Mon-Khmer and Khasi–Khmuic英语Khasi–Khmuic languages)[4] while another has abandoned Mon–Khmer as a taxon altogether, making it synonymous with the larger family.[5]

Austroasiatic languages have a disjunct distribution across India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Southeast Asia, separated by regions where other languages are spoken. They appear to be the extant autochthonous language英语autochthonous languages of Southeast Asia (if 安达曼群岛 are not included), with the neighboring 印度-雅利安语支, 壮侗语族, 苗瑶语系, 达罗毗荼语系, 南岛语系, and 汉藏语系 being the result of later migrations.[6]

目录

  • 1 Typology
  • 2 祖语
  • 3 内部划分
    • 3.1 Diffloth (1974)
    • 3.2 Peiros (2004)
    • 3.3 Diffloth (2005)
    • 3.4 Previously existent branches
    • 3.5 Sidwell (2009, 2011)
  • 4 Writing systems
  • 5 External relations
    • 5.1 Austric languages
    • 5.2 Hmong-Mien
  • 6 Austroasiatic migrations
    • 6.1 Migration into India
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References
  • 10 Sources
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links

Typology

Regarding word structure, Austroasiatic languages are well known for having an iambic "sesquisyllabic"英语sesquisyllable pattern, with basic nouns and verbs consisting of an initial, unstressed, reduced minor syllable followed by a stressed, full syllable.[7] This reduction of presyllables has led to a variety among modern languages of phonological shapes of the same original Proto-Austroasiatic prefixes, such as the causative prefix, ranging from CVC syllables to consonant clusters to single consonants.[8] As for word formation, most Austroasiatic languages have a variety of derivational prefixes, many have 中缀es, but suffixes are almost completely non-existent in most branches except Munda, and a few specialized exceptions in other Austroasiatic branches.[9]

The Austroasiatic languages are further characterized as having unusually large vowel inventories and employing some sort of 音区 contrast, either between modal英语modal voice (normal) voice and breathy英语breathy voice (lax) voice or between modal voice and creaky voice英语creaky voice.[10] Languages in the Pearic branch and some in the Vietic branch can have a three- or even four-way voicing contrast.

However, some Austroasiatic languages have lost the register contrast by evolving more diphthongs or in a few cases, such as Vietnamese, 声调. Vietnamese has been so heavily influenced by Chinese that its original Austroasiatic phonological quality is obscured and now resembles that of South Chinese languages, whereas Khmer, which had more influence from Sanskrit, has retained a more typically Austroasiatic structure.

祖语

Much work has been done on the reconstruction of 原始孟—高棉语英语Proto-Mon–Khmer in Harry L. Shorto英语Harry L. Shorto's Mon–Khmer Comparative Dictionary. Little work has been done on the 蒙达语族, which are not well documented. With their demotion from a primary branch, Proto-Mon–Khmer becomes synonymous with Proto-Austroasiatic.

Paul Sidwell (2005) reconstructs the consonant inventory of Proto-Mon–Khmer as follows:

*p *t *c *k
*b *d
*m *n
*w *l, *r *j
*s *h

This is identical to earlier reconstructions except for . is better preserved in the Katuic languages英语Katuic languages, which Sidwell has specialized in. Sidwell (2011) suggests that the likely homeland of Austroasiatic is the middle 湄公河, in the area of the Bahnaric and Katuic languages (approximately where modern Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia come together), and that the family is not as old as frequently assumed, dating to perhaps 2000 BCE.[6] Peiros (2011) criticized Sidwell's theory heavily and calls it a bunch of contradictions. He show with his analysis that the homeland of Austroasiatic is somewhere near the 长江. He suggests the 四川盆地 as likely homeland of proto-Austroasiatic before they migrated to other parts of central and southern China and than into Southeast Asia. He further suggests that the family must be as old as proto-Austronesian and proto-Sino*an or even older.[11]

Georg van Driem (2011) proposes that the homeland of Austroasiatic is somewhere in southern China. He suggests that the region around the 珠江 is the likely homeland of the Austroasiatic languages and people. He further suggests, based on genetic studies, that the migration of 壮侗语族 people from Taiwan replaced the original Austroasiatic language but the effect on the people was only minor. Local Austroasiatic speakers adopted Kra-Dai languages and partially their culture.[12]

The linguists Sagart (2011) and Bellwood (2013) support the theory of an origin of Austroasiatic along the 长江 in southern China.[13]

A genetic and linguistic research in 2015 about ancient people in East Asia suggest an origin and homeland of Austroasiatic in today 华南地区 or even further north.[14]

内部划分

Linguists traditionally recognize two primary divisions of Austroasiatic: the 南亚语系 of 东南亚, 印度东北部 and the 尼科巴群岛, and the 蒙达语族 of 印度东部 and Central India英语Central India and parts of 孟加拉国, parts of 尼泊尔. However, no evidence for this classification has ever been published.

