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创造性想像

2020-04-07 11:00:05    

创造性想像(英语:Creative visualization),是有目的地产生视觉心像的认知过程,无论是否打开眼睛,[1] [2]人们都可以模拟或重建视知觉 。[3]维持、检阅和转换这些心像,改变相关的情绪或感受,[4] [5] [6]目的是为了体验随后有益的生理、心理或社会效果,例如加速身体伤口愈合,[7]尽量减少身体痛苦 , 缓解包括焦虑、 悲伤、低落情绪的心理痛苦 , [8]改善自尊或自信心,[9]加强与他人互动时的应对能力。[10] [11]

心灵之眼

“心灵之眼”至少可以追溯到西塞罗的讨论,他在讨论恰当的演说者明喻用法时,提及这个概念。[12]

在这次讨论中,西塞罗观察到“他遗产中的加贝斯湾 ”和“他所拥有的卡律布狄斯 ”涉及“过于牵强”的明喻;而他建议演说者只要分别说“海湾”和“岩石”,理由是“心灵之眼更容易指向我们所看到的那些物体,而不是那些我们只听过的人。“ [13]

“心灵之眼”的概念首先出现在杰弗里·乔叟的“法律之人”的坎特伯雷故事集中 ,他告诉我们住在城堡里的三个人之一是瞎的,只能用“他的心灵之眼”去领会,也就是所有人在失明后所见的“那些眼睛”。“ [14]

视觉和非视觉心像

大脑也能够产生其它类型的心像 ,除了视觉心像以外,感知模拟或重建是跨越所有感觉系统,包括听觉系统的声音 ,味觉心像的味觉 、嗅觉的气味、[15] 运动心像英语Motor imagery的运动、和触觉心像的触摸 (包含质地 、温度、压力的组合)。 [16] [17]

尽管能够在感官模式中生成心像,[18] [19]但“创造性想像”这一术语表示一个人特定地生成和处理视觉心像的过程。

创造性想像与引导心像英语Guided imagery密切相关,且通常被视为引导心像的一部分。在引导心像中,受过训练的从业者或教师帮助参与者或患者唤起并生成心像[20] ,模拟或重建视觉、[21] [22]声音、[23] 味觉[24][25]气味、[26] 运动 [27]、触觉,[28]甚至是主观体验,与传统感觉有别的想象或心理内容 [29]

不过在受控实验中,人们参与引导心像[30] [31] ,视觉心像在科学文献中留下最为广泛的研究和记录,视觉和听觉心像仍是人们最常见的经历。 [32] [33] [34]

所有心像,包括通过创造性想像产生的视觉心像,都可能使强烈的情绪或感觉沉淀或与之产生关联。 [35] [36] [37]


阶段

根据实验心理学 的心像计算理论,[38] [39] [40]创造性想像的过程包括四个阶段:

第1阶段是“心像生成”。这涉及从记忆 ,幻想或两者的组合产生心像。

第2阶段是“心像维护”。这涉及故意维持或维持心像,若没有维持,心像会快速衰减 ,心像维持时间不足以进入下一阶段。 [41]

第3阶段是“心像检查”。在这个阶段,一旦心像被生成和维护,就会对心像进行检查、探索及详细阐述,并根据参与者进行解释。 [42]这阶段通常涉及扫描过程,参与者的注意力将遍历心像及其周遭,并模拟感知视角的变化。

第4阶段是“心像转换”。参与者会改变生成心像的内容,像是那些指出并加剧心理痛苦、强调缺陷或无能为力的心像,这阶段会替换这些负面情绪心像,将之替换成引发积极情绪的心像,像是影射自主性,应对能力,以及身心能力提升。

吸收和注意

为了使参与者从这个阶段性的创造性想像过程中受益,参与者必须能够或容易吸收 ,这就是“对吸收和自我改变体验的开放性”。 [43] [44]

此外,处理视觉心像的过程会对认知注意力资源提出了要求,包括工作记忆 。[45] [46]

因此,在临床实践中,创造性想像通常作为多模式策略的一部分,该策略集成了其他干预措施 ,最常见的是引导冥想或某种形式的冥想练习 、放松技巧、冥想音乐、接受性音乐治疗 ,因为这些方法可以提高参与者或患者的吸收能力,增强对注意力的控制,补充必要的认知资源,从而提高创造性想像的潜在功效。 [47] [48]

患有ADHD的个体通常表现出更大的创造潜力。有较强的能力去创造、想像独特的想法。 [49]然而,如果给定限制性标准(例如程序、实用性、时间),就会表现出较弱的创造性解决能力。这种弱点是由于认知僵化 ,[50]经常与ADHD 共病英语Comorbidity。注意力、聚焦、动机的缺点会在刚性挫折下更加严重,在给出指导方针时,更难引起创造性的概念化。 [51]然而,ADHD所增加的思维徘徊英语Mind-wandering 、横向思维、持久性,可以提供更多开箱即用的思维英语Thinking outside the box 。因此,尽管更能够想像创造性和原创性的抽象概念,[52]但在给定特定标准时,他们无法创造和确定最终想法。 [53] [54]

引导心像

虽然视觉和听觉心像最为常见[55] [56] ,视觉心像甚至在科学文献中留下最广泛的研究记录,[57] [58] [59]但是“创造性想像”这术语的使用在科学、同行评审、学术出版物中远远少于引导心像 (guided imagery),研究作者通常用引导心像来指示所有形式的心像的生成、维护、检查和转换,以及专指视觉心像的过程。此外,一些作者将“创造性想像”一词与“引导心像”互换使用。同时,另一些人则表明引导心像包括创造性想像。 [60] [61] [62]

此外,调查、临床、科学、学术作者经常测量、分析、讨论创造性想像及引导心像的影响,这些影响与他们结合的其他身心干预密不可分,通常包括冥想音乐、接受性音乐治疗、放松、引导冥想、冥想练习 、自我反思日记 。这常使得难以将正面或负面结果归因于任一种特定技术。 [63] [64] [65] [66]

效用

创造性想像可能有助于癌症患者感觉更积极,但“没有令人信服的证据表明创造性想像对恶心和呕吐等身体症状有正面影响。” [67]

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