Each of the families that is written in boldface type below is accepted as a valid clade.[需要解释] By contrast, the relationships between these families within Austroasiatic are debated. In addition to the traditional classification, two recent proposals are given, neither of which accepts traditional "Mon–Khmer" as a valid unit. However, little of the data used for competing classifications has ever been published, and therefore cannot be evaluated by peer review.

In addition, there are suggestions that additional branches of Austroasiatic might be preserved in substrata of 亚齐语 in Sumatra (Diffloth), the Chamic languages of Vietnam, and the Land Dayak languages of Borneo (Adelaar 1995).[15]

Diffloth (1974)

Diffloth英语Gérard Diffloth's widely cited original classification, now abandoned by Diffloth himself, is used in 大英百科全书 and—except for the breakup of Southern Mon–Khmer—in Ethnologue.

  • 蒙达语族
    • North Munda
      • Korku
      • Kherwarian
    • South Munda
      • Kharia–Juang
      • Koraput Munda
  • Mon–Khmer
    • Eastern Mon–Khmer
      • 高棉语 (Cambodian)
      • Pearic英语Pearic languages
      • Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages
      • Katuic英语Katuic languages
      • 越语支 (includes Vietnamese)
    • Northern Mon–Khmer
      • Khasi英语Khasi language (梅加拉亚邦, India)
      • 佤德昂语支
      • Khmuic英语Khmuic languages
    • Southern Mon–Khmer
      • 孟语
      • Aslian英语Aslian languages (马来西亚半岛)
      • Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages (尼科巴群岛)

Peiros (2004)

Peiros is a lexicostatistic英语lexicostatistics classification, based on percentages of shared vocabulary. This means that languages can appear to be more distantly related than they actually are due to 语言接触. Indeed, when Sidwell (2009) replicated Peiros's study with languages known well enough to account for loans, he did not find the internal (branching) structure below.

AustroAsiatic tree Peiros2004.png
  • Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages
  • Munda–Khmer
    • 蒙达语族
    • Mon–Khmer
      • Khasi英语Khasi language
      • Nuclear Mon–Khmer
        • Mangic英语Pakanic languages (莽语 + Palyu英语Bolyu language) (perhaps in Northern MK)
        • 越语支 (perhaps in Northern MK)
        • Northern Mon–Khmer
          • 佤德昂语支
          • Khmuic英语Khmuic languages
        • Central Mon–Khmer
          • 高棉语 dialects
          • Pearic英语Pearic languages
          • Asli-Bahnaric
            • Aslian英语Aslian languages
            • Mon–Bahnaric
              • Monic英语Monic languages
              • Katu–Bahnaric
                • Katuic英语Katuic languages
                • Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages

Diffloth (2005)

Diffloth英语Gérard Diffloth compares reconstructions of various clades, and attempts to classify them based on shared innovations, though like other classifications the evidence has not been published. As a schematic, we have:

Austro - Asiatic 
 蒙达语族 

Remo英语Bonda language

索拉语

Kharia英语Kharia languageJuang英语Juang language

Korku英语Korku language

Kherwarian

 Khasi – Khmuic英语Khasi–Khmuic languages 

Khmuic英语Khmuic languages

Pakanic英语Pakanic languages

佤德昂语支

Khasian英语Khasic languages

 (Nuclear)  Mon–Khmer 

越语支

?[16]

Katuic英语Katuic languages

Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages

高棉语

Pearic英语Pearic languages

Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages

Aslian英语Aslian languages

Monic英语Monic languages

Or in more detail,

  • 蒙达语族 (India)
  • Koraput: 7 languages
  • Core Munda languages
  • Kharian–Juang: 2 languages
  • North Munda languages
Korku英语Korku language
Kherwarian: 12 languages
  • Khasi–Khmuic languages英语Khasi–Khmuic languages (Northern Mon–Khmer)
  • Khasian英语Khasic languages: 3 languages of north eastern India and adjacent region of Bangladesh
  • Palaungo-Khmuic languages
  • Khmuic英语Khmuic languages: 13 languages of Laos and Thailand
  • Palaungo-Pakanic languages
Pakanic or Palyu英语Pakanic languages: 4 or 5 languages of southern China and Vietnam
佤德昂语支: 21 languages of Burma, southern China, and Thailand
  • Nuclear Mon–Khmer languages
  • Khmero-Vietic languages (Eastern Mon–Khmer)
  • Vieto-Katuic languages ?[16]
越语支: 10 languages of Vietnam and Laos, including the 越南语, which has the most speakers of any Austroasiatic language.
Katuic英语Katuic languages: 19 languages of Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand.
  • Khmero-Bahnaric languages
  • Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages: 40 languages of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
  • Khmeric languages
The 高棉语 dialects of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Pearic英语Pearic languages: 6 languages of Cambodia.
  • Nico-Monic languages (Southern Mon–Khmer)
  • Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages: 6 languages of the 尼科巴群岛, a territory of India.
  • Asli-Monic languages
Aslian英语Aslian languages: 19 languages of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand.
Monic英语Monic languages: 2 languages, the 孟语 of Burma and the Nyahkur language英语Nyah Kur language of Thailand.

This family tree is consistent with recent studies of migration of Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95英语Haplogroup O-M95 (Y-DNA). However, the dates obtained from by Zhivotovsky method DNA studies are several times older than that given by linguists.[17] The route map of the people with haplogroup O2a1-M95, speaking this language can be seen in this link.[18] Other geneticists criticise the Zhivotovsky method.

Previously existent branches

Roger Blench英语Roger Blench (2009)[19] also proposes that there might have been other primary branches of Austroasiatic that are now extinct, based on substrate英语Stratum (linguistics) evidence in modern-day languages.

  • Pre-Chamic英语Chamic language languages (the languages of coastal Vietnam prior to the Chamic migrations). Chamic has various Austroasiatic loanwords that cannot be clearly traced to existing Austroasiatic branches (Sidwell 2006, 2007).[20][21] Larish (1999)[22] also notes that Moklenic languages英语Moklenic languages contain many Austroasiatic loanwords, some of which are similar to the ones found in Chamic.
  • 亚齐语 substratum (Sidwell 2006).[20] Acehnese has many basic words that are of Austroasiatic origin, suggesting that either Austronesian speakers have absorbed earlier Austroasiatic residents in northern Sumatra, or that words might have been borrowed from Austroasiatic languages in southern Vietnam – or perhaps a combination of both. Sidwell (2006) argues that Acehnese and Chamic had often borrowed Austroasiatic words independently of each other, while some Austroasiatic words can be traced back to Proto-Aceh-Chamic. Sidwell (2006) accepts that Acehnese and Chamic are related, but that they had separated from each other before Chamic had borrowed most of its Austroasiatic lexicon.
  • Bornean英语Bornean languages substrate languages (Blench 2010).[23] Blench cites Austroasiatic-origin words in modern-day Bornean branches such as Land Dayak (Bidayuh英语Bidayuh languages, Dayak Bakatiq英语Bakati’ language, etc.), Dusunic英语Dusunic languages (Central Dusun英语Dusun language, Visayan英语Brunei Bisaya language, etc.), Kayan英语Kayan–Murik languages, and Kenyah英语Kenyah languages, noting especially resemblances with Aslian英语Aslian languages. As further evidence for his proposal, Blench also cites ethnographic evidence such as musical instruments in Borneo shared in common with Austroasiatic-speaking groups in mainland Southeast Asia. Adelaar (1995)[24] has also noticed phonological and lexical similarities between Land Dayak and Aslian英语Aslian languages.
  • Lepcha英语Lepcha language substratum ("Rongic").[25] Many words of Austroasiatic origin have been noticed in Lepcha, suggesting a 汉藏语系 superstrate laid over an Austroasiatic substrate. Blench (2013) calls this branch "Rongic" based on the Lepcha autonym Róng.

Other languages with proposed Austroasiatic substrata are:

  • 加茂语, based on evidence from the register system of Jiamao, a 黎语支 language (Thurgood 1992).[26] Jiamao is known for its highly aberrant vocabulary in relation to other 黎语支.
  • Kerinci英语Kerinci language: van Reijn (1974)[27] notes that Kerinci, a 马来语群 language of central 苏门答腊, shares many phonological similarities with Austroasiatic languages, such as sesquisyllabic英语sesquisyllabic word structure and vowel inventory.

John Peterson (2017)[28] suggests that "pre-蒙达语族" languages may have once dominated the eastern 印度河-恒河平原, and were then absorbed by Indo-Aryan languages at an early date as Indo-Aryan spread east. Peterson notes that eastern 印度-雅利安语支 display many morphosyntactic features similar to those of Munda languages, while western Indo-Aryan languages do not.

Sidwell (2009, 2011)

Paul Sidwell英语Paul Sidwell and Roger Blench英语Roger Blench propose that the Austroasiatic phylum had dispersed via the 湄公河 River 流域.

Paul Sidwell英语Paul Sidwell (2009), in a lexicostatistical英语lexicostatistical comparison of 36 languages which are well known enough to exclude loan words, finds little evidence for internal branching, though he did find an area of increased contact between the Bahnaric and Katuic languages, such that languages of all branches apart from the geographically distant 蒙达语族 and Nicobarese show greater similarity to Bahnaric and Katuic the closer they are to those branches, without any noticeable innovations common to Bahnaric and Katuic.

He therefore takes the conservative view that the thirteen branches of Austroasiatic should be treated as equidistant on current evidence. Sidwell & Blench英语Roger Blench (2011) discuss this proposal in more detail, and note that there is good evidence for a Khasi–Palaungic node, which could also possibly be closely related to Khmuic.[6]

If this would the case, Sidwell & Blench suggest that Khasic may have been an early offshoot of Palaungic that had spread westward. Sidwell & Blench (2011) suggest Shompen英语Shompen language as an additional branch, and believe that a Vieto-Katuic connection is worth investigating. In general, however, the family is thought to have diversified too quickly for a deeply nested structure to have developed, since Proto-Austroasiatic speakers are believed by Sidwell to have radiated out from the central 湄公河 river valley relatively quickly.

Austroasiatic: Mon–Khmer

蒙达语族

 Khasi–Palaungic 

Khasian英语Khasic languages

佤德昂语支

Khmuic英语Khmuic languages

Mangic英语Mangic languages

越语支

Katuic英语Katuic languages

Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages

高棉语

Pearic英语Pearic languages

Monic英语Monic languages

Aslian英语Aslian languages

Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages

?Shompen英语Shompen language

Subsequently, Sidwell (2015a: 179)[29] proposed that Nicobarese英语Nicobarese languages subgroups with Aslian英语Aslian languages, just as how Khasian and Palaungic subgroup with each other. A subsequent computational phylogenetic analysis of the Austroasiatic language family by Sidwell (2015b)[30] suggests that Austroasiatic branches may have a loosely nested structure rather than a completely rake-like structure, with an east-west division (consisting of Munda, Khasic, Palaungic, and Khmuic forming a western group as opposed to all of the other branches) occurring possibly as early as 7,000 years before present.

Integrating computational phylogenetic linguistics with recent archaeological findings, Paul Sidwell (2015c)[31] further expanded his Mekong riverine hypothesis by proposing that Austroasiatic had ultimately expanded into 中南半岛 from the 岭南 area of 北方与南方, with the subsequent Mekong riverine dispersal taking place after the initial arrival of Neolithic farmers from southern China.

Sidwell (2015c) tentatively suggests that Austroasiatic may have begun to split up 5,000 years B.P. during the 新石器革命 era of mainland Southeast Asia, with all the major branches of Austroasiatic formed by 4,000 B.P. Austroasiatic would have had two possible dispersal routes from the western periphery of the 珠江 watershed of 岭南, which would have been either a coastal route down the coast of Vietnam, or downstream through the 湄公河 via 云南省.[31] Both the reconstructed lexicon of Proto-Austroasiatic and the archaeological record clearly show that early Austroasiatic speakers around 4,000 B.P. cultivated rice and millet英语millet, kept livestock such as dogs, pigs, and chickens, and thrived mostly in estuarine rather than coastal environments.[31]

At 4,500 B.P., this "Neolithic package" suddenly arrived in Indochina from the Lingnan area without cereal grains and displaced the earlier pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer cultures, with grain husks found in northern Indochina by 4,100 B.P. and in southern Indochina by 3,800 B.P.[31] However, Sidwell (2015c) found that iron is not reconstructable in Proto-Austroasiatic, since each Austroasiatic branch has different terms for iron that had been borrowed relatively lately from Tai, Chinese, Tibetan, Malay, and other languages.

During the 铁器时代 about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as 越语支, Katuic英语Katuic languages, Pearic英语Pearic languages, and 高棉语 were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric英语Bahnaric languages branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.[31] By the Iron Age, all of the Austroasiatic branches were more or less in their present-day locations, with most of the diversification within Austroasiatic taking place during the Iron Age.[31]

Paul Sidwell (2018)[32] considers the Austroasiatic language family to have rapidly diversified around 4,000 years B.P. during the arrival of rice agriculture in Indochina, but notes that the origin of Proto-Austroasiatic itself is older than that date. The lexicon of Proto-Austroasiatic can be divided into an early and late stratum. The early stratum consists of basic lexicon including body parts, animal names, natural features, and pronouns, while the names of cultural items (agriculture terms and words for cultural artifacts, which are reconstructable in Proto-Austroasiatic) form part of the later stratum.

Roger Blench英语Roger Blench (2017)[33] suggests that vocabulary related to aquatic subsistence strategies (such as boats, waterways, river fauna, and fish capture techniques), can be reconstructed for Proto-Austroasiatic. Blench (2017) finds widespread Austroasiatic roots for 'river, valley', 'boat', 'fish', 'catfish sp.', 'eel', 'prawn', 'shrimp' (Central Austroasiatic), 'crab', 'tortoise', 'turtle', 'otter', 'crocodile', 'heron, fishing bird', and 'fish trap'. Archaeological evidence for the presence of agriculture in northern 中南半岛 (northern Vietnam, Laos, and other nearby areas) dates back to only about 4,000 years B.P. (2,000 B.C.), with agriculture ultimately being introduced from further up to the north in the Yangtze valley where it has been dated to 6,000 B.P.[33]

Hence, this points to a relatively late riverine dispersal of Austroasiatic as compared to 汉藏语系, whose speakers had a distinct non-riverine culture. In addition to living an aquatic-based lifestyle, early Austroasiatic speakers would have also had access to livestock, crops, and newer types of watercraft. As early Austroasiatic speakers dispersed rapidly via waterways, they would have encountered speakers of older language families who were already settled in the area, such as Sino-Tibetan.[33]

Writing systems

Other than Latin-based alphabets, many Austroasiatic languages are written with the 高棉文, 泰文字, 寮文字, and 缅文 alphabets. Vietnamese divergently had an indigenous script based on Chinese logographic writing. This has since been supplanted by the Latin alphabet in the 20th century. The following are examples of past-used alphabets or current alphabets of Austroasiatic languages.

  • 喃字[34]
  • 高棉文[35]
  • Khom script英语Khom script (used for a short period in the early 20th century for indigenous languages in Laos)
  • Mon script英语Mon script
  • Mundari Bani (Mundari英语Mundari language alphabet)
  • Ol Chiki alphabet英语Ol Chiki alphabet (桑塔利语 alphabet)[36]
  • Pahawh Hmong英语Pahawh Hmong was once used to write Khmu英语Khmu language, under the name "Pahawh Khmu"
  • 索拉僧平字母 (索拉语 alphabet)[37]
  • 德宏傣文 (德昂语, 布朗语)
  • 老傣文 (布朗语)
  • Warang Citi英语Warang Citi (霍语 alphabet)[38]

External relations

Austric languages

Austroasiatic is often included into the 南方大语系, which also includes the 南岛语系 and sometimes 日本-琉球语系.[39]

A 2015 analysis using the Automated Similarity Judgment Program英语Automated Similarity Judgment Program resulted in possible support for the Austro-Tai (but emphatically not Austric) languages. In this analysis, the supposed "Austric" family was divided into two separate, unrelated clades: Austro-Tai and Austroasiatic-Japonic.[40] Note however that ASJP is not widely accepted among historical linguists as an adequate method to establish or evaluate relationships between language families.[41]

Hmong-Mien

Several lexical resemblances are found between the Hmong-Mien and Austroasiatic language families (Ratliff 2010), some of which had earlier been proposed by 奥德里库尔 (1951). This could imply a relation or early language contact along the 长江.[42]

According to Cai (et al. 2011), 苗瑶语系 is at least partially related to Austroasiatic but was heavily influenced by 汉藏语系, especially 藏缅语族.[43]

Austroasiatic migrations

Mitsuru Sakitani suggests that Haplogroup O1b1英语Haplogroup O-M95, which is common in Austroasiatic people and some other ethnic groups in 华南地区, and haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today Koreans, Japanese and some Manchu, are the carriers of Yangtze civilization (百越).[44] Another study suggests that the haplogroup O1b1 is the major Austroasiatic paternal lineage.[45]

Migration into India

According to Chaubey et al., "Austro-Asiatic speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from 东南亚, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations."[46] According to Riccio et al., the Munda people are likely descended from Austroasiatic migrants from southeast Asia.[47][48]

According to Zhang et al., Austroasiatic migrations from southeast Asia into India took place after the last Glacial maximum, circa 10,000 years ago.[49] Arunkumar et al. suggest Austroasiatic migrations from southeast Asia occurred into northeast India 5.2 ± 0.6 kya and into East India 4.3 ± 0.2 kya.[50]

See also

  • 蒙达语族

Notes

  1. ^ Sometimes also as Austro-Asiatic or Austroasian

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Austroasiatic. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ Bradley (2012) notes, MK in the wider sense including the Munda languages of eastern South Asia is also known as Austroasiatic.
  3. ^ Austroasiatic. www.languagesgulper.com. [15 October 2017] (英语). 
  4. ^ Diffloth 2005
  5. ^ Sidwell 2009
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Sidwell, Paul, and Roger Blench. 2011. "The Austroasiatic Urheimat: the Southeastern Riverine Hypothesis." Enfield, NJ (ed.) Dynamics of Human Diversity, 317–345. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  7. ^ Alves 2014, p. 524.
  8. ^ Alves 2014, p. 526.
  9. ^ Alves 2014, 2015
  10. ^ Diffloth, Gérard (1989). "Proto-Austroasiatic creaky voice."
  11. ^ Some thoughts on the problem of the Austro-Asiatic homeland (PDF). Peiros (2011). 
  12. ^ 无我 (语言学家). (2011). Rice and the Austroasiatic and Hmong-Mien homelands. In N. J. Enfield (Ed.), Dynamics of Human Diversity: The Case of Mainland Southeast Asia (pp. 361-390). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  13. ^ Reconstructing Austroasiatic prehistory. In P. Sidwell & M. Jenny (Eds.), The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill. (Page 1: “Sagart (2011) and Bellwood (2013) favour the middle Yangzi”
  14. ^ Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Tuot, Sovannary. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro- Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent OPEN 5. 2015-10-20. 
  15. ^ Roger Blench, 2009. Are there four additional unrecognised branches of Austroasiatic? Presentation at ICAAL-4, Bangkok, 29–30 October. Summarized in Sidwell and Blench (2011).
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Sidwell (2005) casts doubt on Diffloth's Vieto-Katuic hypothesis, saying that the evidence is ambiguous, and that it is not clear where Katuic belongs in the family.
  17. ^ Kumar, Vikrant; 等. Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austroasiatic populations (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2007, 7 (1): 47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. 
  18. ^ Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, Arimanda NS; Babu, Jagedeesh P.; Rao, Tipirisetti N.; Langstieh, Banrida T.; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Reddy, Alla G.; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Battini M. Figure. BMC Evolutionary Biology (www.biomedcentral.com). 2007, 7: 47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. 
  19. ^ Blench, Roger. 2009. "Are there four additional unrecognised branches of Austroasiatic?."
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Sidwell, Paul. 2006. "Dating the Separation of Acehnese and Chamic By Etymological Analysis of the Aceh-Chamic Lexicon WebCite的存档,存档日期5 June 2013." In The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 36: 187–206.
  21. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2007. "The Mon-Khmer Substrate in Chamic: Chamic, Bahnaric and Katuic Contact." In SEALS XII Papers from the 12th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 2002, edited by Ratree Wayland et al.. Canberra, Australia, 113-128. Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
  22. ^ Larish, Michael David. 1999. The Position of Moken and Moklen Within the Austronesian Language Family. Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa.
  23. ^ Blench, Roger. 2010. "Was there an Austroasiatic Presence in Island Southeast Asia prior to the Austronesian Expansion?" In Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Vol. 30.
  24. ^ Adelaar, K.A. 1995. Borneo as a cross-roads for comparative Austronesian linguistics. In P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox and D. Tryon (eds.), The Austronesians, pp. 81-102. Canberra: Australian National University.
  25. ^ Blench, Roger. 2013. Rongic: a vanished branch of Austroasiatic. m.s.
  26. ^ Thurgood, Graham. 1992. "The aberrancy of the Jiamao dialect of Hlai: speculation on its origins and history". In Ratliff, Martha S. and Schiller, E. (eds.), Papers from the First Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 417–433. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies.
  27. ^ van Reijn, E. O. (1974). "Some Remarks on the Dialects of North Kerintji: A link with Mon-Khmer Languages." Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 31, 2: 130–138. JSTOR 41492089.
  28. ^ Peterson, John (2017). "The prehistorical spread of Austro-Asiatic in South Asia". Presented at ICAAL 7, Kiel, Germany.
  29. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2015a. "Austroasiatic classification." In Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.
  30. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2015b. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Austroasiatic languages. Presented at Diversity Linguistics: Retrospect and Prospect, 1–3 May 2015 (Leipzig, Germany), Closing conference of the Department of Linguistics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 Sidwell, Paul. 2015c. Phylogeny, innovations, and correlations in the prehistory of Austroasiatic. Paper presented at the workshop Integrating inferences about our past: new findings and current issues in the peopling of the Pacific and South East Asia, June 22nd – June 23rd, 2015, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
  32. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2018. Austroasiatic deep chronology and the problem of cultural lexicon. Paper presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, held May 17–19, 2018 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  33. ^ 33.0 33.1 33.2 Blench, Roger. 2017. Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic. Presented at ICAAL 7, Kiel, Germany.
  34. ^ Vietnamese Chu Nom script. Omniglot.com. [11 March 2012]. 
  35. ^ Khmer/Cambodian alphabet, pronunciation and language. Omniglot.com. [11 March 2012]. 
  36. ^ Santali alphabet, pronunciation and language. Omniglot.com. [11 March 2012]. 
  37. ^ Sorang Sompeng script. Omniglot.com. 18 June 1936 [11 March 2012]. 
  38. ^ Everson, Michael. N4259: Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS (PDF). 19 April 2012 [20 August 2016]. 
  39. ^ Schmidt, Wilhelm (1930). ""Die Beziehungen der austrischen Sprachen zum Japanischen", 'The connections of the Austric languages to Japanese'". Wiener Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik. 1: 239–51.
  40. ^ Jäger, Gerhard. Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment. PNAS. 2015, 112 (41): 12752–12757. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11212752J. PMC 4611657. PMID 26403857. doi:10.1073/pnas.1500331112. 
  41. ^ Cf. comments by Adelaar, Blust and Campbell in Holman, Eric W., et al. (2011) "Automated Dating of the World’s Language Families Based on Lexical Similarity." Current Anthropology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 841–875.
  42. ^ Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1951. Introduction à la phonologie historique des langues miao-yao [An introduction to the historical phonology of the Miao-Yao languages]. Bulletin de l’École Française d'Extrême-Orient 44(2). 555–576.
  43. ^ Consortium, the Genographic; Li, Hui; Jin, Li; Huang, Xingqiu; Li, Shilin; Wang, Chuanchao; Wei, Lanhai; Lu, Yan; Wang, Yi. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes. PLOS ONE. 2011-08-31, 6 (8): e24282. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624282C. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282 (英语). 
  44. ^ 崎谷満‘DNA・考古・言语の学际研究が示す新・日本列岛史’(勉诚出版 2009年) 
  45. ^ Robbeets, Martine; Savelyev, Alexander. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2017-12-21. ISBN 9789027264640 (英语). 
  46. ^ Chaubey et al. 2010, p. 1013.
  47. ^ Riccio, M. E.; 等. The Austroasiatic Munda population from India and Its enigmatic origin: a HLA diversity study. Human Biology. 2011, 83 (3): 405–435. PMID 21740156. doi:10.3378/027.083.0306. 
  48. ^ The Language Gulper, Austroasiatic Languages
  49. ^ Zhang 2015.
  50. ^ Arunkumar, G.; 等. A late Neolithic expansion of Y chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 from east to west. Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 2015, 53 (6): 546–560. doi:10.1111/jse.12147. 

Sources

  • Adams, K. L. (1989). Systems of numeral classification in the Mon–Khmer, Nicobarese and Aslian subfamilies of Austroasiatic. Canberra, A.C.T., Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-373-5
  • Alves, Mark J. Mon-Khmer. (编) Rochelle Lieber; Pavel Stekauer. The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2014: 520–544. 
  • Alves, Mark J. (2015). Morphological functions among Mon-Khmer languages: beyond the basics. In N. J. Enfield & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia: the state of the art. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton, 531–557.
  • Bradley, David (2012). "Languages and Language Families in China", in Rint Sybesma (ed.), Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics.
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes英语Byomkes Chakrabarti. (1994). A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali.
  • Chaubey, G.; 等, Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic Speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-Specific Admixture, Mol Biol Evol, 2010, 28 (2): 1013–1024, PMC 3355372, PMID 20978040, doi:10.1093/molbev/msq288  已忽略未知参数|doi-access= (帮助)
  • Diffloth, Gérard英语Gérard Diffloth. (2005). "The contribution of linguistic palaeontology and Austro-Asiatic". in Laurent Sagart, Roger Blench and Alicia Sanchez-Mazas, eds. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. 77–80. London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1
  • Filbeck, D. (1978). T'in: a historical study. Pacific linguistics, no. 49. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-172-4
  • Hemeling, K. (1907). Die Nanking Kuanhua. (German language)
  • Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell英语Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.
  • Peck, B. M., Comp. (1988). An Enumerative Bibliography of South Asian Language Dictionaries.
  • Peiros, Ilia. 1998. Comparative Linguistics in Southeast Asia. Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 142. Canberra: Australian National University.
  • Shorto, Harry L. edited by Sidwell, Paul, Cooper, Doug and Bauer, Christian (2006). A Mon–Khmer comparative dictionary. Canberra: Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-570-3
  • Shorto, H. L. Bibliographies of Mon–Khmer and Tai Linguistics. London oriental bibliographies, v. 2. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.
  • Sidwell, Paul英语Paul Sidwell. (2005). "Proto-Katuic Phonology and the Sub-grouping of Mon–Khmer Languages". In Sidwell, ed., SEALSXV: papers from the 15th meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistic Society.
  • Sidwell, Paul. Classifying the Austroasiatic languages: history and state of the art. LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics 76. Munich: Lincom Europa. 2009. ISBN 978-3-929075-67-0. 
  • Sidwell, Paul. The Austroasiatic central riverine hypothesis (PDF). Journal of Language Relationship. 2010, 4: 117–134. 
  • van Driem, George. (2007). Austroasiatic phylogeny and the Austroasiatic homeland in light of recent population genetic studies. Mon-Khmer Studies, 37, 1-14.
  • Zide, Norman H., and Milton E. Barker. (1966) Studies in Comparative Austroasiatic Linguistics, The Hague: Mouton (Indo-Iranian monographs, v. 5.).
  • Zhang; 等, Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent, Scientific Reports, 2015, 5: 1548, Bibcode:2015NatSR...515486Z, PMC 4611482, PMID 26482917, doi:10.1038/srep15486 

Further reading

  • Mann, Noel, Wendy Smith and Eva Ujlakyova. 2009. Linguistic clusters of Mainland Southeast Asia: an overview of the language families. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  • Mason, Francis. The Talaing Language. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1854, 4: 277, 279–288. JSTOR 592280. 
  • Sidwell, Paul. Issues in Austroasiatic Classification. Language and Linguistics Compass. 2013, 7 (8): 437–457. doi:10.1111/lnc3.12038. 
  • Sidwell, Paul. 2016. Bibliography of Austroasiatic linguistics and related resources.

External links

  • Swadesh lists for Austro-Asiatic languages (from Wiktionary's wikt:Appendix:Swadesh lists Swadesh-list appendix)
  • Austro-Asiatic at the Linguist List MultiTree Project (not functional as of 2014): Genealogical trees attributed to Sebeok 1942, Pinnow 1959, Diffloth 2005, and Matisoff 2006
  • Mon–Khmer.com: Lectures by Paul Sidwell
  • Mon–Khmer Languages Project at SEAlang
  • Munda Languages Project at SEAlang
  • http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
  • http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-66A4-2@view RWAAI Digital Archive
  • http://lacito.vjf.cnrs.fr/pangloss/languages/AA_Ferlus_en.php Michel Ferlus's recordings of Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) languages (CNRS)

Template:Language families


上一篇:南亚语系
下一篇:南方大语系